Germany: Christian Drosten, a very discreet “mister corona”

“Which virologist do you trust the most?” asked the tabloid Bild to its readers, on April 3. The 60,000 participants in the survey did not hesitate: Christian Drosten is the undisputed champion, the favorite of the public. At 48, the director of the virology department of the Berlin University Hospital of Charity already has an impressive career behind him, just crowned with an award from the German Research Foundation. Drosten was recognized for his “exceptional achievements for science and society in the face of a dramatic evolution of the pandemic ”.

He is one of the most listened to scientists in Germany. By the government, but also the general public. He intervenes several times a week in a very popular radio program, covering all types of subjects : Does the virus spread through the air? Are children as contagious as they say? Begun on February 26, the show is at its 34e episode, and always

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Johanna Luyssen correspondent in Berlin

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Oil crisis: “The Americans should accept quotas”

Patrice Geoffron is a professor of economics at Paris-Dauphine University and director of the Center for Geopolitics of Energy and Raw Materials.

Read also Speculation, saturated storage… Why the barrel of oil fell below zero dollar

Nothing seems to prevent a fall in world oil prices. How did we get here ?

The health crisis we are going through and the resulting overproduction of oil have only precipitated the fragility of the world oil market. It is difficult to understand the current situation without looking at what has happened in the past twenty years. Recall that in 2007, shale gas and shale oil appeared in US statistics. These productions then take on importance thanks to hydraulic fracturing, but above all because world oil prices rise, up to close to 150 dollars per barrel [en 2008]. And it’s mainly China, which joined

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Vittorio De Filippis

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Georges Nivat: “In Russia there is the idea that there is no truth, only opinions”

The memories of Russia are multiple. It is this plurality that the specialist of Russian culture Georges Nivat continues to explore in the monument work Sites of Russian memory, whose second volume – “History and myths of Russian memory” – was recently published by Fayard editions. On several hundred pages are listed the topoi from this memory – from historians who over the centuries have ordered the national narrative to peasant folklore, from mythified figures like Peter the Great and Lenin to the founding myths of “Moscow, third Rome” or of the patriotic war against Napoleon in 1812, passing by saints and martyrs, encyclopedias, the image of the Jew or the question of women…

You are openly referring to Memory places by Pierre Nora. Is your approach the same?

Memorial place, that inspired me, were built little by little. I remain very modest, but I built right away. In France, literature begins earlier, cathedrals too, free cities and the franc-bourgeoisie appear before. In Russia, we realized very late that the “chronicle” had started as early as the XIe and XIIe centuries. The Chronicles Edition, which I called “The invention of chronicles”, starts under Nicolas Ier, in particular with the publication of Chronicles of Novgorod, in 60 volumes, and continues to this day. Russia really liked to build its scientific memory through this.

Amnesia-hypermnesia, eternal tension of Russian memory issues …

Russia has a long memory, if we compare to France, which has a short memory. Take the example of the glory of arms. In France, we no longer have the idea of ​​this glory, the public no longer knows what a war is. Napoleon, we don’t have a cult anymore. Young people no longer know who Clovis is … On the other hand, there is not a Russian who does not know Vladimir the Red Sun, the founder of “Holy Russia”.

And then there is what I call “the school of amnesia”, the one we knew during the French Revolution at certain times – Lyon was renamed into “nameless city” to punish it, it doesn’t only lasted a few months. While the Russian blackout during the Soviet period lasts seventy years, when cities are renamed and history rewritten. Or the hole in the peasant memory, the loss of popular folklore, as the sociologist Boris Firsov, from the working class, who so well started living oral history with peasants, shows so well. arrived in cities in the aftermath of the revolution.

Russian society is still sick of these mutilations of memory, of amnesia imposed at the state level …

From the point of view of memory, the truth does not make sense. One can very well keep the memory of a lie by being convinced that it is the truth, and all the efforts of authentic historians to demonstrate for example that the Katyn massacre is not due to the Germans, but well to the Soviets, will be in vain. Even when the government admitted it, Yeltsin first, Putin second, opinion did not change its mind. I also wanted to show another aspect of these extraordinary memory lapses: 95% of the churches and monasteries were destroyed, but at the same time there was a first-rate restoration school for the remaining 5%.

Today, is Russian history taught in a less mythical way?

Textbooks, from the first under Nicolas Ier until today, have always been and remain to the glory of the regime. Today’s textbook is inspired by President Putin, who demanded that nothing be excluded, neither the White Army, the Red Army, nor the Autocracy. A kind of consensus.

