The corona virus in the blood of treated patients improved begins in Turkey

Corona virus Passive antibody therapy may be considered for patients in serious condition at the resort start of the outbreak in Turkey is served.

With the support of various universities, especially the Red Crescent and Hacettepe Faculty of Medicine, under the coordination of the Ministry of Health, plasma will be removed from the blood, which will be taken from voluntary donors who have passed their health and have had negative results, and transferred to patients in severe condition.

In the Covid-19 epidemic, the sign that the plasma transplant, which is on the agenda of the world, will also be initiated in our country, is the first head of the Turkish Red Crescent. Kerem Kınık gave from his social media account and said, “We have worked on an important project today and we have reached a promising point for our patients.

Hacettepe University is one of the most important supporters of the implementation of this treatment of Turkey Faculty of Medicine, Department of Hematology Faculty and Hacettepe Hospital Blood Center and Apheresis Unit Director Prof. Dr. Osman Özcebe explained all the details of the process.

Professor Dr. Osman Özcebe
Professor Dr. Osman Özcebe


Professor Dr. Özcebe said, “With the contribution of our Red Crescent and health institutions, this organization can easily be held in our country. As in the rest of the world, our Ministry of Health is aware of this business and we now have patients who are recovering. So, after a week or 10 more days, plasma collection will start from these people, I think. In this project, Kızılay, the biggest lead player of the blood supply, will be the primary supporters of the Ministry of Health, and our universities will reveal all kinds of information and “Know How” for the establishment of this system, including Hacettepe University, of which I am a member. The Ministry of Health and administrative and health units affiliated to the ministry will also be in this organization. This is done in all European countries. This treatment is not an organization that can be carried out alone in small-scale laboratories. ”


Emphasizing that when the system is started to be applied, if the collected plasma is supplied more than necessary, it can be used in a possible second wave corona virus epidemic. Dr. Özcebe said, “If these plasmas can be stored under suitable conditions, they can be melted and reused in the future. In addition, it is possible to concentrate these plasma by converting them into ready-made commercial preparations in factories that produce pharmaceutical products and blood products. “If the virus, by the way, is not obvious mutation-proof and still remains sensitive to the antibodies we have, that is, if it remains on the target board, it could have such an advantage.”


Defining antibodies developed by the body’s own immune system or created by vaccination from childhood, as “magic bullets that instantly destroy them by recognizing them when microbes enter our bodies”. Dr. Özcebe gave the following information: “We can call them targeted weapons. When you have an infection, it’s usually these antibodies that help keep your immunity permanent. When you create antibodies with the vaccine, you will protect against possible factors. When we obtain these antibodies from the blood of the healed person and give it to another patient who fights the infection and suffers the disease because his immune system is weak, he contributes significantly to the recovery process of the patient. We call it passive immunization (immunity). ”


Underlining that it is not correct to present this method as a new method, Professor. Dr. Özcebe said, “This method was used in many infections that have previously been in the form of pandemics (global epidemics) and endemias (regional epidemics). Typical examples of this are the 2009 influenza (H1N1) endemia, Ebola in 2014 and MERS in 2015, this antibody transfer, ie passive immunization, was used during all these outbreaks. Why did it come up again in the Covid-19 outbreak? Because in a 5 percent patient, the disease is severe; we also lose about 1 percent of patients. This is part of the 5% of patients, needs respiratory support in intensive care units. In other words, despite all tried and partially effected treatment approaches, there is no definitive solution. That’s why we lose some of our patients. With a suitable organization, it is not a difficult procedure to perform, but it is actually a passive antibody treatment with plasma transplantation. In Turkey, under the leadership of the Ministry of Health that treatment can be done, “he said.


Turkey’s infrastructure is ready for the job, and stressed that a strong blood banking system with European standards Prof. Dr. Osman Özcebe said, “We have a blood banking system, which is fully trained and equipped with adequate technical infrastructure, fully compliant with European Union directives. Kızılay already controls and operates this system. Thus, in Turkey there is no reason not to apply this method. The patient groups to be effective have been identified: Patients who need supportive care in intensive care. In addition, we have strict rules so that the blood product we receive from the person we transfer blood does not harm. Donors should also meet universal blood banking donor criteria. Both the swab from the throat and the blood sample taken must have been negative in the PCR tests at least 2 weeks after the symptoms have passed. How to process the serum to be taken from the donor, what tests to do, all of these are defined. “There is not much risk of this plasma transplant,” he said.


