Vitamin D can help avoid second wave of coronavirus


Moscow,

14 Sep 2020.
/LIVE24/.

American scientists from the Medical University of Chicago have named vitamins that can help prevent the second wave of coronavirus. It is about the consumption of foods containing vitamins A, B, C and D, LIFE reports.

According to researchers, people who have a lack of vitamin D in their bodies are twice as likely to get coronavirus. This element plays a huge role in the immune system, and its daily intake should be between 2.5 and 5 mcg. Scientists came to this conclusion on the basis of an experiment in which 500 US residents participated.

At the same time, the human body can get full vitamin D only if there is sufficient ultraviolet radiation. Nutritionists noted that this element can be obtained from food sources, the main among which are considered to be mushrooms, fish and seafood, egg yolks, cereals, cheese and fish oil.

Vitamin D stabilizes blood pressure and normalizes heart rate. In addition, it strengthens and restores the nervous system, and also prevents the development of cancer cells.

Expert Marina Apletaeva in an interview with reporters noted that she does not quite agree with colleagues from abroad who rely on vitamin D. According to her, groups A, B and C are also responsible for the quality of immunity, not less than vitamin D.

The specialist also recommended adding zinc-containing foods to the autumn diet. This trace element is responsible for metabolism and contributes to the successful course of immune responses. Zinc is abundant in chicken, low-fat cheese, almonds, beans, green peas, and pumpkin seeds.

Formerly LIVE24 reportedthat doctors continue to add to the list of “superfoods” that can cleanse and protect the body from certain diseases. This time, doctors named a plant famous for its unusual properties. It’s about capers. Experts say that from a “technical” point of view, capers do not fit the definition of vegetables or fruits. These small legumes are actually the immature flower buds of the Capparis spinosa shrub that grows in the Mediterranean region.

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WHO announced plans to achieve complete phase-out of trans fats by 2023 :: Society :: RBC

Tedros Adan Gebreyesus

(Фото: Naohiko Hatta / Getty Images)

The World Health Organization (WHO) plans to ensure that companies completely eliminate the use of spenders in food production by 2023. This was announced by the director general of the organization Tedros Adan Ghebreyesus, reports TASS.

“At a time when the whole world is fighting the COVID-19 pandemic, we must do our best to protect human health. This includes taking all possible measures to prevent noncommunicable diseases, ”he said.

According to the WHO, the consumption of trans fatty acids produced by the industry is the cause of death of about half a million people due to the development of cardiovascular diseases. In this regard, the organization approves the decision of 58 countries that have adopted laws on their territories that will allow 3.2 billion people to be protected from pests by the end of 2021.

However, WHO recommends more than 100 other countries to start addressing the issue of trans fats in foods. Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Egypt, India, Iran, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan, Republic of Korea and Ecuador were among such countries that need to take urgent measures to reduce harmful substances in the diet of citizens.

At the same time, the organization clarifies that measures to reduce the use of trans fats were taken by those countries that have a high per capita income. And so far no low-income country has followed suit.

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very cheap and long-known drugs help save the lungs with coronavirus

Cloving hospital on the basis of the Medical Scientific and Educational Center (ISSC) Moscow State University named after M.V.Lomonosov took the first patients on April 21 and completed his work on June 13. It turned out that it was possible to achieve the best treatment results for COVID-19 in Moscow. Over the entire period, 4 patients died, and among severe patients who got mechanical ventilation, the mortality rate was less than 14% (for comparison, the average for the city and the world was up to 70 – 80%). Eighteen doctors out of 220 employees of the hospital were infected with coronavirus, there were no deaths among the medical staff.

What approaches were used at the University Hospital of Moscow State University to achieve such results? We continue the conversation with the head. Department of Therapy, Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, Moscow State University, Head of the Department of Age-Associated Diseases, Medical Scientific and Educational Center, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Cardiologist Yana Orlova.

MEDICINE FOR COUGH FOR 80 RUBLES

– Most of those who are ill or are afraid to get sick are worried about fibrotic changes in their lungs. They say that you have developed special therapy that can reduce the risk of developing fibrosis. Is it possible?!

– Yes, we launched an appropriate clinical study. There are no final results yet, but we have developed clinical practice.

“What did you do to save the lungs?”

– We used a combination of bromhexine and spironolactone (both are long-known very cheap drugs. – Ed.). Bromhexine is an expectorant that has been prescribed to patients with pneumonia and cough for many years. At the same time, experimental data showed that this drug can block a specific enzyme and impede the penetration of coronavirus into cells. True, it was on this effect that we counted to a lesser extent in inpatients, since such an effect is important mainly in the early stages of the disease. But the expectorant effect of bromhexine really helps patients with COVID. I heard that our colleagues in Peter launched a study of bromhexine for prophylactic purposes. We will wait for the results.

