Coronavirus treatment: steroids are said to counteract Covid-19

A new type of coronavirus treatment relies on corticosteroids. So far it seems extremely effective.

In severe cases, scientists are currently testing a new method of Coronavirus Treatment. Corticosteroids, a group of almost 50 steroid hormones and synthetic substances formed in the adrenal cortex, are intended to alleviate Covid-19 diseases and thus prevent fatal consequences. The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) has summarized the results of previous studies.

Coronavirus Treatment: Corticosteroids Are Said To Help

In a prospective meta-analysis of seven randomized trials that included 1,703 patients, 647 of whom died, the 28-day all-cause mortality in patients receiving corticosteroids was compared to patients receiving the usual rate [Coronavirus-]Treatment or a placebo, lower “, writes Dr. Jonathan AC stars.

The administration of systemic corticosteroids has thus been associated with a lower 28-day all-round mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19 compared to usual treatment or placebo. So it seems to be an effective method to counteract the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen.

Chemically synthetically manufactured corticosteroids such as dexamethasone or hydrocortisone are sometimes used to treat asthma, allergies and autoimmune diseases. As a coronavirus treatment, the corticosteroids are not supposed to fight the pathogen itself, but rather the body Overreactions of the immune system protect by containing them.

Only conditional recommendation for infected people

However, the steroid hormones are not suitable for every patient. In asthma sufferers, for example, they could have undesirable side effects and even increase their susceptibility to other infectious diseases. Since overly strong immune reactions occur primarily in severe cases, the new type of coronavirus treatment is recommended for just such cases.

According to Sterne, there is “evidence and hope that an effective, cheap and safe [Coronavirus-]Treatment has been found “. Although researchers only recently reported a particularly puzzling symptomChristian Drosten is certain: The coronavirus is curable.


The new study reveals that the sequence of symptoms of corona infection is different from other flu symptoms

KONTAN.CO.ID – NEW YORK. A new study of the global pandemic has found that those who contract the coronavirus (Covid-19) exhibit a predictable sequence of symptoms, and in a different order from other flu symptoms.

So far, the evidence suggests the initial sequence of Covid-19 symptoms begins with fever and then progresses to cough and muscle aches, followed by nausea and / or vomiting, and finally, diarrhea.

Although the symptoms themselves are not very unique, the order in which they arrive is different from that of other respiratory viruses. And the new study says their model could help differentiate between new cases, helping to limit the spread of the disease.

Using World Health Organization (WHO) data from more than 55,000 confirmed cases in China, the study compared the sequence of Covid-19 symptoms with the thousands of cases of influenza collected by the University of Michigan, nearly 150 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the Toronto Area, and several cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) were reported in Korea.

Also Read: The new study found a unique and sequential corona symptom, can distinguish it from the flu

Influenza infection is found to begin with a cough and then fever. And while MERS and SARS may begin to resemble Covid-19, the lower gastrointestinal tract usually takes a hit first, causing diarrhea before nausea and vomiting.

“The sequence of symptoms is important,” said Joseph Larsen, who studies computational biology and bioinformatics at the University of Southern California who was quoted as saying, Thursday (20/8).

“Knowing that each disease develops differently means doctors can identify more quickly whether a person is likely to have Covid-19, or some other disease, which can help them make better treatment decisions,” he said.

When the researchers simulated Covid-19 symptoms for 500,000 patients, they found that the sequence of symptoms most commonly seen also differed from other leading respiratory illnesses.

Even when researchers included other symptoms such as sore throat, headache and fatigue, the order of the four most likely initial symptoms remained the same.

Since fever usually comes first, taking a person’s temperature can be a valid screening mechanism.

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) already recommends that people take their temperature before leaving isolation to ensure its safety, and this new research supports that.

“We do not propose the initial symptom as a diagnostic test, but as a possible sign to test,” wrote the study investigators.

Covid-19 is more contagious than influenza and tends to spread in groups. If it can better inform the public about the sequence of symptoms, this can help identify and quarantine cases more quickly before they spread any further.

Bob Lahita, a rheumatologist not associated with the study, told CBS News that the new symptom model is a “good guide”.