Reminding that passive antibody treatment was first attempted in Corona virus epidemic by colleagues in China with small-scale studies. Dr. Özcebe ended his words as follows:

“In a study of 5 diseases in the Western world, later, passive antibody transfer has been shown to increase the chances of heavy patients to get rid of intensive care, respiratory support and discharge. Therefore, WHO (World Health Organization) and the American Food and Drug Administration FDA, one of the world’s leading healthcare institutions, have officially announced that this method can be used in this outbreak by 24th of this month, and the public, especially in the USA, has been advertised and passed Covid-19. people were called to donate plasma. ”


The Harley-Davidson Touring range, now with the Android Auto system




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Harley-Davidson becomes the first motorcycle manufacturer to announce the compatibility of Android Auto with Harley-Davidson Touring motorcycle models thanks to a collaboration agreement that Google and the Milwaukee company have reached.

Currently, Harley-Davidson Touring motorcycle models are equipped with the Boom! Entertainment system. Box GTS. Thanks to this agreement, in the early summer of 2020 users will also be able to update this system to have Android Auto through a USB software update on your own or with the support of an authorized dealer. Also, Android Auto will be a standard feature on all 2021 Touring models, CVO and Trike equipped with Boom! Box GTS.

With Android Auto, Harley-Davidson owners can access it through the Boom! Box GTS (a cable connection to an Android smartphone) to apps like Google Maps or Google Assistant, which will allow voice commands. It will allow you to see the mobile interface and functions on the screen, including streaming applications, weather and traffic.

Specifically, the Boom! Box GTS is a smart touchscreen device implemented on Harley-Davidson models for a few years. The touchscreen surface is made of Gorilla Glass, the same type of rugged protection that many mobile phones use.


sportier, digitized and fully connected




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The brand with the four rings now presents the fourth generation of its successful model, the Audi A3 -which was created in 1996-, which although it maintains its compact proportions, includes a sportier design. In fact, the wide Singleframe grille and large air vents on the front accentuate the dynamic character of the premium compact. The waist line runs the entire length, from the headlights to the rear lights, creating a muscular side, well worked below the waist line.

The sporty and sophisticated design of this model, which part of 29,070 eurosIt continues inside with the new gear lever, aluminum or carbon inserts, eye-catching door handles and a dashboard with a more innovative and digital look. For the first time, upholstery made from recycled polyethylene (PET) bottles is used, adorned with elegant contrast stitching.

The cockpit is completely focused on the driver. It uses elements of the well-known brand of higher-end models and equips a 25.7 cm (10.1-inch) touch screen as standard, which is integrated into the dashboard. The system recognizes manually entered characters, provides an acoustic response, and can be controlled using natural language. The instrument cluster, which is operated by the driver via the multifunction steering wheel, is also digital as standard equipment and is 26 cm (10.25 inches) in size.

The optional Audi virtual cockpit adds additional functions such as a large display for the navigation map. The plus version has a 12.3-inch (31.2 cm) diagonal and offers three different display modes, including sporty-looking graphics. Optionally you can equip a Head-up display instrumentation, which projects the important information directly on the windshield. And personal preferences can be stored in up to six user profiles. They go from the position of the seat to the adjustments of the air conditioning, going through the most frequent navigation destinations and the most used audio sources.

Also, the new A3 Sportback offers more space and functionality, combining all this with compact exterior dimensions. It measures 4.34 meters in length and 1.82 meters in width without mirrors, so it exceeds its predecessor by just over three centimeters. The height of 1.43 meters and the battle of 2.64 meters remain unchanged. Depending on the position of the rear seats, the boot capacity may vary between 380 and 1,200 liters, and the loading floor can be enabled at different heights. Optionally, Audi offers an electrically operated tailgate, which can also be opened and closed by gesturing with your foot.

Sophisticated engines

The new Audi A3 Sportback will launch in Europe with a three engine range: the 35 TFSI with 150 CV; and a 2.0 TDI with two variants of power, the 30 TDI with 116 HP and the 35 TDI with 150 HP. They all impress with their high torque and sophisticated features. At the start of production all engines will be combined with front wheel drive. Power is transmitted to the wheels through a six-speed manual gearbox, or the fast seven-speed S tronic, with a new selector now designed as a compact lever that the driver can operate with sequential movements to control functions. Basics of Automatic Transmission.

Shortly after market launch (the first vehicles will be delivered to customers in early May), Audi will progressively expand the offering to include new versions, electrified powertrains and quattro drive variants.

Driving assistance systems

Equipped with the Audi pre sense front, the collision avoidance assistant and the involuntary lane departure warning, the A3 Sportback prevents accidents with other road users and the lane departure warning offers a high level of safety as standard. The vehicle can be equipped with other driving assistance systems, such as the side assist warning system, or parking and rear cross-traffic assistants.

The adaptive cruise assistant, which is used in many other models in the Audi premium ranges, helps the driver with longitudinal guidance. Maintains speed and distance from the vehicle ahead; and it helps keep the A3 out of the lane by gentle interventions on the electromechanical steering. This increases driving comfort, especially during long journeys.