Coronavirus infected 18 doctors from 220 employees of the hospital, there were no deaths among the medical staffPhoto: Ivan MAKEEV

FIBROSIS OBSTACLE

– The second drug – spironolactone – is traditionally widely used in cardiology for the treatment of heart failure, severe hypertension. It has a small diuretic, magnesium and potassium-preserving effect, continues Yana. Orlova. – It has several mechanisms through which it can be useful in coronavirus infection.

Firstly, a mechanism that prevents the development of fibrosis in general in the body. There are works that, in particular, show that spironolactone reduces fibrosis in the heart. At the same time, it is known that the tendency to fibrosis is not local, but systemic – where there is more inflammation, there will certainly be fibrosis. And we see, of course, fibrotic changes in the “covide” in our patients. Therefore, we prescribed spironolactone as a drug for the prevention of this process.

Secondly, this drug blocks sex hormone receptors, in particular testosterone. Some published studies suggest that “high-testosterone” men suffer from “covid” more often and develop more severe fibrotic changes. Therefore, blocking these receptors for several weeks during COVID treatment may be useful in reducing the severity of complications. We are not talking about a longer intake, since male patients are unlikely to agree with a decrease in testosterone levels in the long term.

And perhaps the most important point. In almost all of our patients, we observed hypokalemia (a decrease in potassium levels. – Ed.). With coronavirus infection, potassium is intensely excreted from the body, and scientific articles even suggest that hypokalemia serves as the trigger for a cytokine storm. So spironolactone has a real chance to reduce the risk of this dangerous complication. But the main thing, in my opinion, is that lowering the level of potassium in the body is extremely harmful to the heart and triggers life-threatening rhythm disturbances, increasing the risk of sudden death. We, like all others, replenished potassium with droppers, but it was more effective to retain it in the body with the help of spironolactone.


Men certainly get worse than women;  the elderly are heavier than the young;  overweight people are heavier than patients without excess weight Photo: Ivan MAKEEV

Men certainly get worse than women; the elderly are heavier than the young; overweight people are heavier than overweight patientsPhoto: Ivan MAKEEV

WHEN PRESCRIBED PATIENTS

– Yana Arturovna, how many patients did you have on average?

– About 10 – 14 days. But someone and 50 days.

– Have you noticed signs by which it can be assumed that the disease in the person brought is likely to go the hard way?

– Such studies were carried out in the world, our clinical practice confirmed them. Men certainly get worse than women; the elderly are heavier than the young; overweight people are heavier than overweight patients. Men with a classic male type of baldness, a lot of facial hair, we can say brutal men get sick harder.

– Under what conditions did you discharge patients?

– We acted as close as possible to the recommendations Ministry of Health: so that the temperature for three days was not higher than 37.5 degrees; so that C-reactive protein (an indicator of inflammation) is lower than 10 mg / l, and saturation, that is, the level of oxygen in the blood, is higher than 96%.

“HEAD OF EPIDEMIOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF ITSELF WORKED AT SANPROPUSNIK”

– How often do you get sick doctors and nurses?

– In the first month no one got sick at all. We have a very powerful epidemiological service. The head of the sanitary-epidemiological department, a senior researcher, correctly organized the whole process, and for the first two weeks she personally worked in the sanitary inspection room at the exit from the “red zone” and helped doctors and nurses who were exhausted after the shift safely remove protective clothing.

Then both people’s fatigue and viral load accumulated. By the middle of the second month, sick people began to appear. There were no seriously ill patients. We treated part of the staff in our observation, part of it was treated at home. In total, 18 people were infected from the medical staff (less than 10%).

– Doctors take something for prevention? Vitamins C, D, Zinc?

– I saw the recommendations of American nutritionists, they speak out positively about taking zinc, melatonin and vitamin C. There were somewhat conflicting data on vitamin D. But we did not give any such recommendations to our employees. We have all the prevention was associated with minimizing contacts and other measures of epidemiological safety.

Physicians are the heroes of our time.“If you think that you are special and that a pandemic will not affect you, you are deeply mistaken,” listen to what the doctors who are fighting with coronavirus say

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And also why the epidemic is gaining strength in southern countries and whether the sun affects the incidence – all this in an interview with George Vikulova (details)

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it affects not only the lungs, but the whole body

The first 10 days after the onset of symptoms of the disease, the 38-year-old American was feeling quite well. He was not at risk; he had no chronic diseases.

– The man was examined, the disease was mild. The patient had a slight cough. Therefore, he was sent home for treatment, ”says the head of the Department of Vascular Surgery at Westchester Medical Center Sean Wengerter.

And then the incredible happened.

