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#EssentialPublicHealth. A new antibiotic for infections with multiresistant gram-negative bacteria

Raportuldegardă.ro presents the series “Essential in public health” – the synthesis of news that is really important to control and limit the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, but also of other pathogens that threaten health at the local and international level. Access Essentials of public health from this week.

News for the week of August 6-13, 2023:

ECDC: Non-pharmacological interventions in the COVID-19 pandemic – significant impact on the balance between private and professional life.

The balance between private and professional life has been affected by measures to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic.according to the new report by the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and Eurofound. Among the measures that contributed to these changes was the order that prevails restrictions on leaving the house, closing kindergartens, schools and remote work (teleworking). The report was produced after a study that assessed the impact non-drug interventionson the work-life balance of adults from the 27 EU member states, between March 2020 and May 2022.

The impact of the interventions was positive and negative. For example, the closure of educational institutions and remote work reduce the pressure associated with work on personal life, but working at home has favored the maintenance of anxiety about work and in free time, reducing the ability to focus on work and the actual work time due. of family responsibilities.

The effects of interventions vary between different groups of adults. For example, those who had small children were more affected by the need to stay at home, not close to educational institutions and benefited less from the transfer of the service to the online environment. At the same time, people under 35, people who did not live with children, adults from rural areas and people from Nordic countries see a positive impact of the implementation of remote work on the balance between private and professional life.

Along with the report, a number of recommended actions were identified, drawn from the lessons learned from the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.. These include:

  • expanding research related to the social impact of implemented measures
  • opting for non-binding measures in favor of those legally imposed, because efficiency and adherence were similar in the two approaches.
  • provide support to groups affected by the measures implemented
  • assessment of the impact on the community and vulnerable groups when planning the implementation of a measure
  • collaboration between public health authorities, human behavior researchers and policy makers

Bacteria can be used as biosensors to detect tumor DNA

The bacteria can be modified to detect the presence Tumor DNA at the colon level, according to one study published in Science. The study was conducted on laboratory mice and involves the modification of some bacteria from intestinal microbiome through bioengineering, which then successfully detected the DNA from colon neoplasm. This method could become a revolutionary technology to create biosensors that identify various diseases, from the first stages, including precancerous lesions..

Malignant cells release DNA into the surrounding environment, but detection itself at the level of origin is a challenge. The new technology is called CATCH (Cellular Assay for Targeted CRISPR-discriminated Horizontal Gene Transfer) and is based on an inherited property of bacteria called innate competence, which involves taking over DNA from the environment through horizontal gene transfer.

Non-pathogenic bacteria were used Acinetobacter baylyiwhich was modified to only take the sequences and KRAS gene mutation, present in various types of cancer. Bacterial bioengineering also assumes the induction of a new property: taking on the tumor KRAS gene determines the acquisition. bacterial resistance to a certain antibiotic. Thus, after cultivation on the media containing the respective drug, only those microorganisms remain that have taken on tumor DNA, indicating the presence of a neoplasm in the digestive tract, as well as its location.

Image not Freepik

A new antibiotic may be used for infections with multiple resistant gram-negative bacteria

Infection with Gram negative bacteria resistant to most antibiotics could be treated with a new synthetic antibiotic (LPC233), according to a study published in Science Translational Medicine. The results indicated this the new compound has a rapid bactericidal effect, is not affected by the resistance mechanism developed against existing antibiotics on the market and shows activity against many types of gram negative bacteria.. After the administration of the new drug, laboratory mice that received a fatal dose of multi-resistant bacteria survived.

The potential target of the new antibiotic is represented by the enzyme LpxC, which is involved in the synthesis of the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria. If this membrane cannot be properly synthesized, the microorganism cannot survive, which explains the bactericidal effect of the compound.

Several compounds targeting the LpxC enzyme have been developed and evaluated previously, but investigations have been limited by toxicity. cardiovascular raised up. According to preclinical evaluation, both in vitro. and also live, LPC233 exhibits a favorable safety profile with no detectable cardiovascular adverse effects, increased bioavailability after oral administration, and high target binding affinity..

STUDY. Mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple organs could explain the development of prolonged COVID

SARS-CoV-2 blocks the expression of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, causing mitochondrial dysfunction in several organs.according to the study published in Science Translational Medicine. The human body responds to the initial infection SARS-CoV-2 through mitochondrial changes at the level of the lungs, but as they recover, mitochondrial function may remain affected in other organs, especially at the level of the heart. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with infection with this coronavirus was found in organs where the presence of SARS-CoV-2 could not be emphasized.

These results suggest that the disease COVID-19 should be considered more than an infection of the upper respiratory tract, they were a systemic condition, which can involve tissue damage throughout the body. At the same time, it explains the variations in the severity of COVID-19 and the consequences on long-term health, which could be determined by the degree and speed of recovery of mitochondrial function after infection, in various organs.

Also, the study identified a potential therapeutic target, microRNA-ul 2392, which regulates mitochondrial function. According to the results of the study, it is at high levels in people with SARS-CoV-2. Targeting microRNA 2392 with new drugs could further inhibit the replication of this virus, an important mechanism especially in people at risk of serious complications caused by COVID-19..

In the study, they analyzed nasopharyngeal samples and autopsy tissue from patients with COVID-19, as well as samples from hamsters and laboratory mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Youth expression mitochondrial at the beginning and end of COVID-19 was evaluated on samples of human origin. Laboratory animals have been used to explain changes in gene expression over time.

Genomic sequencing of pathogens – essential to respond to future pandemics

Your action during the COVID-19 pandemic can be used to improve public health responses to existing and future threats.again genomic sequence had a major impact on the fight against SARS-CoV-2. TECHNOLOGY they improve as they become more used, and The COVID-19 pandemic has made genomic sequencing routine in many laboratories.

In the 1960s, it was considered that pathogens would not pose a threat to public health in the future, in the context of development. antibiotics and vaccines, as well as the implementation of appropriate sanitation and personal hygiene regulations. But Pathogenic microorganisms are evolving rapidly, so public health must continue to prepare to respond to any new threats.. A new one article published in PLOS Biology outlines how genomic sequencing should be used in the future to improve public health, as well as what investments and innovations would facilitate progress in this area.

Key lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic

  • It is mandatory the best infrastructure globally to support genomic sequencing. Some of this has been built during the COVID-19 pandemic, but there are gaps in sequencing and data sharing capabilities.
  • It is mandatory expanding the way we use pathogen genomes in response to infectious diseases.
  • Must define objectives for the role of pathogen genomics in the context of responding to public health threats. Thus, plans can be developed for future pandemics and to assess the effectiveness of responses to them.
  • Although the interest in COVID-19 has decreased, it is necessary to maintain the momentum in the pandemic period, because the advances in this period can be applied, adapted and further developed to fight other threats to public health, for example, antibiotic resistance.

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