Cedars-Sinai Hospital in Los Angeles tests remdesivir, a coronavirus drug | Univision 34 Los Angeles KMEX

Los Angeles, California.- Cedars-Sinai Hospital, based in The Angels, joins an international effort to test an antiviral drug in its experimental phase as a potential treatment for COVID-19 (coronavirus), as announced on its website on Tuesday.

The Los Angeles medical center is joining forces with multiple hospitals worldwide during a clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institute of Health (NIH) and hopes to enroll its first participant this week.

The trial is evaluating ‘remdesivir’, an investigational drug developed by the biopharmaceutical company. Gilead Sciences Inc., based in Foster City, in San Mateo County, north of California.

Remdesivir belongs to a class of antiviral drugs designed to inhibit an enzyme that certain viruses, including the one that causes COVID-19. The medication is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration ( Fda) for marketing to the general public.

Currently, there are no specific FDA-approved therapies to treat people with COVID-19.

According to the announcement, in animal studies, remdesivir showed promise in counteracting other types of coronaviruses that caused two previous outbreaks of deadly respiratory diseases, such as SARS and MERS, according to Dr. Victor Tapson, MD, director of the Cedars-Sinai site for the NIH trial.

While the drug achieved significant improvement in COVID-19 patients who received remdesivir, these individual cases aren’t enough to demonstrate the drug’s effectiveness, Tapson said in the trial announcement.

“We need randomized, controlled studies to verify that remdesivir is safe and effective,” Tapson said. “This is why this clinical trial is so important.”

Cedars-Sinai plans to enroll up to 30 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 for the trial.

One group will receive 200 milligrams of remdesivir given intravenously on the first day, followed by a once-daily maintenance dose of 100 milligrams during hospitalization, for 10 days. While the control group will receive injections of a placebo medication that appears identical to remdesivir but lacks the active ingredient.

At the end of the trial period, the researchers will compare the results of the treatment and control groups on clinical severity, hospitalization and mortality, and will also assess the safety of the drug.

The 10 news you should know about the coronavirus (there are significant advances to find the vaccine)


Ameal: “Our economy is not Cavani’s”

The President of Mouth, Jorge Amor Ameal, recognized today that the “economy” of his club “is not that of Edinson Cavani“, before the possibility of incorporating the striker of Paris Saint Germain of France.

“We are proud that a player like Cavani says he wants to wear our club’s shirt. The reality is that our economy is not Cavani’s“assured the manager in dialogue with the radio program Pintado de Azul y Oro.

“Before Cavani, we were talking about Paolo Guerrero. And we said that Carlitos Tevez had nothing to envy him. And so it was, you had nothing to envy, did you? Because we have to think more about our players and believe in them. Of course, no one is going to argue that Cavani is a great player, “Ameal recalled.

For his part, the representative of Cavani, Nando Guglielmone, in dialogue with Mundo Boca Radio, assured: “No one called us from the club and luckily there are many interested in having it. For now, Atlético de Madrid is one of the possible destinations. “

In this way, Boca’s chances began to fade, despite the desire of the leadership and the coaching staff led by Michelangelo Russo.


the bloody riot in San Julián



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Between the end of March and the beginning of April 1520, just five hundred years ago, the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes arrived in the place they called Port of San Julián, just a few days from the antartida, to spend the winter. Supplies ran out, the days grew shorter, and the men trembled with cold. The great adventure of the 16th century lived its bloodiest hours in that bay.

The first trip around the world is incomprehensible seen from the current point of view given the imperfections of those nautical instruments and the faulty construction of the caravels. The victory of Sebastián Elcano is only understood by the strength of the men led initially by Fernando de Magallanes, a Portuguese sailor who, after antagonizing the King of Portugal, denatured himself from this kingdom and offered the Spanish Carlos I a unique company.

Together with the astronomer Ruiz Falero, he proposed to the Hispanic monarch an alternative route to trade with Asia without the need to use those already established by the Portuguese crown. Habsburg accepted and allowed that in September 1519 five ships departed from Sanlúcar de Barrameda, the Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepción, Victoria and Santiago, with a total of 239 people on board.

A red winter

Than Fernando de Magallanes also had a dark side, a steel back, he demonstrated this precisely when the expedition reached San Julián. According to Pigafetta: “We arrived (03.31.1520) at 49 and a half of south latitude where we found a good port, and as winter approached, we purposely judged to spend the bad season there.” Faced with extreme cold and food shortages after a six-month journey, Magellan decided in late March to cut down on food rations for the crew and to build warehouses for supplies on the ground. With fishing and hunting in the coastal zone I hoped to obtain enough food to return soon the journey.