But this unique manual is rightly criticized for minimizing the terror, the gulag, and more generally the dark aspects of the communist regime …

Yes, but the Gulag Archipelago, in the abridged version by the widow of Solzhenitsyn, is on the school program. As long as Putin does not ban this book, he defends a certain idea of ​​the terror debate.

State violence, the fear it inspires are among the topoi that you describe …

Fear of the State was established by the great reformer Pierre the Great, in the XVIIIe century. He imports both science and technology, corresponds with Leibniz, and at the same time he creates the Third Section, a secret police which instills mad fear. Pierre is a despot, enlightened but despot. Another great figure in Russian history is Ivan the Terrible. Was he a madman, a madman, or a progressive man who understood that without terror you cannot hold a gigantic territory? It was he who gave Russia its present form …

Are the debates on historical memory fruitful in Russia?

There are very old debates, fundamental for the memory, but almost without exit. Like these series of collections entitled “Pro and Contra”, which present different points of view on the work of writers, poets, philosophers. It’s interesting but it creates the idea that there is no truth, only opinions. These debates give no key to find your way around. Take for example the character of Boris Godounov, at the end of the XVIe century: did he really order the murder of Tsarevich Dimitri to steal the throne from him? No, he did not sponsor it. Historians have confirmed this as early as 1920-1930. But the historian Nicolas Karamzine had found that this alliance of virtue and crime, it sounded good, this stain on the conscience of the virtuous man. The poet Alexander Pushkin took up the story [dans une célèbre tragédie, qui a par la suite inspiré, entre autres, un opéra de Moussorgski et une musique de scène de Prokofiev, ndlr]. From that moment on, it became the truth, the accepted version. Russian culture debates what its historical memory is, but it debates badly because it does not listen to the historical inquiry.


Veronika Dorman Photo Rémy Artiges for Liberation

Georges Nivat (under the direction of) Sites of Russian memory tome 2 Fayard, 880 pp., € 49.90 (ebook: € 39.99).

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Coronavirus: Belarus completely football

March 2020, all footballers were sent home by the Covid-19. All of them? No. Somewhere in the east of the continent, the Belarusians are still resisting the virus and the players are still snorting on the pitch, the supporters are playing the game again at the bistro. Alexander Lukashenko, their President for twenty-six years (considered to be the last dictator in Europe), did he not describe the health crisis as “psychosis” claiming that the “panic” was it more dangerous than the virus itself?

Read alsoCoronavirus: European football on the brink of a crash

Used to verbal surges, he had previously called on his 9.5 million fellow citizens to continue working, to go to the fields, to drive tractors – which his country produces in mass – because “The tractor heals everyone”. Belarus, a former Soviet republic at the gates of the European Union, had only 94 officially registered cases last Saturday, and no deaths.

Shirtless

Lukashenko attended an ice hockey match on Saturday. He put on a layer of it, deceiving that “Better to die with dignity than to live on your knees”. It’s no surprise, then, that the recently restarted Vysshaya Liga football championship is the last in Europe to continue. A few thousand fans sat in the bays of Mozyr’s stadium on Saturday to watch the local team beat Bate Borisov, the country’s best club, a match broadcast live by Russian television. In the capital, the small stadium of FK Minsk was half full for the Dinamo derby and as often in Eastern Europe, supporters of the two kops finished the match bare-chested.

“Even if we came here, we try to isolate ourselves: we stay away, we came by car, we washed our hands ten times”, assures AFP Igor, 33, a little surprised at the carelessness of some. “It’s like they don’t know anything, they come and go, they smile.” With only measures in place, gloved and masked stewards examine the temperature of supporters at the entrance to the stadiums with thermal cameras. Enough to reassure Lioudmila, a 55-year-old school teacher who says that anyway, “Sick people don’t come to the stadium”.

Read alsoCovid-19: time out for athletes

Belarusian Football Federation spokesman Alexander Aleinik said this week that “All measures recommended by the Ministry of Sports” had been taken. AT the Team, who asked him if lock-up matches had been planned, he replied: “Fans could gather around the stadium. Either open it for everyone or close it. “

Vodka and sauna

The mood has changed in Minsk, however, as public television broadcasts suddenly began to speak about the pandemic last week. But they reiterate that generalized containment is not a solution. The authorities justify the flexibility of the measures by strictly isolating the patients. The Deputy Minister of Health, Elena Bogdan, assured that all the carriers of the coronavirus, even asymptomatic, were isolated and hospitalized. The people around them are all quarantined. Border control is also very strict. This reassuring speech is getting worse and worse. Particularly among foreign footballers playing in Belarusian clubs. As Dinamo Minsk’s Belgian Danilo Souza confessed to the team : “When I train, I clear my head. I lose track of danger. Then we go to the sauna. It was the President who advised him, against the virus you have to drink vodka and go to the sauna. “

