ALMA telescope discovers earliest galactic storm, reveals evolution of galaxies and black holes


KOMPAS.com- Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope, the researchers discovered the earliest giant galactic storms in the universe. These findings reveal the evolution of galaxies and black holes.

This giant galactic storm is believed to have been formed by a supermassive black hole that occurred 13.1 billion years ago.

Reported from Phys, Sunday (20/6/2021), at the center of the galaxy, many supermassive black holes are hiding. Its size can reach millions to billions of times larger than the Sun.

Interestingly, the mass of the black hole is roughly proportional to the mass of the central region of the galaxy in the nearby universe.

Usually, many of the black holes in a galaxy are invisible or seem to be hiding, so their size may not be as obvious.

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Why did this happen?

The reason is that the size of galaxies and black holes can differ by 10 times.

Also read: Rare Phenomenon of the Universe, Astronomers Find 3 Galaxies Joined

According to researchers, the discovery of this giant galactic storm is the earliest historical record example of this universal event that has ever been observed.

The discovery of these gigantic galactic storms is also an early sign that large black holes have had profound effects on the growth of galaxies since the beginning of the universe’s history.

Based on the proportional relationship between the masses of two objects that differ greatly in size, astronomers believe that galaxies and black holes grow and evolve together, or coevolution, through some kind of physical interaction.

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Galactic winds or galactic storms can provide this kind of physical interaction between black holes and galaxies.

Co-evolution of galaxies and black holes

A supermassive black hole engulfs a large amount of matter.

When the material begins to move at high speed due to the black hole’s gravity, it emits a strong energy and pushes the surrounding matter out, this is how the galactic storm is formed.

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NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScl/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration and A. Evans (University of Virginia, Charlottesville/NRAQ/Stony Brook University) This galaxy has two black holes at its center.

“The question is, when did the galactic winds appear in the universe,” said Takuma Izumi, lead author of the research paper and researcher at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Japan.

Izumi added that this was an important question. Because, related to an important problem in astronomy, namely about how galaxies and supermassive black holes evolve together.

In this study, the research team first used the Subaru NAOJ telescope to search for black holes.

Thanks to extensive field observation capabilities, researchers discovered more than 100 galaxies with supermassive black holes in the universe more than 13 billion years ago.

Next, the research team utilized ALMA’s high sensitivity to investigate the movement of gases in the host galaxy.

Also read: Secrets of the Universe: How Black Holes Formed in Galaxies?

Then, the research team utilized the high sensitivity of the ALMA radio telescope to investigate the movement of gas in the black hole’s host galaxy.

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ALMA observed the galaxy HSC J124353.93+010038.5, hereinafter referred to as J1243+0100, discovered by the Subaru Telescope, and captured radio waves emitted by dust and carbon ions in the galaxy.

Detailed analysis of the ALMA data reveals that there is a high velocity gas stream moving at a speed of 500 km per second on J1243+0100.

This gas stream has enough energy to push the stellar material in the galaxy and stop the star-forming activity.

Also read: The Enormous Eruption of the Black Hole in this Galaxy is the Strongest in the Universe

Illustrations of extraterrestrial material and stars entering the tombs of supermassive black holes.SHUTTERSTOCK/Jurik Peter Illustrations of extraterrestrial material and stars entering the tombs of supermassive black holes.

Researchers reveal that the gas streams found in this study are really galactic winds or storms, and this is the oldest example of a galaxy ever observed with a galactic-sized massive wind.

The team also measured the movement of quiet gas at J1243+0100, and estimated the mass of the galaxy’s bulge, based on its gravitational balance, to be about 30 billion times the mass of the sun.

The mass of a galaxy’s supermassive black hole, estimated by other methods, is about 1 percent of that.

The mass ratio of these bulging supermassive black holes in this galaxy is nearly identical to the mass ratio of black holes of galaxies in the modern universe.

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This implies that the coevolution of black holes and supermassive galaxies has occurred since less than a billion years after the birth of the universe.

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“Our observations support recent high-precision computer simulations that have predicted that coevolutionary relationships existed, even about 13 billion years ago,” explains Izumi.

“We plan to observe a large number of such objects in the future, and hope to clarify whether the primordial coevolution seen in these objects is an accurate picture of the general universe at that time,” Izumi added.

The study of giant galactic storms from these supermassive black holes has been published by Izumi and his team in the journal Astrophysical Journal on June 14, 2021.

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