Monte Cristo, in San Julián, where Magellan ordered the erection of a cross
Monte Cristo, in San Julián, where Magellan ordered the erection of a cross

Anchored in San Julián, several officers and representatives of the King demanded that their captain cease his advance, considering that the expedition had failed and in these conditions it was impossible to find the way to the South Sea. In this group of opponents was Gaspar de Quesada, captain of the nao Concepción, Luis de Mendoza, captain of the nao Victoria, Antonio de Coca, army accountant, and Juan de Cartagena, seer whom the King had placed at the same level of command as Magellan, in addition to Juan Sebastián Elcano, a complete stranger who, during the subsequent mutiny, took over the captaincy of the Nao San Antonio.

Magellan invited all captains, officers, and pilots to hear mass at a makeshift altar on the ground and then to eat, none of the royal officers was

Magellan turned a deaf ear to the claims of this group who, since leaving Spain, had complained about the hermeticism and spirit of little dialogue of the Castilian naturalized captain. They complained, among other things, that Magellan had breached Article 3 of the Instruction received from the Emperor and neither delivered to his subordinates the letters made for the journey, nor showed them the defeat to follow.

Palm Sunday, April 1, 1520, Magellan invited all captains, officers, and pilots to hear mass at a makeshift altar on land and then to eat. Only the accountant Coca and Álvaro de la Mezquita, Magellan’s nephew and captain of the San Antonio, attended the liturgical celebration. The rest of the officers were too busy completing a riot.

An unequal war

Juan de Cartagena did not attend the celebrations and the next morning the sedition caught on. Sheltered in the dark, Cartagena and Quesada passed with thirty men from La Concepción to San Antonio to catch Mosque. Juan de Elorriaga, master of the ship, received four stab wounds in the arm and died for coming out in defense of his captain. The mutineers seized power in three of the five ships and sent a message to Magellan requesting him to comply with the King’s provisions.

Portrait of Fernando de Magallanes

Antonio de Coca he seized the weapons of the Magellan supporters in the San Antonio and gave command of the ship to the unknown Juan Sebastián Elcano. Despite the seriousness of his situation, Magellan managed to stay calm. Taking advantage of the fact that his enemies could not go out to sea and, seeing that he only had the Trinidad, where he was embarked, and the Santiago, he sent a skiff, with five armed men to deliver a supposed letter of surrender to Mendoza

La Victoria, captained by Mendoza, was anchored in the innermost part of the bay. That gave Magellan a golden opportunity. When Mendoza were reading the letter, the skiff’s messengers stabbed the Spanish and helped another boat to assault the ship. The Conception of Gaspar de Quesada, He fell into the trap, unaware that Mendoza was dead, to follow the path of victory. Too late he realized he was in the middle of a three-on-two match.

Quesada advanced against the three ships loyal to Magellan, anchored downstream from their position, and received all of their artillery fire at once. Despite the fact that his men swore to resist with “until death,” the Concepción was easily taken and the San Antonio later surrendered, seeing itself as inferior.

A repression incompatible with adventure

Magellan’s revenge was disproportionate and jeopardized the future of an expedition already quite decimated: 40 men were sentenced to death without any process (of course, if there was, there is no documentary evidence) and many of the main commands were replaced by Portuguese and Magellan’s relatives. However, the sentence was forgiven, including the one that weighed on Elcano, except in the case of the leaders.

Engraving from the 50s of the 19th century showing the sailor Juan Sebastián Elcano

Luis de Mendoza Y Gaspar de Quesada They were decapitated and dismembered. Their bodies were put on a gallows to rot the five months they waited in southern Argentina for the southern winter to pass to constantly remember that no one could challenge Magellan. Whether these were officers appointed directly by the King raises the question that, had they survived the epic, Magellan would probably have had to face an investigation in Spain.

The cleric Pedro Sánchez de la Reina and Juan de Cartagena were sentenced to exile on April 7, 1520 and abandoned on the shores of Patagonia. His status as a great of Spain saved Cartagena from execution, although he was abandoned on an islet “with each bag of biscuits and two bottles of wine”, which amounted to a slow and merciless death sentence.

The sentence was forgiven, including the one that weighed on Elcano, except in the case of the ringleaders.

Despite the bad environment, Magallanes decided to stay in the Port of San Julián for 147 days. During this period there was the loss of the Santiago ship, who had been sent to explore a little further south while the others remained in the Port of San Julián. Two survivors of the stranded ship made a painful journey from Santa Cruz port, where Santiago went down to the Spanish port, so that at least the belongings and most of the crew saved their lives.


the elderly general who destroyed Napoleon at Waterloo was hallucinating




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He said it himself Napoleon on Saint Helena, the island to which he was banished after his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, in 1815: “Without him there, I do not know where His Grace would be now — in reference to General Wellington — ‌ but surely I I will not be here”. The French emperor spoke of the Prussian marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, whose name was relegated to the background in history, despite the fact that many historians today maintain that, without his appearance in the midst of the gigantic combat, France would have swept England.