Even if these diseases don’t appear to be exactly the same in everyone, paying close attention to the early symptoms of a respiratory tract infection could allow us to separate the typical cycle of disease from the current global pandemic.

Also Read: For almost two weeks there have been no cases of corona, Beijing allows residents not to wear masks


WHO comments on the first Russian vaccine for Corona … and a blanket warning

Russian authorities Talks continue. The stage prior to licensing any vaccine passes through strict mechanisms", In response to a question about an advertisement Russian President His country reached for"The first vaccine" against novel coronavirus.

The spokesman explained that "The pre-licensing phase includes a review and evaluation of all required safety and efficacy data collected during the clinical trial phase".

He indicated that in addition to the approval granted by the competent authorities in each country, "The World Health Organization has put in place a pre-authorization mechanism for vaccines but also for medicines. Manufacturers require WHO pre-certification as it acts as a guarantee of quality".

Russia has not yet published a detailed study of the results of the experiments, which allowed it to confirm Effectiveness of the vaccine.

And last week, she showed World Health Organization Doubts after Russia announced that its vaccine is about to be completed, noting that any medicinal commodity "It must undergo all necessary tests and checks before it can be approved for use"She indicated that she had not received "Anything formal" from Russia.

The spokesman said that for now "It is extremely important to implement sustainable public health measures. We must continue to invest in developing vaccines and treatments that will help us reduce future transmission", Adding that "The speed of development of some potential vaccines is encouraging".

ويتع: "We hope some of these vaccines will prove safe and effective".

According to the World Health Organization, there are 26 potential vaccines in the clinical trial stage (ie, human testing) around the world, and 139 in the pre-clinical evaluation stage.

Among the 26 vaccines, late July 6 entered the third phase of development. It was the vaccine that you evolve "Gamalia" Russian is classified at the time in the first stage.

Russian President Vladimir Putin announced, on Tuesday, that Russia I found out "first" Contraception novel coronavirus, Confirming that it provides "Sustained immunity" And that one of his daughters received it.

و .كد Russian Minister of Health Mikhail Murashko that "Clinical tests on a few thousand people will continue".


“We are in close contact with Russian authorities Talks continue. The stage before licensing any vaccine passes through strict mechanisms, “in response to a question about an advertisement Russian President His country reached the “first vaccine” against novel coronavirus.

“The pre-licensing stage includes a review and evaluation of all required safety and efficacy data collected during the clinical trial phase,” the spokesman explained.

He pointed out that in addition to the approval granted by the competent authorities in each country, “the World Health Organization has established a mechanism for prior authorization of vaccines but also of drugs. Manufacturers require prior authorization of the World Health Organization because it is a guarantee of quality.”

Russia has not yet published a detailed study of the results of the experiments, which allowed it to confirm Effectiveness of the vaccine.

And last week, she showed World Health Organization Doubts after Russia announced that its vaccine is about to be completed, noting that any medicinal commodity “must undergo all necessary tests and checks before it is approved for use,” and indicated that it had not received “anything official” from Russia.

The spokesman said that at the present time, “it is very important to implement sustainable public health measures. We must continue to invest in developing vaccines and treatments that will help us reduce future transmission,” adding that “the speed of development of some potential vaccines is encouraging.”

He continued: “We hope that some of these vaccines will prove to be safe and effective.”

According to the World Health Organization, there are 26 potential vaccines in the clinical trial stage (ie, human testing) around the world, and 139 in the pre-clinical evaluation stage.

Among the 26 vaccines, late July 6 entered the third phase of development. The vaccine developed by the Russian “Gamalia” was classified at the time in the first stage.

Russian President Vladimir Putin announced, on Tuesday, that Russia I developed the “first” vaccine against novel coronavirus, Stressing that it provides “sustainable immunity” and that one of his daughters received it.

و .كد Russian Minister of Health Mikhail Murashko said, “Clinical tests on a few thousand people will continue.”


Symptoms of a coronavirus – An ambulance doctor told how a coronavirus “quietly kills” the lungs of patients – News – UNIAN

Covid pneumonia can develop for some time without noticeable disorders, so it is often diagnosed too late.