One morning, a man woke up with icy and numb legs. The body was constrained by terrible weakness; there was not even the strength to get out of bed.

The examination showed that the patient had aortic occlusion – a large blood clot formed in the main artery at the place where the artery diverged in two directions – to the right and left leg. Because of this clot, blood enriched with oxygen did not enter the iliac arteries.

“This is extremely dangerous.” From this can die from 20% to 50% of patients, – notes Vangerter. – But such things are not typical for 38-year-olds.

An emergency operation to remove a blood clot could save the patient’s life. But doctors working with patients with COVID-19 are everywhere faced with rather strange and frightening phenomena in infected patients. For example, the formation of blood clots (actually blood clots) of various sizes throughout the body, renal failure, inflammation of the heart muscle and malfunctions of the immune system.

“Coronavirus occurs in each patient in its own way,” notes Scott Brackenridge, associate professor of emergency surgery at the College of Medicine at the University of Florida. – In some cases, the patient has a problem with breathing, in others, the internal organs begin to fail. In children, the immune system as a whole begins to rebel.

Coronavirus is not just a respiratory diseasePhoto: Ivan MAKEEV

MYSTERIOUS STROKES

A new type of coronavirus is considered to be a respiratory virus, although it is already becoming obvious – the infection affects the entire human body. The most common symptoms are fever, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

In this case, the virus attacks some organs directly. First of all, the mucous membrane of blood vessels, which entails unnatural coagulation of blood.

– COVID-19 provokes a local inflammatory reaction that leads to the formation of blood clots, – explains Wengerter. – This is due to the direct effect of the virus on the arteries.

A number of doctors recorded strokes in young patients with coronavirus, as well as the formation of blood clots in the lungs. Blood clots were found even in the smallest vessels.

“Since each organ feeds on blood vessels, and the virus attacks them first and foremost, we end up with damage to internal organs,” adds Dr. Scott Brackenridge.

Another serious symptom that is observed in some patients who become ill with the new coronavirus is the “co-fingers.” The infected toes swell, becoming red or purple. It is possible that the reason for this is blockage of blood vessels. But doctors say that usually this does not have serious consequences.

Kawasaki Syndrome

One of the most alarming reactions to COVID-19 is observed in children. It has already been named as a children’s multisystem inflammatory syndrome. In newYork Doctors have identified more than 100 cases.

This syndrome is characterized by a rather long fever, inflammatory process, malfunction of one or more internal organs, as well as the general condition, which is usually observed with shock. Pediatricians also compare these symptoms with the syndrome. Kawasaki.

Kawasaki syndrome is a rare disease that affects children aged 3 to 10 years. It is characterized by damage to the medium and small arteries, thrombosis, the formation of aneurysms and rupture of the vascular wall. Cases of infection are rare. However, recently, doctors have noted an increase in the number of patients with this syndrome.

Both childhood multisystem inflammatory syndrome and Kawasaki syndrome lead to an overly aggressive immune system response to coronavirus. This may be accompanied by inflammation of the blood vessels and heart muscle.

KILLER CELLS

However, scientists note that coronavirus is not able to cause a strong immune response, but, on the contrary, suppress the entire immune system. And this can allow the infection to freely attack the internal organs.

Partly this theory was confirmed by Chinese experts, led by Dr. Zhang Zhang. Scientists analyzed samples of immune cells taken from the lungs of 9 patients infected with coronavirus. The results of the study showed an abnormally high level of leukocytes – macrophages and neutrophils responsible for the destruction of harmful pathogen – in severe patients. At the same time, these patients had a rather low level of CD8 T cells, which are called killer cells. They are responsible for killing virus-infected cells.

But doctors are reassuring, noting that they have drugs that can thin the blood, and also help the work of white blood cells that resist infection.

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Sergey Mardan: In the USA, the clinic would simply go broke if the ventilator apparatus exploded and people died

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Biologist named the reasons for erroneous test results for COVID-19 :: Society :: RBC

Coronavirus infection tests and antibodies can show erroneous results at all stages of the disease. About this “RIA Novosti” said the doctor of biological sciences, professor at the School of Systems Biology GMU (USA) Ancha Baranova.

According to her, at the first stage of the disease, when even if a person has no symptoms, the virus can multiply inside, suppression of infection due to interferons can occur in his body. So, the body’s natural defense can overcome the virus without producing antibodies, so the analysis for antibodies can be negative.

When temperature, coughing and other symptoms appear in the second stage, the body can activate additional protection, and a person can also start taking antiviral drugs. In the worst case, the disease will not end, even if the virus is defeated, and pneumonia will continue to develop due to other factors. At the same time, the test for coronavirus will show a negative result, but then the third, even more severe stage will begin.