The Italian historian Alessandro Barbero defends this same theory in his book “The battle. Waterloo History » (Destiny, 2004): Without the reinforcement of the Marshal’s more than 117,000 soldiers at a crucial moment in combat, Wellington’s 100,000 men would never have been able to defeat Napoleon’s 124,000 alone. English would never have changed the world balance without the miraculous and saving appearance of Blücher on horseback, cheering on his soldiers in the front line of combat, with no less than 73 years. Proud Wellington knew this and expressed it once in private, but British historiography insisted from that moment on burying the figure of the brave and eccentric old man who, at this point in his life, abused alcohol, had shown signs of deterioration of his mental health and he had even experienced episodes of schizophrenia.

When the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo was celebrated five years ago, both Britain and France – with less pride – plunged into countless tributes, exhibitions and retrospectives. Thousands of publications and reports focused on the apocalyptic confrontation between Napoleon and Wellington. All kinds of portraits were made of them, they analyzed their personalities and valued the role that both had played in the birth of contemporary Europe … as if Blücher had little to do with it.

The Depression

It was in the decisive battle of Auerstädt, in 1806, where Blücher first confronted Bonaparte within the well-known Fourth Coalition against the French empire. He did so six times, more than most generals of his time. This first time, however, he fought under the Duke of Brunswick against the French Davout, where the veteran general displayed his foolish momentum. He launched brave cavalry charges against the enemy, but Prussia was equally defeated. Berlin was occupied by Napoleon, the Royal Family had to flee and Blücher himself was taken prisoner after being cornered near Denmark.

Preparations began at that time for the Prussian army to be reborn from its ashes and take revenge, but the marshal entered a phase of deep depression facilitated by alcohol abuse and the increasingly frequent episodes of schizophrenia. That deterioration further his mental faculties, a problem that dragged much of his life. In the following years, he even came to believe that he was pregnant with an elephant thanks to a French soldier. He even mentioned it to Wellington in one of his meetings, which he could not believe his ears. While on other occasions he seemed convinced that his servants conspired against him in support of the French, to the point of heating the floor of his rooms under the orders of Napoleon himself, with the aim of burning his feet. And not infrequently they saw him fight against imaginary enemies, destroying the furniture of his own house, as if it were Don Quixote against the mills.

The marshal also lived worried about his son Franz, who also suffered from mental illness. That did not help the quarterback recover, while the problems were increasing. During the campaign of 1814, these psychological setbacks left him incapacitated for combat, which caused the Prussian general Yorck refuse to comply with your orders. They had come through him too General Gneisenau, but this argued that they were signed backwards. “You see that the old man is crazy again, so it is Gneisenau who is in charge again, something that we cannot tolerate,” he argued.

Blücher portrait
Blücher portrait

Many high-ranking Prussian government officials doubted whether Blücher was the proper military man to lead his Army at Waterloo. Firstly, because of his advanced age, and, secondly, because of that eccentric behavior bordering on madness. Finally they agreed for the support shown by the General ScharnhorstBut the criticism did not stop: they saw him as a wild and erratic military man. He Earl Louis Langeron, one of Napoleon’s leading generals, described him this way: «His energy was prodigious. His eye for the terrain was excellent, his heroic courage inspired the troops, but his talent as a general was limited by these qualities. He had little knowledge of the strategy, was unable to locate where he was on the map, and was unable to elaborate a campaign plan or the disposition of his troops.

Born in Rostock, a city on the Baltic coast, he had joined a Hussar regiment recruited by the Swedish Army in 1758 as a young man. Two years later he was captured in a skirmish with Prussian hussars, and his commander convinced him to join them. That was the beginning of a stormy career that, after extremely harsh experiences, clearly affected his mental health, despite being one of the most gifted soldiers in Europe.

“He was abrupt, uneducated, honest and honest”, as the historian describes him Peter Hofschröer in “Waterloo” (Ariel, 2015). His feelings were so intense that they sometimes upset his emotional balance. He felt great anguish when his country was humiliated and looted by the neighbors. Then Napoleon’s afflicted defeat of Prussia was taken in 1806 as a personal matter, and when the latter escaped his exile on the island of Elba years later, the marshal was eager to again wield the sword against him. He defended tooth and nail the idea that, since his homeland had been robbed and impoverished by Bonaparte, the war had to be brought to France and everything that was within its reach was razed. His hatred bordered on the psychotic, to the point that many historians believe that Wellington would not have obtained the support of the Prussians if it were not for that sentiment, since General Gneisenau, who accompanied him in 1815, detested the English as much as he did the French emperor and he would not have collaborated with them if he were alone.