The doctor told why coronavirus kills patients / Illustration by REUTERS

The doctor told why coronavirus kills patients / Illustration by REUTERS

The pneumonia caused by COVID-19 is often atypical and develops unnoticed by patients, which is why they seek medical help too late when their lungs have already received critical injuries.

Read alsoDoctors say coronavirus can cause sudden strokes in young people

As reported TSN, the American ambulance doctor and lecturer in airway treatment courses, Richard Levitan, told The New York Times. After the outbreak, he worked in a hospital in Bellevue for 10 days and shared his observations with reporters.

The doctor admitted that they are not diagnosing deadly pneumonia caused by coronavirus fast enough. It is detected even in those infected without complaints of breathing problems.

“We did an X-ray of a patient who received a blow in the shoulder because we were worried that he had a lung collapse, and he had Covid pneumonia. In patients with injuries in the event of falls, to which we did a CT scan, we accidentally discovered Covid pneumonia. In elderly patients who lost consciousness for unknown reasons, and in a number of patients with diabetes, it was also detected, ”the doctor said.

The doctors were surprised that the patients did not report any sensation of breathing problems, although their chest X-ray showed diffuse pneumonia and the oxygen was below normal.

“We are just beginning to realize that Covid pneumonia initially causes a form of oxygen deprivation, which we call“ silent hypoxia ”-“ silent ”because of its insidious nature, which is difficult to detect,” the doctor explains.

Levitan explains that pneumonia is an infection of the lungs in which air sacs are filled with fluid or pus. Patients usually develop chest discomfort, pain during breathing, and other breathing problems. But when Covid pneumonia first appears, patients do not experience shortness of breath, even if their oxygen drops.

By the time patients begin to suspect something, they already have alarmingly low levels of oxygen and moderate to severe pneumonia. Normal oxygen saturation for most people is between 94 and 100%. In patients with Covid pneumonia, oxygen saturation is 50%.

Most of the patients the doctor came across said they had been sick for a week or so with fever, cough, upset stomach and fatigue, but they only stopped breathing when they arrived at the hospital. In such patients, pneumonia clearly continued for several days, but by the time they realized what they needed in the hospital, they were already in critical condition.

The physician notes that patients came to him with indicators that are incompatible with life. However, they were able to use their smartphones while monitors were installed. Although they breathed quickly, they had a relatively minimal overt disorder, despite the dangerously low levels of oxygen and terrible pneumonia on a chest x-ray.

“We are just beginning to understand why this is so. Coronavirus attacks lung cells that produce surfactant. This substance helps the air sacs in the lungs to remain open between breaths and is critical for normal lung function.

When inflammation from Covid pneumonia begins, it causes the destruction of air sacs and a decrease in oxygen levels. However, the lungs at first remain “malleable,” not yet frozen and not heavy with fluid. This means that patients can emit carbon dioxide from them – and without the accumulation of carbon dioxide, patients do not experience shortness of breath, ”the doctor explains.

Patients compensate for the low level of oxygen in the blood, breathing faster and deeper – and this happens even subconsciously. This physiological response of the patient causes even more inflammation and destruction of the air sacs, and pneumonia intensifies until the oxygen level drops. As a result, patients damage their lungs, breathing harder and harder.

Thus, 20% of patients with Covid pneumonia go into the second and more dangerous phase of lung damage. Fluid builds up, the lungs become hard, carbon dioxide levels increase, and patients develop acute respiratory failure.

According to the doctor, silent hypoxia, which quickly progresses to respiratory failure, explains the cases of sudden death of patients with Covid-19 after respiratory arrest.

Since many patients do not go to the hospital until their pneumonia develops well enough, many have ventilator fans, which leads to a shortage of machines themselves. And even after the transfer to the devices, many of them die.

At the same time, Levitan claims that there is a way to detect Covid pneumonia earlier and treat it more effectively – and this would not require waiting for a coronavirus test in a hospital or doctor’s office. It is necessary to identify “silent” hypoxia at an early stage using a conventional medical device, which can be purchased without a prescription in most pharmacies: a pulse oximeter.

