KOMPAS.com – The history of the invention of the microscope is in line with research on biology. The simple microscope was invented by German amateur microscope maker Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.
The microscope was first invented in the 16th century. The microscope comes from the word micro which means small and scpium which means sight. So a microscope can be interpreted as a tool to see small tools.
Microscopes are constantly evolving in order to be able to observe microorganisms more clearly. The development of a microscope that is more advanced is the electron microscope.
In the late 19th century, scientists realized the way to develop the microscope was to use shorter wavelength radiation. In 1924, Louis de Broglie introduced the concept of transmission electron microscope (HAVE).
TEM is used to make electron microscopes. The electron microscope was introduced by Ernst Ruska.
The way this tool works is to focus the electron beam on the object’s surface and take an image by detecting the electrons emerging from the object’s surface.
Also read: 3 Scientists Win Nobel Prize After Developing Cryo-electron Microscope
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Types of electron microscope
There are two types of electron microscopes as follows.
1. Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
This tool is used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells. In this device, electrons penetrate the specimen.
Electron optics focuses directly on a narrow angle by scanning an object using a scanning pattern that produces dots that make up the image.
TEM microscopes are capable of magnification of 50 to 50 million times. The resulting image is a flat image.
2. Payer electron microscope (scanning electron microscope or SEM)
The way the SEM microscope works is that the light from the lamp is emitted through the condenser lens. The light that passes through the condenser lens is passed on to the objective lens which can be adjusted back and forth.
The beam is transmitted to the specimen which is tilted on the chuck. This specimen is irradiated by x-ray detection which produces an image that is passed on to a computer screen.
SEM microscopes are capable of magnification from 5 to 500,000 times. The resulting image is a three-dimensional image of the object’s surface.