The moment of truth

Despite criticism, it was the “old fool” who decided on Waterloo’s historic victory on June 18, 1815. He ended Bonaparte’s imperial dream, having spent his years at home in Europe for many years. Since then, everything that surrounded that day has awakened an enormous fascination that transcends fans of military history: 217,000 soldiers of the alliance formed by the English, Prussians, Dutch, Belgians and Germans, against the 124,000 French. A kind of small world war fought in a single day, which ended the myth of Napoleon and established another, that of Wellington, unfairly leaving Blücher as a kind of secondary actor.

The Prussian Army, with Blücher in front, in a painting by Carl Röchling

What would have happened without him? Throughout the morning, the battle tilted on Bonaparte’s side, to the point that his impetuous Marshal Michel Ney he was convinced that the English were going to withdraw. Then he threw himself on horseback, directing another charge against Wellington, whose men had to shield themselves in box formation and shoot the Gallic horsemen as best they could. Napoleon then called the old guard, the most senior and veteran of his Imperial Guard, to deliver the coup de grace.

Everything was hanging by a thread, when, at 2:00 pm, the French heard on their right flank, amidst the smoke, the sound of gunshots and drums. Such was the turmoil and turmoil that Bonaparte was thought to be Marshal Emmanuel de Grouchy’s own troops returning to his aid. But no, it was the 30,000 soldiers with Blücher in front. There is the old marshal, with his gray hair and his thick mustache, dressed in black, appearing at the exact moment. He knew that if he did not arrive in time to help Wellington, Napoleon would subjugate Europe once again. So he sped up the march from Wavre, traversing all sorts of muddy, battered roads after the storms the night before.

France, 30,000 dead

Confusion and fear spread among the French when they saw Blücher’s men appear attacking from the flanks. Bonaparte was quick to back off, something they had never done in their history. For the first time in the day the British took the initiative and advanced with the help of the fresher Prussians. The sign of the battle changed, the Gauls began their flight and our protagonists chased them until nightfall. All this, with land strewn with thousands of corpses.

Bonaparte abdicated four days later. He had lost 30,000 men. Wellington, 15,000, and Blücher, 6,700. Despite this, he was never worthy of as many tributes as his comrades-in-arms, as if he had little to do with the collapse of the French empire and the change of leadership in the world order in favor of Great Britain. As of today, in fact, we do not find any biography of the marshal in Spanish, unlike the large number of novels and movies that have been published and released by the other two. He is an excellent soldier, a good saber. It is like a bull that closes its eyes and rushes forward without seeing any danger. He is stubborn, tireless and fear nothing, “wrote Napoelón from his exile Santa Elena, before dying.


The lesson of humility of the hero who defended Zaragoza to the haughty Frenchman who demanded to surrender



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No, sir, we don’t give up, no matter how much French tantrum there is. This was, in synthesis (although not in the same words), the brave answer given by the then Lieutenant General José Rebolledo de Palafox, architect of the defense of Zaragoza during the War of Independence, a veteran marshal of the Grande Armée de Napoleon Bonaparte when he urged him to surrender. It was then December 1808 and the situation predicted a long siege. That is to say: hunger, ammunition shortage, hardship and -in the long run- diseases.

However, the message that Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey He read on the 22nd with a Spanish stamp (after having sent himself a haughty letter demanding that Zaragoza open its doors) he left no room for equivocation: «The Spanish blood shed covers us with glory; while it is ignominious for French weapons to have poured the innocent. The lord marshal of the empire will know that the enthusiasm of eleven million inhabitants does not die down with oppression, and that whoever wants to be free is. ” The city ended up falling on February 21, the books will say. And it is true. But two and a half months of epic resistance were left behind.

Monceny in Spain …

And that Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey was, of course, no one. When the War of independence He was already combing gray hair (he treasured a whopping 54 springs behind him, almost 40 of them as a military man) and had faced the peninsular armies on countless occasions during the Roussillon War, the invasion of the north of the country perpetrated by the Gallic Convention in 1793. If he was then a prominent military man, his support for the coup of Brumaire already Napoleon Bonaparte finished catapulting him to the pinnacle of military power. Thus, he was appointed marshal in 1804 after having dedicated his last years to being one of the aides-de-camp of the “Petit corso”.

Marshal Moncey
Marshal Moncey

The Napoleonic invasion of Spain brought him, in a way, out of a long exile from the battlefields. Veteran, but not finished, in 1808 he advanced, as he explains well R. P. Dunn-Pattison in “Napoleon’s Marshals”, with Murat towards Madrid at the head of the 3rd Army Corps. Some of our compatriots, his contemporaries of the stature of the journalist and poet Miguel Agustín Príncipe, they left on white that, although the marshal was forced to reprimand the people of the capital on May 2, in reality he was a man “endowed with a character peaceful, tempered Y conciliator».