RELEASE (with AFP)

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At war against boredom: a flight attendant, a suspended Tati and crimes in Orly

Airport-world Crazy about flight scenes, physical or magical (Catch me if you can, E.T.), Steven Spielberg was to end well in a film entirely located in an airport. He subverts the airport human condition there, which is that of waiting. Tourist disembarked from Eastern Europe at JFK airport in New York, Viktor Navorski (Tom Hanks, in his best vein of quidam “jamesstewartien”) finds himself stuck, condemned to mold in the transit zone after an administrative imbroglio . Spielberg’s contagious optimism sublimates this panoptic cold into a twirling playground where the American dream can be realized. Everything is there: cosmopolitanism, the possibility of starting from scratch and romantic comedy via the character of Amelia, a stewardess (Catherine Zeta-Jones), who is not fooled by her fantasy condition. “Keep your distance”, she warns, suddenly prophetic.
The terminal (2004) of Steven Spielberg Available on Netflix

Copyright United International Pictures (UIP)United International Pictures (UIP)

Airport-poem Closer to Chantal Akerman, the German Angela Schanelec lets Orly Airport shape its creation, using natural light and the passengers who block the frame. At the edge of the documentary, Schanelec places his camera at a good distance, picks up various characters who bind for a time. The working title of the film was Orly, Poem 1-4 and it’s a beautiful choral collage of fragments that unfolds – conversations, stolen moments, a melancholy of the treadmill that befits a filmmaker haunted by the passage of time in his films. In its own way, it invests the airport with a form of neutral beauty. False static, the film is also in a struggle when it comes to opposing the opacity of its protagonists to the transparency of the place (windows, cameras).
Orly (2010) by Angela Schalanec Available on Universciné.

Copyright Baba Yaga FilmsBaba Yaga Films

Against the moving sidewalk Seen from afar, the moving sidewalk transforms the traveler into an anonymous package on an assembly line spinning very smooth and straight towards an uncertain fate. This is the state of mind of Dustin Hoffman at Los Angeles Airport in the winner, sparrow fallen from the nest looking at the world around him and the song The Sound of Silence Simon and Garfunkel’s soundtrack turns this little moment of waiting into a bittersweet odyssey. Change your music, for example Across the 110th Street from Bobby Womack, and you suddenly become a haughty queen on the sidewalk like Pam Grier in the opening of Jackie Brown. You slide on it, then walk in the corridors like on the catwalk, then run as if your life depended on it.
The winner (1967) of Mike Nichols Available on FilmoTV. Jackie brown (1997) of Quentin Tarantino Available on Netflix.

Bac Films

Airport paradise Purgatory before flight to better skies, the airport is a possible gateway to paradise, preferably ambiguous. Choirs welcome us at the beginning of the Pier – that of Orly, definitely well off in the cinema. In this sublime short, Orly becomes a paradise lost in the space of a few photos and then an irresistible crime scene. Same celestial uncertainty at the beginning of Playtime, where nuns cross an immense space, cold and bright. Whispers, scattered characters engage in a choreography of mysterious trajectories. Marker and Tati cause precious moments of ethereal suspension, those that we would like to feel when we are in line for a low-cost flight to Malaga at dawn.
Playtime (1967) of Jacques Tati Available on Cinetek. The Pier (1962) of Chris Marker Available on Mubi.

Studiocanal

The apocalypse airport Let’s face it: airport anxiety stems from the screech of terrorist acts that could erupt there. To exorcise this, nothing like 58 Minutes to live, where Washington Airport is stormed with Bruce Willis as its only bulwark. Renny Harlin lacks the topographic precision of John McTiernan, author of the best parts of the franchise Die Hard, but his operative sense of excess unzips the place properly. No mythology of travel and private lounges, but a passage in good standing of the back shop, passageways, luggage rugs and ventilation ducts. “It was the 90s, remember? Electronic chips, microwaves, fax and telephone on planes ”, says Holly, McClane’s wife. We prefer the husband’s confined response: “The pinnacle of progress for me is frozen pizza.”
58 Minutes to live (1989) of Renny Harlin Available on Canal VoD.