The material is complemented

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The star of the film “Big Change” barely making ends meet

Valentine Titov viewers fell in love with the cult films Shield and Sword and Big Break. Despite fame, the 78-year-old actress lives very modestly. Not to say poor.

Valentina Titova experienced in her life the betrayal of her colleagues, separation from her daughter, and difficult financial situation. However, the star of the Soviet films does not lose heart on self-isolation: “I live in the old way, I put in order the apartment, myself and I comply with these standards.” Such little things make her happy.

Valentina Antipovna does not hide – her no financial airbag. “My pension is 16 thousand rubles a month due to the lack of ranks … They also added four thousand due to the virus. As a result, 20. I understood: I can live on them poorly and economically,” StarHit quotes her.

Half of the amount from the actress goes to rent. She learned to save.

Was poor several times in her life. But we experienced these moments. There is nothing wrong with that, the body also needs a respite, it is impossible to endlessly exist under the motto “How I want!”. Now I live as I did not want, but I live … Life is a great test. If you pass it, then you are a man. And the rest is schizophrenia and idiocy, “the star admits.

She advises – no need to save, you just need to part with money. At 78, Valentina Antipovna looks gorgeous.

Do not turn into the old woman Isergil. And this is very easy: in the morning, don’t put on a bra and underpants, don’t pull on tights … Here you are cuttlefish … I want to be better. For example, I really do not like to dye eyelashes, but it is necessary. The actor must wear this uniform all his life, he is the face of the nation, “the celebrity is sure.

She does not complain about anything, but misses her daughter and granddaughter very much. They live in Greece and waiting for Titov to visit her.

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Scientists have linked the high mortality from COVID-19 with a lack of vitamin D :: Society :: RBC

They indicate that residents of Italy and Spain, where the highest number of deaths are recorded in the European region, are deficient in vitamin D. Some studies show the benefits of taking it in the prevention of respiratory infections

Photo Credit: David Dee Delgado / Getty Images

A large number of coronavirus-infected deaths in some countries may be due to a lack of vitamin D. This is stated in a study by scientists from the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Foundation and the University of East Anglia, published in Research Square.

The researchers compared the mortality statistics from COVID-19 with the average vitamin level in citizens of 20 countries in Europe and saw a significant correlation between these indicators.

Referring to other works, they note that the inhabitants of Italy in the body on average contain 28 nmol / L of vitamin D, the Spaniards – 26 nmol / L. In this case, a lack of substance is recorded when the indicator falls below 30 nmol / L. Scientists note that among citizens of the Scandinavian countries the amount of vitamin D in the body on average reaches 45 nmol / L.

Coronavirus

Russia Moscow Peace

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Source: JHU,
federal and regional
anti-virus operations

Source: JHU, federal and regional anti-virus operations

They also point out that a large number of deaths are registered among older people. In Switzerland, the study says, vitamin D levels among those living in nursing homes do not exceed 23 nmol / L, and in Italy, substance deficiency is observed in 76% of women over 70 years of age.

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Virologist of the RAS listed the consequences caused by coronavirus :: Society :: RBC

Russian scientists have come to the conclusion that a person who has a coronavirus infection with COVID-19 may face serious brain damage. About it reported The publication “Evening Moscow”, a virologist scientist of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) Felix Ershov.

As scientists have established, COVID-19, like influenza and herpes viruses, can lead to the death of entire sections of this organ. According to Ershov, coronavirus greatly weakens the protection of the human body.

In particular, the virus suppresses the immune system, so an additional so-called somatic pathology can be superimposed on the disease. As with ordinary flu, the patient’s body is weakened, and his immunity is suppressed. Against this background, secondary immunodeficiencies develop in the body.

Often, elderly people are at risk for such a pathology. Because of their immunity, children and youth are much less prone to complications, Yershov noted. According to him, strokes and heart attacks, as well as concomitant diseases: bronchitis, meningitis and others, can also occur as pathologies in the elderly.

As a virologist noted, the main cause of death from coronavirus, as a rule, is not COVID-19 itself, but pathology. In this regard, after the first week of the disease, if it has not receded, antibiotics are actively used in treatment.

Ershov said that traditional antibacterial agents do not act on viruses. According to him, the only antiviral antibiotic today is interferon, which has a direct effect on the stages of intracellular reproduction of viruses.

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Pharmacies in Tijuana report purchases of panic in medicines for coronavirus – Telemundo San Diego (20)

TIJUANA- The
medications recommended by US authorities such as
President Donald Trump to fight the coronavirus, have had effects
direct in the sales of pharmacies in Tijuana, where in a matter of hours
They sold hundreds of boxes with the alleged cure.

“We had
put a thousand boxes on it, and they all left, “said Joe Flores, a pharmacist for more than
20 years on the Tijuana border, speaking of drug sales
known as hydroxychloroquine.