Regardless of whether the profile drawn up by Augustine is correct or not (something difficult to determine more than two centuries later), the verified facts confirm that Moncey received orders, back in late May 1808, to head towards Valencia to conquer the city. That was his first great defeat … The assault on the city, which lasted no less than two months, resulted in the loss of almost a third of his men and the need to withdraw from the front pursued by the Spanish fighters. Thus, the marshal took refuge in Iniesta waiting for new guidelines.

And Palafox in Zaragoza

While Moncey left lives and cartridges in Valencia, in Saragossa300 kilometers to the north, things were not better for his colleagues in the Grande Armée. And all, thanks to the good work of our ancestors. In the city, the new captain general of Aragon dictated and organized, thanks to the unilateral decision of the people in arms: José Rebolledo de Palafox. An officer of noble birth who, after calling for the general enlistment after learning about the events of May 2 in Madrid, set out to defend tooth and nail and whatever was one of the most decisive cities in the region.

Jose de Palafox

In exchange, Palafox soon received a visit from the marshal’s troops François Joseph Lefebvre. On July 15, some 7,000 men and half a dozen artillery pieces under his command appeared in front of the walls of Zaragoza with the aim of encircling it. Ten days later, as if that were not enough, another 8,000 Gallic soldiers arrived at the doors. The chroniclers who paint clubs say (well, yes), but the good Spaniard turned the situation around through a game of shadows. He left the square under the command of one of his generals, secretly left there, and returned with vital reinforcements that ended Napoleon’s forces.

Her move was a success. “The French lifted the siege, shortly afterwards, when they heard of Bailen’s defeat and the general withdrawal of their armies,” explains the renowned historian. Alberto Martín-Lanuza in his article about this character prepared for the Royal Academy of History. But winning a battle did not mean sending Napoleon’s men back to Paris at once. For that there was still a lot, but a lot of lead to shoot. And it was time to prepare for it. “Knowing that the French would return to Zaragoza, various fortification works were carried out in the city, batteries were built and several convents outside the walls were put in a state of defense,” added the expert.


After overcoming his army, the French officers ordered Moncey, then a few hundred kilometers, to reach the area and bend his knee to Palafox. The marshal stepped on the city tomorrow November 30, 1808 together with his colleague Ney, while ours recruited more soldiers and built new defenses. Thus began the one who, in the end, would be known as the second site of Zaragoza. “The defense became famous not only in Spain, but also throughout Europe. He resisted a two-corps French army, with more than 49,000 men, for more than two and a half months, “adds the historian.

Although the casualties were heavy for both sides, what cannot be denied is that the French had an almost insulting ability to send reinforcements to the area. Thus, the December 20th Marshal’s 5th Army Corps joined Monceny Montier, which made the spirits of the Gauls hit the ceiling. The next morning, tired of both Palafox here and Spanish there, the Napoleonic artillery opened fire at Zaragoza early in the morning. More than to cause casualties and soften the defenses (which also), in order to demoralize the opponent and favor a surrender that would prevent more deaths and injuries.

In this way, Moncey sent, on December 22, a haughty message in which he demanded that Palafox surrender the city:

Gentlemen, the city of Zaragoza is besieged everywhere and it no longer has any communication. Therefore, we can use against the plaza all the means of destruction that the law of war allows. More than enough blood has been spilled, and many evils surround us and fight us. The fifth division of the large army, under the command of Marshal Mortier, Duke of Trevino, and the one I command, threaten the walls. The town of Madrid has capitulated and thus has preserved itself from the misfortunes that a longer resistance would have brought.

Defense of the convent of Santa Engracia de Zaragoza in 1809
Defense of the convent of Santa Engracia de Zaragoza in 1809

Gentlemen, the city of Zaragoza confident in the courage of neighbors, but unable to overcome the means and efforts that the art of war is going to gather against it, if it leads to their use, its total destruction will be inevitable.

Mister Marshal Mortier and I believe that your Mercedes will take into consideration what I have the honor to present to you and that they will agree with us in the same way of thinking. Containing the outpouring of blood, and preserving the beautiful Zaragoza, so valuable for its population, wealth and commerce, the misfortunes of a place and the terrible consequences that may result, would be the way to earn the love and blessings of the peoples that depend on your mercies. Let your mercies seek to attract their citizens to the maxims and feelings of peace and quiet; that for my part I assure your mercies everything that may be compatible with my heart and with the faculties that the Emperor has given me ».