Fox. Hatchet


Leo Soesanto

The terminal (2004) of Steven Spielberg Available on Netflix

Orly (2010) by Angela Schalanec Available on Universciné.

The winner (1967) of Mike Nichols Available on FilmoTV. Jackie brown (1997) of Quentin Tarantino Available on Netflix.

Playtime (1967) of Jacques Tati Available on Cinetek. The Pier (1962) of Chris Marker Available on Mubi.

58 Minutes to live (1989) of Renny Harlin Available on Canal VoD.

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“History of drug trafficking”, souls cameo

Far from being the preserve of criminal organizations alone, drug trafficking has long been an instrument in the hands of states. This geopolitical prism serves as the common thread for an exciting documentary series in three episodes broadcast on Arte from March 31, the first of which is available in preview all day this Tuesday on the website of Released. A little-known story whose origin dates back to the XIXe century, when the British crown flooded China with opium to replenish its coffers, and France refined it in the heart of Saigon to make profitable its presence in Indochina. Long before the mafias, the great colonial powers understood the interest they could derive from the trade in addictive substances. In their wake, the first pharmaceutical companies managed to put cocaine on the market in 1884, then heroin, a new derivative of opium guaranteed without addiction, recommended to treat asthma and cough in infants.

Occult links

If the appearance of these new drugs radically changes the relationship with the body by abolishing pain, it will also lead to a generalization of addiction on a planetary scale. At the beginning of the XXe Prohibition accelerated the rise of the black market and organized crime in the United States, which found strong support within the state apparatus. But it was especially during the Cold War that the occult links between traffic and the great powers fueled the most troubled interests. Failing to be a public health issue, drugs become a major strategic issue. In 1951, in the midst of the Indochina war, the French secret services bought opium themselves to resell it to the Corsican mafia, in order to finance a counter-insurgency army of 40,000 men. The same year, the CIA supports the Chinese soldiers of the Kuomintang withdrawn into Burma, who will become the main traffickers of Southeast Asia. In the name of national security, Washington is reluctant to rely on drug trafficking to fight the Communist enemy.

America will end up paying dearly for its ambiguities. As the country plunges into LSD in Flower Power, the Vietnam War offers a much darker face for youth. On their return from the front, a third of the 500,000 soldiers involved are addicted to heroin. In 1971, President Richard Nixon began a radical turn and officially declared a war on drugs. The world’s leading producer of heroin thanks to French connection chemists, France is in the sights of the American services, which send agents to DEA, the new drug agency, to Marseilles. In just five years, the “French” was dismantled and 3,000 traffickers were arrested. But the 1970s were especially marked by the industrialization of traffic. It is the era of the great drug lords, Pablo Escobar in Colombia, Felix Gallardo in Mexico, Toto Riina in Italy or even Khun Sa in Thailand, whose images shot in the heart of the jungle are part of the precious archives unearthed by Julie Lerat and Christophe Bouquet, co-directors of the documentary series. The result of a two-year survey between Europe, Mexico, Colombia, Thailand and Burma, History of drug trafficking decrypts the complex relationships between states while highlighting, far beyond corruption, the structural logic inherent in the system.

An opium smoker in Saigon, taken from the History of Drug Trafficking. Photo Yami 2

Half a century after Nixon’s martial discourse, the war on drugs has above all revealed its obvious failures and its macabre record. In Colombia, where the United States has invested in an ambitious $ 45 billion plan to eradicate coca plantations, production has never been higher. In Mexico, where 40,000 people have disappeared over the past ten years amid the cartel war, associations continue to tirelessly search the earth in hopes of finding the bodies of the victims. After years of Soviet and American occupation, Afghanistan still produces 80% of the world’s heroin. Far from drying up, drug trafficking only adapts to its environment.

Macabre balance sheet

The fall of El Chapo, the perpetrator of the Sinaloa cartel sentenced to life in the United States, could foreshadow the advent of a new generation of traffickers. In Mexico, criminal organizations have reportedly managed to synthesize fentanyl, a drug produced since the 1950s by the pharmaceutical industry without a single poppy flower. This fully synthetic drug, a hundred times more potent than heroin, kills more than 30,000 people a year in the United States, where the overprescription of painkillers encouraged by laboratories has made hundreds of thousands of patients addicted. “It takes a number of trucks of coke to supply the US market for a year, while it takes just one car to supply the entire opioid market with fentanyl,” notes an American specialist in organized crime. A revolution that should once again overturn the geopolitics of drugs.