This Monday, April 6, the shelves of the pharmacies where these drugs were, are empty, because among the Americans who arrive in Tijuana, there has been a rumor of more drugs that cure the coronavirus.

Even
medicines that prevent the common flu or that allegedly reinforce
Defenses end in Tijuana.

“Aderogyl 15 has been taken by people for up to 100 boxes, 50 boxes,” said Luis Alfonso Cruz, a pharmacist at Pey Pharma.

These purchases of
Medication panic is affecting people like the 65-year-old grandfather of
Emmelin, who needs hydroxychloroquine for a distant condition when
coronavirus.

“It is enough
unpleasant, sad and worrying that people put themselves in this situation “,
assured Emmelin Aguilera, who said that she had to resort to the resale of
medicines, where a box valued at an average of $ 650 pesos, cost him up to
$ l, 100 pesos.

“The same
resellers, people who bought it to give it at a higher price that’s how
We did it ”, said Emmelin Aguilera.

The Secretariat of
Salud asked the community not to trust what they see on the Internet.

“They are studies
preliminaries, you’re not talking that they already work, “said Alonso Pérez,
secretary of health in Baja California, since each organism has reactions
and different complications, including coronavirus.

“There’s a lot
people who are being given hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and they don’t work, ”
assured Alonso Pérez, secretary of health in Baja California.

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Are you panicking? Then the coronavirus comes to you!

I could take this interview by phone. Which, incidentally, was suggested by my interlocutor, one of the most respected virologists in the country, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, doctor of medical sciences Alexander Lukashev. But I, to his obvious surprise, asked for a meeting.

EVERYTHING AT THE INSTITUTE IS QUIET

… Five minutes walk from the Sportivnaya metro station, and I am at the building with the sign “Institute of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector-borne Diseases named after E.I. Marcinovsky First MGMU them. THEM. Sechenova. ”

I believe that his employees are better than us, mere mortals, aware of all the dangers, the insidiousness of the infamous coronavirus, which put the planet on its ears. WHO recently announced a pandemic, as COVID-19 has hit more than a hundred countries. Trump did cover his native America for a whole month from guests from Of Europeexcluding citizens Great Britain. But Britannia still an island. All of Italy in quarantine …

In many countries, mass events such as forums, concerts, sporting events, car dealerships are canceled, museums, exhibitions are closed … Moscow also already “more than five thousand do not gather!”

On television, our scientists, doctors radiate confidence, they say, do not panic, citizens, everything is under control. Well, well, let’s see how they behave in the workplace.

That’s why, I confess, I asked for a meeting with Lukashev.

… I wander around the institute, hoping to see the virologists rushing about, with heads chemical protection packed to overalls, like in Hollywood blockbusters about epidemics. No, silence. Carefully opened the door to a couple cabinets. People work calmly, even without masks.

Having not found any signs of panic, I head to the director’s office. Lukashev, warned by guards about the arrival of a journalist, meets at the door: “I thought you were lost. I wanted to go in search already. ” And she gives a sympathetic hand.

I automatically stretch mine.

“Well, haven’t the handshakes been canceled yet?” – involuntarily breaks off the tongue. – On the box showed how the Chancellor Merkel welcomed colleagues at the meeting with a gesture, and oil ministers in Vienna – “hello” legs.

– We can shake hands so far.

– When will it be impossible?

– When in Moscow or in the country a significant number of cases appear, well, for example, one hundred or a thousand. Then you have to think about more serious preventive measures, including keeping a distance.

– But, Alexander Nikolaevich, they scared in social networks that there were already twenty thousand patients in Moscow, but the authorities were hiding this! Tragic messages also come to us at Komsomolka, they say, why don’t you sound the alarm, journalists ?!

– In no developed country was it possible at the very beginning to identify the distribution chains of COVID-19 – not in USAnor in Italy, GermanySouth Korea, Of Japan… Everywhere, the coronavirus began to spread before it was detected. Therefore, I do not exclude that in the capital there may be uncommitted single cases of the virus. But it is impossible to hide 20 thousand patients. Therefore, I do not even want to comment on this nonsense.

“JUMPER”

– So, Alexander Nikolaevich, Russians and other earthlings lived, they didn’t. And suddenly, unexpectedly, a mysterious virus fell on our heads. Yes, not simple, but “crowned” …

“Well, why unexpectedly?” Since 2014, our institute has been dealing with the fundamental problems of the emergence of new viruses. In May 2019, we received a grant from the Russian Science Foundation. Emerging Viruses: Ecology and Evolution (document shows). From the point of view of evolution, the appearance of COVID-19 is a completely natural event. The standard way the virus exists in the biosphere. It is not the virus that is well adapted to one host that survives, but the one that can “jump” between the hosts. And adapt to new owners and new ecological niches. COVID-19 from the bat moved to the pangolin, and from him to the man.