This small device is very easy to use. It is placed on the finger, and after a few seconds two numbers appear: oxygen saturation and pulse rate. Pulse oximeters are extremely reliable in detecting problems with oxygenation and an increase in heart rate.

According to the doctor, all patients who have found a positive result for coronavirus should do pulse oximetric monitoring for two weeks. All people with cough, fatigue, and fever should also monitor with a pulse oximeter.

“We must direct resources to identifying and treating the initial phase of Covid pneumonia at an earlier stage by screening for latent hypoxia,” concluded the physician.

Earlier, the Washington Post wrote that in the US, people started die from coronavirus much earlier than thought.

Read also:

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US Bans Alleged Treatment Against Chlorine-Based Coronavirus

Washington, United States.

The US court on Friday suspended the sale of a course medication miraculous against the new coronavirus, which is made from chlorine and that the religious group “The Church of Genesis” has promoted for years.

A court of Florida issued a temporary ban on the sale of the product that was being sold as a “miracle mineral solution” (MMS) that, according to its promoters’ site, “cures 95% of diseases” such as cancer, AIDS, cholera and now COVID-19.

READ MORE: Trump wants to reopen the US economy, what to expect?

The Justice Department of U.S, which is behind the lawsuit, revealed that MMS is in fact “a chemical that, when mixed with an included activator, creates chlorine.”

Product warnings

The US Federal Drug Agency of U.S The FDA had issued the first warnings about this product several years ago, which can lead to nausea, vomiting, and dehydration.

In France, health authorities had also alerted in 2010 to the risk of poisoning related to MMS, which has been promoted to cure autism.

READ MORE: Trump says coronavirus deaths in China are “much larger” than the US, despite data revision

Several vendors have been convicted of justice, but the “Genesis Church” never withdrew it from the sale.

On April 8, authorities had issued a final warning to their promoters.

On their website, they defended their product described as “sacred” and “holy” and refused to comply with court orders.

READ MORE: Trump club suspends more than 150 employees without pay for coronavirus

“They have continued to put consumers at risk with the potentially dangerous chlorine dioxide, we will not tolerate it,” said Stephen Hahn, an FDA official quoted in a statement.

The United States has created specialized anti-fraud units to combat crimes related to the new pandemic of coronavirus, which has caused the death of almost 35,000 people in the country.

Different types of fraud have been identified as the theft of masks or protective equipment, the sale of false treatments or calls to make false donations.


What is treated with COVID-19. While there is no vaccine, doctors use other drugs | All About Coronavirus | Health

Where do the medicines come from COVID-19? It is well known that drugs are created, developed and tested over many years. And even if all this is done according to the accelerated procedure, you can’t create a new cure for this infection in a few months. One conclusion – you need to look for drugs against COVID19 of the existing drugs.

All drugs are still experimental

“Today COVID-19 are treated with drugs that are used for HIV, hepatitis C, Ebola, malaria and other diseases, – explains Associate Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases in Children, Russian National Research Medical University Pirogova, candidate of medical sciences Ivan Konovalov. – This means that so far there are no specific antiviral drugs for this infection. That is, these appointments are to some extent experimental, and their dose is selected empirically. Most often they are used for severe and moderate illness. These are not the safest means, and we are not talking about their preventive purpose. It is still difficult to say which medicine is effective and which is not. The published data of their studies are sometimes contradictory.

In terms of evidence-based medicine, these drugs are COVID-19 not yet studied. Yes, this is impossible, given the short period of the disease and the difficulty of organizing rigorous and large-scale clinical trials during the epidemic.

Drugs are selected “by eye”

To a certain extent, we can say that the drugs are selected “by eye”. For example, since the new coronavirus is most similar to the causative agents of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, or SARS) and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS, or MERS), it is appropriate to expect that drugs that have proven effective during outbreaks of these infections will be active and into this pandemic.

Or another approach: the pathogen COVID-19 refers to RNA viruses, and therefore it is possible that some drugs are effective against other viruses that contain not DNA, but RNA, can help with this infection. There are many RNA viruses, and among other things they cause Ebola, hepatitis C, flu and many colds. It is for this reason that some antiviral drugs used in these infections are also being tried. COVID-19.