Emmanuel Fansten

History of drug trafficking of Julie Lerat and Christophe Bouquet.

Three episodes, available from March 31 on Arte.

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Ala Eddine Slim: “In Tunisia, the army remains this hidden monster”

Born in Sousse thirty-seven years ago, a consumer mainly of ninja or Jean-Claude Van Damme films on VHS when he was a teenager, Ala Eddine Slim came to the cinema discovering, being electrified, The Sunchaser of Michael Cimino on TV, “One Thursday evening after Correspondent“. For ten years, he has formed with a nucleus of friends a kind of collective around his company Exit Productions, which allows him “To learn to do by doing” and of “Tinkering, accompanying, more than producing, in the sense that most producers are managers, more imaginative in marketing than in creation. The main thing for me is to have my freedom to change and adapt in each production. ” A few years ago, he reviewed Cimino’s film. “It didn’t have the same effect on me, but I don’t care.”

“Lots of joints”

“I work on my fantasies, in total freedom, so that all sorts of things mix outside of any logic of writing, at least that which presides over most of the films that we see today. I wanted to work in a territory rich in possibilities that I could follow all of them, whether they lead me to contemporary facts or to mythological elements. This film therefore comes from islets of ideas and desires that I try to collect.

Read also“Sortilège”, the call to sleeping wood

“Besides, I smoke a lot of joints when I write and when I shoot … Some things connect the film to my previous one [et premier] feature film, The Last of Us. I went back to the same place: I like the idea that any story can be seen from several angles. There is also this soldier figure which comes from one of my first courts. At the end, the character left the city in a bus where there was a clown, a police officer and a soldier, that is to say the three pillars of Tunisia: the clown who presides, the police force which is the hand of the President, and the soldier which is the body that carries it all. I wanted to return to the latter to discuss the place of the soldier in society. I travel the country a lot by car and I often take soldiers on hitchhiking, with whom I speak on the road. In the Tunisian imagination, the army holds a place of protective figure, very close to the people, because it has never intervened in any political scheme. But it seemed to me that the soldiers were the first to be sacrificed, because they are the ones who confront terrorism, and at the same time they find it difficult to return home. ”

“Neither religious nor mystical”

“In Tunisia, there are two very sensitive subjects, not taboo but risky, likely to provoke very violent reactions: the army and religion. It’s not like Algeria or Egypt, where the army is in command. In Tunisia, after independence, the first presidents made the country more of a police than a military state, and under Ben Ali the army was weakened to the benefit of the police. But it remains this hidden monster that can come from afar and pull the whole country down. For example, I have some reservations about the famous war on terror. I do not deny that there is a threat, but I think that it is inflated, disproportionate, so that in the name of this war we sweep all human rights: we kill people, we card them, there are sudden deaths during interrogation… It is like the disproportionate reaction of the police against the demonstrators and the yellow vests in France.

“But the film, like its protagonist, starts from this to move away from it, sweep everything away from the military postulate and lead the other character into an absolute desertion. And the film, which confronts religious elements in the second part (Adam, Eve, the serpent …), is not an attack on these two monsters that are the army and religion. It is a reading, a vision. Me, I am neither religious nor mystical, and I did not specially think of that consciously, even if I knew the range of the signs: for me, it was very natural presences in territories such as that crossed by the characters in the second part of the film. A territory which one can say is supernatural, but for me this forest is a natural place, complementary to the sceneries of the first part, a place which brings its own laws of functioning of relationships and existence. “

“Society full of unnecessary noise”

“With each film, I try to find a non-verbal means of communication. I had written dialogues but I knew they would not be spoken by the actors. Right before the shooting, I had this idea of ​​field-backlit exchanges with the eyes. As a filmmaker, I try to blur the vision and I said to myself: why not go to the physical source of the gaze? Since information had to be conveyed all the same, I tried to write directly on the image. Until then, I preferred not to work with dialogues, I had a little by chance difficulties on my first short film and since I said to myself: why not try to advance without that?

“Besides, I’m not someone who talks a lot, I don’t love that. I try in each film to experiment with methods, processes, cinema, that’s it, DIY, research like in a lab. And that suits the trajectory of my characters, who are fleeing from codes, a society which speaks to them, full of unnecessary noise. They go elsewhere and meet by look, the first foundation of any contact between two people. It joins the movement of the film which is that of a return to the primary elements, to the primitive. We are going back to the beginning of everything, but it is not about making the same trip. It’s not at all nostalgic. It’s more like shaving everything down and trying to go somewhere else. ”


Julien Gester

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