– At the very beginning it was said that the transmission link from mice to humans is cobras, which the Chinese eat.

– It was not a very competent job, a method of the 70s. We own this method, I sometimes give it to students as an educational task. But we never draw conclusions based on it. In the bat, COVID-19 was no more than a hundred years ago. Well, the maximum is 200. And in the pangolin – no more than ten years ago.

– Unfortunate relic animal! Due to supposedly healing scales, it has become the best-selling endangered species in the world. Over the past ten years, poachers have caught more than a million pangolins in Asian and African forests and transported mainly to China.

– Yes, his meat is a delicacy for the Chinese. And they rub the scales and make different droplets, ointments. It is curious that the composition of the scales of pangolin is not very different from our nails …

How COVID-19 came about is understandable. Another thing is that it is impossible to predict when and what specific virus will appear.

– Why? This virus seems to have woken up global warming. There is such a version.

– It is always an accident. While we are talking, viruses have already tried to move from animals to humans several hundred times. IN AfricaSoutheast Of asia… Almost all of these attempts ended unsuccessfully. The virus either cannot infect a person or causes a limited infection and cannot spread. But he tries all the time. In rare cases, this succeeds. And it begins to be transmitted from person to person. Or not a very long time, as in the case of SARS. The new virus seems to have adapted better to humans. And, most likely, will stay with us for a long time.


In the square at the Trevi Fountain in Rome, you usually do not push. But now in Italy quarantine Photo: REUTERS

In the square at the Trevi Fountain in Rome, you usually do not push. But now in Italy quarantineA photo: REUTERS

Cats, whales, parrots get sick

– Enlighten about coronaviruses.

“They appeared on the planet millions of years ago.” We know that in the last 2 thousand years, new human coronaviruses have appeared repeatedly, there are even approximate dates.

-Let me, for the first time, human coronavirus was detected in 1965, – the journalist flashed with erudition.

– This, of course, is so. And before people sneezed, coughed, had a fever, but what exactly caused these ailments, the doctors did not know. But now we can analyze the genome of viruses and calculate when and from whom to whom they “jumped”.

– Why, by the way, is called – coronavirus?

-In the electron micrograph, he has very characteristic large stilettos, like on a crown. With these hairpins, the virus binds to cells, and it is they who are primarily responsible for the ability to infect a particular type of cell and cause various diseases.

Many coronaviruses are known today. In dogs, cats, cattle, horses, pigs, whales, leopards, seals, chickens, geese, turkeys, nightingales, parrots, the same bats, fish, etc.

Four human viruses – completely harmless, cause the usual ARI. Each season, they account for 10-15 percent of people with acute respiratory infections. In 2002 in the same China SARS coronavirus appeared, causing an outbreak of SARS. Mortality is 9 percent. In 2012, the coronavirus MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome). Mortality -37 percent.

WORSE THAN INFLUENZA

– And now COVID-19 has appeared. Mortality is only 2-3 percent. Much lower than that of his two brothers. Why is there such a panic, strict quarantine measures, a ban on mass events, and the closure of borders? It is rightly written that tens of thousands die in the same America in the same America, up to 650 thousand people worldwide, and no one announces a pandemic.

– Let’s start with the brothers. Each claimed less than a thousand lives. The number of cases was small, the outbreaks were local in nature. SARS has already disappeared, MERS is fixed annually in isolated cases. In the first weeks, it was hoped that the new coronavirus would disappear just like SARS. Now there is practically no such hope. Already sick more than a hundred thousand people in more than a hundred countries. Therefore, a pandemic is declared. How it will spread further is impossible to predict.

As for flu comparisons … COVID-19 is definitely worse than seasonal flu. By mortality. 0.1 percent of people die from the flu. There will be, apparently, not 2-3 percent, as they frighten, but less, “only” 0.5-0.7 percent. WHO is also inclined to these figures. It is possible that in Chinese Wuhan, which accounts for the majority of patients, were not easily registered patients. But this is still several times more than with the flu. In addition, we know a lot about the flu, there are annual vaccinations. COVID-19 has a lot more “whites spots. “

-For instance?

– We do not know about its true mortality, the frequency of asymptomatic carriage, environmental stability, and the dependence of transmission efficiency on weather.

– How to distinguish it from the flu, acute respiratory infections?

– Very hard. A light form cannot be distinguished from ARI. Same runny nose, sore throat, cough. True, the temperature is rarely high. 39 is a rarity. Unlike the flu. Therefore, for accurate detection of the disease, laboratory tests are needed.