Brava answer

The answer was immediate. That same day Palafox sent back a note in which he charged against all the arguments and insults that Monceny had expressed in his letter. What most clouded the Spanish was the threat that the Gauls were willing to destroy Zaragoza and his veiled way of referring to «misfortunes»What soldiers and citizens would live if they didn’t lay down their arms and open the doors. In turn, knowing himself surrounded by an army of up to 70,000 men (according to his own calculations) made the decision be made from the beginning: the fight would continue.

«The general-in-chief of the reserve army answers for the Plaza de Zaragoza. This beautiful city does not know how to surrender. The lord marshal of the empire will observe all the laws of war, and will measure his strength with me. I am in communication with all parts of the peninsula, and I lack nothing. Sixty thousand men determined to fight do not know more prize than the honor nor I who command them. I have this honor, that I do not exchange it for all empires.

Second site of Zaragoza

S. E. Marshal Moncey will be filled with glory if, observing the noble laws of war he beats me; mine will not be less if I defend myself. What I say to V. E. is that my troops will fight with honor, and that I do not know the means of oppression that the former marshals of France abhorred.

Nothing matters a place to those who know how to die with honor, especially when I already know its effects in 61 days that lasted last time. If I did not know how to surrender then with less force, you should not expect it now, when I have more than all the armies that surround me.

The spilled Spanish blood covers us with glory; while it is ignominious for French weapons to have poured the innocent.

The lord marshal of the empire will know that the enthusiasm of eleven million inhabitants does not die down with oppression, and that whoever wants to be free is. I am not trying to shed the blood of those who depend on my government; But there is no one who does not lose it with pleasure for defending their homeland. Yesterday the French troops left at our doors enough testimonies of this truth, we have not lost a man, and I think I can be more in proportion to speak to the Lord Marshal of surrender, if he does not want to lose his entire army on the walls of this square. Prudence, which is so characteristic and gives it the reputation of good, will not be able to look with indifference on these ravages, especially when neither war nor the Spanish cause or authorize them.

«The spilled Spanish blood covers us with glory; while it is ignominious for French weapons to have poured the innocent »

If Madrid capitulated, Madrid will have been defeated, and I cannot believe it; but Madrid is only a town, and there is no reason for it to give way.

I only warn the Lord Marshal that, when a parliament is sent, 2 columns are not brought down at different points, since they have been on the brink of breaking the fire, believing they are recognition rather than parliament.

I have the honor to reply to you, Mr. Marshal Moncey, with all your attention in the only language I know, and assure you of my most sacred duties.


A poetic meditation on uncertainties



Jaime Siles (Valencia, 1951) has made poetry of inquiry and thought its most undoubted trace of identity. Multiple Record Poet, within an identifiable and unitary voice, there is in him that constant dialogue between feeling and thinking, between personal experience and its reflections in the experience of culture. Oblique Architecture is a book of maturity, of undoubted contemplation and meditation, where the voice or voices that Jaime Siles builds are alone against time. It is, in short, a succession of characters who try reflect on the value of the moment, on the fragments of memory and on the presence of death. Here, as another great poet, Antonio Gamoneda would say, the losses are burning, and poetry is built in that territory between amazement and farewell.

Divided into four parts, plus four transition poems between each one, Oblique architecture It assumes different tones, different looks and metric shapes. There is the travel note, the vision of a flower in winter, the figure of a dove on the poplars, the presence of the classics, the interior gaze, the metapoetic reflection. Different ways of looking at reality and different ways of manifesting a self that, facing the ravages of time, lives the crisis of its own identity.

Because those days before the end mean re-asking the question that gave rise to the tragedy: who I am? Why am I gradually losing the idea I built of myself? The book, in many of its poems, takes on the tone of a confession: «Sexagenarian me? / Yes: sixty-year-old./ Time is already firing / its last shots / on the brief snow / tread over the years (…) »A confession full of perplexity, of the memory that returns, of the lived that is expressed in its fragility and in their transit to ruin. The most exciting moments are precisely those in which the man who speaks here, or the fragments of the man who speaks here continue to search for a light, an idea, a form in the midst of everything that is going away. And what he finds is language, that essential manifestation of reality, that construction of the self that is resolved in a handful of words.

A deep book

Jaime Siles writes in this way a deep book, an adventure where the existential and the reflective are part of the same flow. What he has gained over the years is metaphysical density, a gaze to be seen, lucidity to speak of him as a man in the middle of the weather and searching.

Books like this one on Oblique Architecture give Jaime Siles’ career an even richer and deeper dimension. And without ceasing to be, as part of his generation, a poet who seeks maximum expression in language, he has dared to open himself here, romance to romance, to a beautiful meditation on the flashes and uncertainties of old age, to end up recreating a homo viator who never stops walking, looking for an explanation, an intellection of the world.