There are other possible reasons why old drugs are tried with a new infection. Sometimes they are very complex and understandable only to specialists.

First aid kit against coronavirus

There are a lot of drugs that are currently trying to treat coronavirus infection. Let’s go through the main ones now.

Lopinavir / ritonavir. This is a combination of two active drugs for the treatment of HIV. It was previously used in the treatment of SARS and MERS, the precursor infections. COVID-19. On this basis, the drug was included in official recommendations for the treatment of a new coronavirus infection in many countries. But the published results of its use in COVID-19 are controversial. It is quite expensive from 1400 to 6000 rubles for the treatment of one patient.

Ribavirin used for hepatitis C, previously used for SARS (also caused by coronavirus), but the results are mixed. The drug inhibits the reproduction (replication) of viruses. It is inexpensive, packaging for one course of 30 tablets or capsules is sold for 100-600 rubles. Two packs may be needed. But ribavirin can be used only under the supervision of doctors who have experience in the treatment of such a drug. The tool is quite toxic, and this limits its widespread use.

Recombinant Interferon Beta-1b. There are several such drugs in Russia, they are usually used for multiple sclerosis. But this interferon has a still wide, but non-specific antiviral effect. That is, it is active not only against coronavirus, but against other viruses. It has a number of effects that can be very useful when COVID-19. For example, it reduces the number of inflammatory cytokines that play a major role in the so-called “cytokine storm” in acute respiratory distress syndrome (this is the main immediate cause of death in COVID-19). The drug is expensive, the package, which is enough for 1-2 courses of treatment, costs from 9 to 36 thousand rubles.

Remdesivir. The drug of hope. Originally created for the treatment of Ebola, Marburg and other severe viral infections. But in connection with the appearance COVID-19 manufacturer reoriented him to treat this infection and in February began testing. Remdesivir is not yet officially registered, but is already being used experimentally in severe patients. In laboratory studies on mice showed greater efficiency than the two previous drugs. Since the medicine is not registered, it is not yet sold. But it is obvious that the drug will not be cheap.

Umifenovir. This is a domestic drug for influenza and SARS, better known as arbidol. In a study in China, like lopinavir / ritonavir, it did not show a clear improvement in patients.

Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine. These are antimalarial drugs that have been used for many decades. But today, the causative agents of malaria have for the most part developed resistance to them, and they are more often used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and a number of other autoimmune diseases. The drugs used to be used with SARS and MERS, but now they have shown good results with COVID-19. But immediately after their publication, some experts began to challenge them. Many explain this wave of negativism by the conspiracy theory of the “big farm”, because these drugs are cheap, and the drugs they produce are expensive. Nevertheless, the hopes for these funds for malaria are great. One package of hydroxychloroquine costs 400-600 rubles, but it is unlikely to be able to buy it.

Tocilizumab. This biological product is used in the treatment of rheumatoid and other severe autoimmune arthritis. The drug is a monoclonal antibody that blocks interleukin-6 receptors. As a result, the latter cannot exert its negative effect. Since this interleukin plays a large role in the “cytokine storm” (see above), it may be useful in distress syndrome. The drug is expensive. With rheumatoid arthritis, it is administered once every 4 weeks, but the price of one ampoule, depending on its volume, ranges from 6 to 33 thousand.


They clarify that there will be no seca dry law ’in Nuevo León

“Do not make panic purchases, beer and alcohol will be of no use to you, please, do not do that,” commented the governor of Nuevo León, Jaime Rodríguez Calderón.


Given the federal guidelines that have been given by the Covid-19 pandemic, and for not being considered an essential activity, the beer production in the entity will stop its production from April 3, although it is not considered to be established as ” Dry Law”.

Through a statement, the government of Nuevo León reported that despite the fact that the Heineken brewing company announced the stoppage of its production in the entity, and consequently its distribution, Governor Jaime Rodríguez Calderón mentioned that it is not a “Dry law” and the sale of beer in the state will continue normally,

“So that the issue of the seca dry law’ or not seca dry law ’will not be misunderstood; This is in the national agreement, it is not a provision of ours, it is a national agreement, the beer companies will not work, the distribution will not work, it is not an essential element, therefore there will be no product to sell, “expressed the State agent.