WAITING FOR A VACCINE

– Have effective drugs appeared over the months? Many drugs were tested …

“There are no drugs with proven efficacy yet, although, indeed, doctors tested and used a lot of things.” But I did not see the initial clinical data, where comparisons would be made: 100 people were treated with this, 100 were given a placebo, the results were such and such …

– In recent weeks, media reports periodically appear: Israeli (English, Russian) scientists have almost created a vaccine for the new coronavirus. Trump recently met with the leaders of the largest US pharmaceutical companies. He asked me to do him a favor, to speed up work on the vaccine. And they promised, Trump tweeted.

– It’s not so simple with her either. There are fundamental problems. For example, antibody-dependent enhancement of pathogenesis is known for other coronaviruses. Antibodies, if they are incorrect or few, can, on the contrary, enhance the process of the disease. This is unacceptable for medicine, where the main principle is “Do no harm!”

It’s easy to make a vaccine from a new strain of influenza. The conveyor is debugged, control too. You take the old technology and a new strain or even pieces of a new strain …

For human coronaviruses, not a single vaccine is produced.

– For the chicken, the British did!

– For chickens, immunity is sufficient for a short time while they are racing, and the price of an error there is only money. And for a person it is important what effect the vaccine can have in many years. So in the coming months, a licensed vaccine from COVID-19 is not to be expected.

Measures for the prevention of viral infections.

HOPE FOR SUMMER!

– The quarantine also does not work for one hundred percent, the experience of China has shown this.

– Completely stopping the spread of the virus is not realistic. Another thing is that strict quarantine measures allow us to identify some of the diseased. And give hope – which is very important for Of Russia! – slow down the pandemic, gain time by summer. Other coronaviruses are known to spread actively from December to April. In summer, it is much worse in countries with such a climate as ours.

– The weather is already working for us, the heat has come.

– No, a noticeable effect on the weather can be expected when it becomes more than 20 degrees!

It is also encouraging that China, albeit at the cost of very large economic losses, has completely stabilized the situation.

“It is curious why there is no such massive outbreak of coronavirus in India, although there are also more than a billion people living there, unsanitary conditions …”

– At first I myself was very surprised. Believed that the first to fall India, Indonesia. Apparently, it’s all about the weather. That is why I hope for warm weather. And this hope is not illusory. The disease spreads where it is colder +15. And where +20 and above, no. Although COVID-19 was introduced into Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, to the Philippines, but there the virus does not spread at all as intensively as in the “colder” countries.

And in South Korea, one of the countries most affected by the coronavirus, he specifically specified that the outbreak began when there was plus 5-10 on the street.

– In this regard, everything is clear with Italy, which is now fully quarantined. It all started just in the north of the country. And it’s cool in Iran.

Iran – The most developed country in the region, and so far it cannot control its outbreak. But at least they were able to identify the virus. I am more concerned about the countries of Central Asia with less efficient health systems and more closed regimes.

– And located next to us.

– Exactly!


Fifth Quarantine Day in Venice Photo: REUTERS

Fifth Quarantine Day in VeniceA photo: REUTERS

FOLLOW HANDS!

– Explain another such paradox. Usually the main targets of influenza, acute respiratory infections are children and senior citizens. Judging by large-scale Chinese statistics, in the age group of 0-20 years, only one percent of patients with COVID-19.

– Yes, and then in a light form. Although other coronaviruses are more affected by children. This is another of the “blank spots” of the new virus. In general, for people under 30, this disease is relatively safe.

Mortality really begins to grow from 40 years old. The virus is especially dangerous for those over 80! Such veterans with chronic illnesses have a 15% risk of dying.

– What are the most dangerous chronic diseases?

-Cardiovascular, pulmonary, hypertension, diabetes, oncology …

– How can we not get sick until the summer?

– It is quite possible to reduce the risk of infection. The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets (sneezing, coughing) – here you can “keep your distance.” You can also catch it through infected surfaces – elevator buttons, door handles, handrails in public transport, etc. It cannot penetrate the body through the skin. Only through the mucous membranes … Therefore, watch your hands! Do not rub on the street, in public places eyes, lips, do not pick your nose, I apologize, in the nose. And wash your hands more often with soap.


Disinfection of public transport in Moscow Photo: REUTERS

Disinfection of public transport in MoscowA photo: REUTERS

– Controversial tips about masks. Needed – not needed …

– Masks help, and are primarily needed for people aged and with chronic diseases. On the street, they are definitely not needed – only where there are people at a distance of less than three meters. Unfortunately, there are simply no several masks per person per day, so wearing them all is always not very realistic. But speculators selling them at 10-20 times the price should, I think, deal with law enforcement.

Pensioners at risk are especially advised to avoid public events and crowded places. And even better – to go to the country, in the village. Indeed, in the city they can be infected by younger relatives who can easily tolerate a mild form of the disease, without even realizing that it is COVID-19. Just think, a slight cough, fever … But for a veteran, this can turn into a mortal danger.


