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Sore Throat Disease – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

KOMPAS.com – A sore throat is a sore, itchy, or irritated feeling in the throat that often gets worse when trying to swallow.

The most common cause of a sore throat is a viral infection, such as a cold or flu.

A sore throat caused by a virus will go away on its own.

Also read: 4 Ways to Treat Sore Throats due to Covid-19 Omicron

Strep throat (streptococcal infection), a less common type of sore throat caused by bacteria, requires treatment with antibiotics to prevent complications.

Other, less common causes of sore throat may require more complex treatment.


Infection by a contagious virus or bacteria is the source of most sore throats.

Other potential causes include:

  • Virussuch as flu, cold, measles, chickenpox, croupor mononucleosis (mono)
  • Bacterial infectionthis infection includes bacterial infections Streptococcus which causes sore throat
  • Pertussisalso known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by bacteria Bordetella pertussis
  • Epiglotitisa throat infection that causes swelling to block the airway and requires immediate emergency medical attention
  • Allergy
  • Irritationsuch as dry heat, dehydration, chronic nasal congestion, pollutants, or chemical exposure
  • Refluxwhen a person vomits the contents of the stomach into the throat
  • Tumortumors of the throat, tongue, and larynx (voice box) can cause a sore throat with pain that rises to the ear.


Symptoms of a sore throat can vary depending on the cause.

Also read: 4 Foods to Avoid When Sore Throat

Signs and symptoms include:

  • Pain or itching sensation in the throat
  • Pain that gets worse when swallowing or speaking
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Pain, swollen glands in the neck or jaw
  • Swollen and red tonsils
  • White patches or pus on the tonsils
  • Hoarse or muffled voice.

The infection that causes a sore throat can cause other signs and symptoms, such as:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Have a cold
  • Sneeze
  • aches
  • Headache
  • Nausea or vomiting.


Sore throat is a symptom of another disease.

Therefore, the doctor will identify the cause of the sore throat.

If the doctor suspects a patient has strep throat, a throat culture will be done to diagnose it.

Also read: 10 Effective Herbal Ingredients for Treating Sore Throats

The doctor will swab the back of the throat and collect a sample to test for strep throat bacteria.

With a quick strep test, your doctor will get the results within minutes.


To help relieve a sore throat, take the following steps: NHS following:

  • Gargle with warm, salty water (not for children)
  • Drink a lot of water
  • Eat cold or soft food
  • Avoid smoking or smoky places
  • Suck on ice cubes, popsicles or hard candy, but don’t give young children anything small and difficult to suck on because of the risk of choking
  • Rest.

In addition to the non-drug treatments above, the following medicines can also help treat a sore throat:

ask your pharmacist about ways to relieve pain and discomfort from a sore throat, such as:

  • Paracetamol or ibuprofen
  • Lozenges containing a local anesthetic, antiseptic, or anti-inflammatory drug.

See a doctor right away if you have a sore throat and any of the following related problems:

Also read: 5 Practical Sore Throat Reliever Drinks

  • Sore throat that is severe or lasts more than a week
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Difficult to breathe
  • Difficulty opening mouth
  • Joint pain
  • Earache
  • Rash
  • High fever
  • Blood in saliva or sputum
  • Sore throat that often recurs
  • Lump on neck
  • Hoarseness that lasts more than two weeks
  • Swelling in the neck or face.


Sore throats do not usually cause serious problems.

However, these complications can still occur:

  • Abscess (pockets of pus) around the tonsils
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  • sinus infection
  • Ear infection
  • Rheumatic fever (heart disease)
  • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (kidney disease).


The best way to prevent a sore throat is to avoid the germs that cause it and practice good hygiene.

Also read: What is the difference between a sore throat due to Covid-19 and the common cold?

Follow these tips to prevent a sore throat:

  • Wash your hands thoroughly and frequently for at least 20 seconds, especially after using the toilet, before and after eating, and after sneezing or coughing
  • Avoid touching face
  • Avoid sharing food, drinking glasses, or eating utensils
  • Cough or sneeze into a tissue and throw away, then wash your hands
  • Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer as an alternative to washing your hands when soap and water are not available
  • Clean and disinfect phones, doorknobs, light switches, remotes and computer keyboards regularly
  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick or have symptoms.

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This article is not intended for self-diagnosis. Please always consult a doctor to get the right examination and treatment.

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