He added that after day 3 there will be no distribution, therefore there will be no sale in the beer and alcohol businesses.

The Governor called on the population to avoid panic buying.

“Do not make panic purchases, beer and alcohol will not serve you anything, please, do not do that,” he said.

“If we are saying that it is a national agreement to safeguard your health and if you go out, they conflict the problem, the virus is already with us. If you are going to fill the shops, the businesses to buy a Tecate six, don’t scrub it, it’s not okay. ”

Rodríguez Calderón said that what is sought is to safeguard the health of the people of Nuevo Leon and not to reach curfew situations as is already happening in other cities.

“If you continue doing this, we are going to have to take more extreme measures that we should not take if we are all aware,” added the governor.

Although he clarified that this measure will bother many people, it is a federal decree that was taken for the good of the population.

He said that it is not necessary to reach the situation that exists in other countries for not complying with the provisions of the authorities.

“We are talking that for these 30 days, we have to have a discipline in order to have less mobility on the street; if we have less mobility on the street we can beat the virus, ”said Rodríguez Calderón.


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‘If I have it, everyone should have it’; man with Covid-19 walks around Walmart

In the video hosted on YouTube and currently reaching over 4 million views, Justin M. Rhodes spoke of the other places he visited that day. Photo: Special

In the video hosted on YouTube and currently reaching over 4 million views, Justin M. Rhodes spoke of the other places he visited that day. Photo: Special


Justin M. Rhodes, who said he tested positive for Covid-19, was arrested in North Carolina, United States, after he was recorded walking through a Walmart store and said: “If I have it, have it all.”

In the recording, which according to local media took place last week, Justin M. Rhodes assured that he was asked to be quarantined, but “I also have to eat, so they have to deal with it.”

“If I have it, everyone has it. To hell … all of you, this is how I feel about it,” he added.

In the video, which is hosted on YouTube and currently reaches over 4 million views, Justin M. Rhodes talked about the other places he visited that day.

After the images appeared, the Albemarle Police Department launched an investigation, which concluded that in Stanly County, a site from which Justin M. Rhodes hails, no one tested positive for coronavirus.

On Instagram, Justin M. Rhodes posted an apology in which he said that “he had not taken the virus seriously.”


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coronavirus in india, coronavirus india, kanika kapoor, corona virus india, janata curfew corona, covid 19 india, coronavirus india update, corona cases in india, italy, india coronavirus, coronavirus cases in india, janata curfew, corona in india, coronavirus italy , corona india, corona update india, coronavirus news india, corona virus cases in india, coronavirus cases india, coronavirus india update, kanika, coronavirus italy, china, latest news india, coronavirus in india update, corona virus update india, total coronavirus cases in india, jagannath puri temple, puri mandir, varanasi news, tirupati temple, jagannath mandir temple Kashi Vishwanath, coronavirus symptoms, coronavirus vaccine, coronavirus treatment, coronavirus janata curfewCoronavirus in India: Prime Minister Narendra Modi, in his speech to the nation, on Thursday had called on citizens to carry out a self-imposed Janta curfew to bring about a change in attitude towards the Covid-19 pandemic.

Coronavirus News: Coronavirus cases in India exceeded 300 on Saturday, with several people testing positive for the infection. In Kerala, 12 new cases have been reported bringing the state numbers to 49, while in Punjab it has reached 13. The death toll from a highly contagious disease remains four 22 patients healed so far. Central and state governments are struggling to stop the transmission of the community as they move to close all places where a possible meeting could take place. Prime Minister Modi, in a series of tweets, urged migrants not to go to their cities, warning them that this move could spread the highly contagious infection further. Meanwhile, the Rajasthani government has announced the blockade in the state from March 21 to 31. The Gujarat government has decided to block four cities: Ahmedabad, Surat, Rajkot and Vadodara until March 25th. CM Arvind Kejriwal of Delhi said that a similar step deemed necessary in the coming days could be taken. Kejriwal has ordered the closure of all stores, malls and other places that are prone to contagion with exceptions given to pharmacies and grocery stores. Delhi Metro services will not be available on Monday 23 March from 10 to 16. Maharashtra CM Uddhav Thackeray has also requested similar measures and a virtual blockade has been called in Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur and Pimpri-Chinchwad.