Tourists near the Louvre Museum Photo: REUTERS

Tourists near the Louvre MuseumA photo: REUTERS

– There is information on the Web with reference to unnamed scientists that smokers have a 20 times less risk of contracting a coronavirus than non-smokers.

“I guess fake.” There are no official statistics yet, but it is absolutely certain that people with chronic lung diseases have a more severe illness. And every second smoker has chronic bronchitis, and even emphysema.

Therefore, smokers have a significantly higher risk of death in coronavirus.

– It seems that alcohol helps.

“If, when you return home, you moisten a napkin with vodka and disinfect your hands, then perhaps …”

– Comment on the reports that several people who recovered in China again became infected with the coronavirus?

– Very doubtful. Nowhere else have such data been voiced, so you need to carefully exclude the laboratory error.

– It seems to be a doggie somewhere in Hong Kong got infected from the owner. Could this be?

– Very unlikely. In China, in recent years, almost a million pangolins have been eaten, and the virus has been transmitted to humans only once.

– How to increase immunity, Alexander Nikolaevich, in order to confront the new infection? They say pharmacy immunomodulators do not help.

“I can’t say anything about them.” I’m not sure if at least one of these “drugs” is licensed in countries with developed evidence-based medicine. The biggest threat to the immunity of modern man is chronic stress. Therefore, you need to analyze your life, reduce the amount of stress, get enough sleep, be more calm about life – it’s both free and really works.

And do not panic in front of the coronavirus. Alarmists, on the other hand, will be more susceptible to COVID-19. I declare this with all responsibility.

Yes, people are afraid of everything incomprehensible. But, the more new data about COVID-19 appears, the more confident we virologists are about this problem. The problem is, indeed, a serious one, we still have to survive it. But now it’s clear that mortality is not as high as it seemed at the very beginning, the disease can be at least partially contained, controlled. In any case, this is not a planetary catastrophe.

It is too early to give forecasts, but this is certainly not the worst epidemic in the history of mankind. Yes, there will be human casualties and economic losses, but in any case, our life is filled with risks every day. The virus can hit a specific person, can bypass, but a day in fear and depression in any case is deleted from life.

AUTHORITATIVELY

WHY COVID-19 IS AFRAID OF SOAP

Alexey Moskalev, geneticist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Biological Sciences.

The new coronavirus, which in elderly or debilitated people can cause pneumonia, is a self-assembled nanoparticle. Inside her there is single-stranded RNA surrounded by a membrane lipid vesicle. В нем плавают “шипики” белков, которыми вирус прицепляется к поверхности клеток человека. А именно – к своему рецептору, белку ACE2, отвечающему за нормализацию артериального давления.


Алексей Москалев, генетик, член-корреспондент РАН, доктор биологических наук. Фото: Личная страничка героя публикации в соцсети

Алексей Москалев, генетик, член-корреспондент РАН, доктор биологических наук.A photo: Личная страничка героя публикации в соцсети

Мембранная оболочка вируса не выдерживает соприкосновения с обычным мыльным раствором. Поэтому призыв чаще мыть руки имеет реальную основу, а не просто для снижения паники. РНК более всего не любит ультрафиолет. Поэтому помогут избавиться от вируса на поверхностях и предметах прямые солнечные лучи или кварцевание помещений. Но помещение при кварцевании нужно покинуть, так как ДНК клеток кожи жёсткий ультрафиолет тоже повреждает, что ведет к риску старения кожи или даже меланомы. Наконец, белковый компонент вируса денатурирует под действием высокой температуры. Кипячение заражённых тканей должно его обезвредить.

Как правильно мыть руки.Лучший способ защититься от коронавируса – чаще мыть руки. Только делать это нужно не только часто, но и правильно. Но что значит «правильно»?

Размер вирусной частицы Covid-19 всего 125 нм по данным электронной микроскопии, поэтому его вдыхание могут предотвратить респираторы класса Р3. Однако вирус может проникать и через другие барьеры, например, слизистые глаз. Здесь могут помочь специальные защитные очки.

Мишень коронавируса на клетках человека, ACE2, более представлена в ткани лёгких пожилых людей, его экспрессия с возрастом нарастает. Компенсаторно уровень ACE2 увеличивается и при приеме определенных классов препаратов от давления, таких, как Эналаприл. По-видимому, с этим связано более острое протекание заболевания у пожилых или людей с гипертонией.

Coronavirus: only without hands !.With a slight movement, the handshake turns into a handshake! And from kisses and hugs have to abstain. Coronavirus changes age-old habits. But WHO recalls: the main thing is to wash your hands!

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