The Indian railways have announced that no passenger trains will depart from their home station from midnight to 10pm on March 22 during Janata’s curfew. Airlines also announced their reduced or complete interruption of their operations during Janata’s curfew. Indigo said it will only operate on 60% of its routes, while Vistara and GoAir have also announced the reduction of their service to help the government control the spread of highly contagious coronavirus.

Financial Express Online offers you the latest news and updates on Coronavirus cases in India, LIVE. Stay tuned:


Explained: How far are we from COVID-19 drugs, from the vaccine?

Written by Abantika Ghosh
| New Delhi |

Updated: March 21, 2020 9:26:16 AM

coronavirus india, coronavirus treatment, coronavirus medicines, coronavirus vaccines, coronavirus The World Health Organization has announced SOLIDARITY, a multi-arm and multi-country clinical trial to seek the best treatment against COVID-19.

As the world defends itself against the new coronavirus, scientists are working around the world on the development of vaccines and therapies.

When can a drug or vaccine be expected?

The vaccine is still months away. In a recent interview with The Indian Express, the WHO chief scientist, dr. Soumya Swaminathan said: “if all goes really well, we would probably have a vaccine in the next 12-18 months, but even after that there would be the question of the availability of sufficient doses. We are probably looking at an 18-24 month window for this. “

The development of drugs and vaccines is an elaborate process. Resetting to a candidate drug or vaccine can take years. Once a new drug has passed animal tests, clinical trials begin. In three stages, safety and efficacy must be tested according to protocols. A fourth phase involves the collection and analysis of post-marketing data.

However, the coronavirus novel comes from a family where work has already been done around the world after SARS and MERS. “Many of the existing vaccine development efforts may be slightly modified, so we’re not exactly starting from scratch … However, at least six months could pass on vaccines before the first data starts to come – there’s always a chance that don’t make it successful too. On the treatment side, there may be some news on the ritonavir-lopinavir combination (both are anti-HIV drugs) at any time. The idea is to wait for data on the effectiveness of existing antivirals and see how much better we make them, “said dr. Anurag Agarwal, director of the Institute of genomics and integrative biology of the CSIR.

coronavirus india, coronavirus treatment, coronavirus medicines, coronavirus vaccines, coronavirus Some shops in Delhi remained open on Friday. (Express photo / Amit Mehra)

Where are we on the hunt for a drug?

The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced SOLIDARITY, a multi-arm, multi-country clinical trial to seek the best treatment against COVID-19. Will test the remdesivir of the antiviral drug; a combination of HIV drugs lopinavir and ritonavir; lopinavir and ritonavir plus interferon beta; and the antimalarial chloroquine drug. So far Argentina, Bahrain, Canada, France, Iran, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland and Thailand have joined.

REMDESIVIR: According to dr. Swaminathan, the most promising trial is that on remdesivir under the auspices of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). Tests have started on adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to the University of Nebraska Medical Center. “The first participant in the trial is an American who was repatriated after being quarantined on the Diamond Princess cruise ship that docked in Yokohama, Japan, and volunteered to participate in the study,” said NIH. Remdesivir, developed by Gilead Sciences Inc, has previously been tested on humans with Ebola virus disease and has also shown promising results against MERS and SARS.

coronavirus india, coronavirus treatment, coronavirus medicines, coronavirus vaccines, coronavirus Over 200 coronavirus cases have been reported to date in India. (Photo Express / Kamleshwar Singh)

LOPINAVIR + RITONAVIR: India has had its own experience with a combination of these second-line HIV drugs – 12 people recovered without antivirals (one died later; this is not officially considered a COVID-19 death). Trials are underway worldwide. In an article in the New England Journal of Medicine, Chinese researchers reported 22% mortality in seriously ill patients who received the lopinavir-ritonavir combination, higher than the 11% to 14.5% mortality reported in the studies. initial descriptive. The researchers concluded: “No benefit has been observed with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment beyond standard care.”

CHLOROQUINE: In a document awaiting peer review, researchers at Chinese Sun Yat-sen University reported on an ongoing study using the lopinavir-ritonavir combination with chloroquine. The drugs are administered to eligible patients between February 12 and May 31. “Previous studies have shown that chloroquine can inhibit coronavirus replication through multiple mechanisms. Our previous use of chloroquine to treat patients with pneumonia infected with SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus) has a higher negative rate of acid. nucleic in throat swabs within 5 days of administration compared to that with lopinavir / ritonavir, “the researchers said.

coronavirus india, coronavirus treatment, coronavirus medicines, coronavirus vaccines, coronavirus On Friday, Connaught Place in New Delhi almost left a blank stare. (Express photo / Amit Mehra)

FAVIPIRAVI: This is a drug used in Japan to treat new flu strains. The media cited the Chinese scientific and technological authorities saying that the drug, developed by a subsidiary of Fujifilm, appears to be effective in coronavirus patients. Patients who received the medicine were reported to have turned negative after a median of four days, compared to a median of 11 days for those who were not given the drug.

NEW POSSIBILITIES: There are also efforts to develop a drug from scratch. At the Quantitative Biosciences Institute of the University of California, San Francisco, researchers are identifying the proteins inside the cell that the virus uses to roll its replication machinery. Now they are exploring whether targeting any of these proteins would stop the virus from marching.

coronavirus india, coronavirus treatment, coronavirus medicines, coronavirus vaccines, coronavirus Most public places have been closed between fears over the spread of the coronavirus. (Express photo / Amit Mehra)

How far has work on a vaccine progressed?

WE: A phase 1 clinical trial started in Seattle, funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). “The open-air trial will enroll 45 healthy adult volunteers aged 18 to 55 for about 6 weeks. The first participant received the experimental vaccine today,” said the NIH in a statement. The vaccine, mRNA-1273, was developed by NIAID scientists and collaborators from the modern biotechnology company.

CHINA: Researchers from the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, affiliated with China’s People’s Liberation Army, have received approval for vaccine routes, which will recruit 108 people between March and December. It will be joined by the CanSino Biologics company listed in Hong Kong. According to a People’s Daily article, scientists are exploring options such as using the virus minus its potent elements or using other attenuated (rendered harmless) vaccines to introduce the virus into the body to generate a natural immune response against a real infection.

coronavirus india, coronavirus treatment, coronavirus medicines, coronavirus vaccines, coronavirus A senior official from the Ministry of Health confirmed that “the test protocol has been changed today”. (Express photo / Amit Mehra)

What was the experience of India?

Last week, doctors from the SMS hospital were Jaipur who were given the lopinavir-ritonavir combination on an Italian couple, 70 and 69 years old, after they were put on ventilation. Both were discharged after being tested twice for the virus, according to the established protocol. The man died on Friday. Answering a question, Lav Agarwal, joint secretary of the Ministry of Health, said: “The Italian tourist who died in Jaipur was a 70-year-old smoker; had twice tested negative for coronavirus. He died of cardiac arrest while receiving treatment for other ailments in another hospital. How can it be counted as a COVID-19 case? “

The government revised the clinical management guidelines for COVID-19: “The use of Lopinavir / Ritonavir in PEP regimens for HIV (4 weeks) is also associated with significant adverse events that sometimes lead to discontinuation of therapy. . In the light of the foregoing, Lopinavir / Ritonavir should ONLY be used with the express and informed consent, case by case, for serious cases, within the framework mentioned below, together with the support treatment as needed. “The combination should be used in patients with hypoxia, hypotension, dysfunction of a new organ (one or more) and also in some” high risk groups “.

Here is a short guide to coronavirus to stay up to date: who should be tested for Covid-19 and when? | How are you supposed to quarantine yourself? | How often (and how) should you clean your home? | What is the Janata curfew announced by PM Modi? | Who is forbidden to come to India and since when? | How long can the virus live on surfaces or in the air around you? | More questions and answers about the Coronavirus Here the news has been explained

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