What phrases from the script “Brother-2” became prophetic

20 years ago, the philosophical thriller “Brother-2” about the adventures of Danila Bagrova (Sergey Bodrov) at USA. The humor that permeates the picture captivates with spontaneity and simplicity. And then no one could have thought that many of the phrases of the heroes would not only become winged, but would be realized by history. “KP“Gives some examples.

“Well then, there were people like people, and suddenly all at once became nerds? Paradox”

Well then, were there people like people, and suddenly all at once became nerds? Paradox.

“Well then, there were people like people, and suddenly all at once became nerds? A paradox.”Photo: frame from the movie

The replica of the nervous taxi driver played by Konstantin Zheldin is universal. Whether it’s the economic and social crisis of the 90s or the epidemiological crisis of our time, the darkest forces within people begin to fuss with tripled energy. So at the height of the coronavirus, there were photos of citizens buying toilet paper and buckwheat, as well as versions about the 5G towers, Bill’s chip plan Gates and the pedophile lobby of Hollywood, which should bring employees FBI covid-19.

“You, bastards, will answer for Sevastopol!”

Unique phrase killer Viktor Bagrov (Victor Sukhorukov) came true 14 years after the release of “Brother-2.” Crimea He returned to his native harbor and the Russian people on the peninsula voted unanimously for this.

“The Russians do not abandon their own in the war”

Events on Donbass, lasting more than five years, also confirm the maxim voiced by Danila.

Russians do not abandon their own in the war.

“- Hey, fellow countryman, where do the Russians live here?”

– Moskal is not my countryman!

– Bandera?

– Why ?!

“Alright guys, bye!”

Perhaps Alexey Balabanov wrote the script as a joke. And the “warm” meeting of the Russian killer with Ukrainian colleagues at the airport is just an episode from the movie. But 14 years have passed, and the slogans “Moskalyak on a dime!”, “Hto not leap, that Muscovite ”and“ Bandera come – put things in order! ” became very popular on Ukraine.

“Strength in them. There is something primitive in them, something animal. What we have long lost. Therefore, they are stronger ”


“Strength in them. There is something primitive in them, something animal. What we have long lost. Therefore, they are stronger. ”Photo: frame from the film.

“Strength in them. There is something primitive in them, something animal. What we have long lost. Therefore, they are stronger ”Photo: frame from the movie.

Before a showdown with local black people who did not allow Russian heroes to eat boiled crayfish, the prostitute Dasha suggests that power is not in the truth, according to Danila and not in money, as his brother is sure, but in “them”, in African-Americans. And if you look at the results of most sports competitions, the absolute triumph of tolerance in the United States, Hollywood cinema and Europeabsorbed by African migrants, it is difficult to disagree with the heroine.

“Conference on new computer technologies … and the protection of computer programs!”


“Conference on new computer technologies … and the protection of computer programs!”Photo: facebook.com

Laughter with a laugh, namely this meme jokingly explains the official representative MFA RF Maria Zakharova some strange accusations of our country by the USA. But how else to react to the fact that Russian hackers are to blame for the results of the American election?

“Boy, you don’t understand, bring us some vodka. We are flying home! ”


“Boy, you don’t understand, bring us some vodka. We are flying home! ” Photo: frame from the film.

“Boy, you don’t understand, bring us some vodka. We are flying home! ”Photo: frame from the movie.

The phrase prostitutes Marilyn (Daria Jurgens) from the final scene of the film on the plane also became a meme. During the epidemic, Russian citizens, stuck on vacation, began to return to their homeland en masse. It didn’t work for everyone. Those who succeeded reacted in much the same way as the heroine of Brother-2.

“You do not understand – this is quarantine!”

Well, there’s no need to explain anything. American customs officers informing Viktor Bagrov about quarantine teleported in 1990 as if from 2020.

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Is it true that nicotine users contract Covid-19 less?

Hello,

Numerous case studies demonstrate this unequivocal : smokers who get Covid-19 have a risk greatly increased to develop severe forms of the disease. In this work, we find that the proportion of smokers is two to four times higher in severely ill patients than in those with a moderate form of the disease.

On the other hand, several publications relayed since the beginning of April report a counterintuitive phenomenon: in several countries, the proportion of smokers infected with SARS-CoV-2 would be lower than the proportion of smokers at regional or national level. The Minister of Health, Olivier Véran, recently mentioned this data.

In France, works being published conducted on a limited number of patients at the Pitié-Salpétrière, as well as a study in a school environment in Crépy-en-Valois (prepublished this April 23), also reported this statistical trend.

Many potential limits

Note now that the link between smoking status and propensity to be infected does not appear in all research. So in a recent study published in the Jama, involving 5,700 New York patients hospitalized for Covid-19, the proportion of smokers was analogous to that observed in the regional population.

The first studies were met with skepticism, not without reason. Indeed, many of these works have sometimes significant biases.

First limitation present in all studies (with the exception of French studies): the age parameter of hospitalized patients. Indeed, a significant proportion of patients with severe forms of Covid-19 are over the age of 65. The prevalence of smokers decreases very strongly with age (for example, in France, 65-75 year olds smoke 2.5 times less than the general population).

In the study conducted at Pitié-Salpêtrière, taking into account the age and sex of the patients, smokers nevertheless appeared to be four times less likely than non-smokers to be Covid +. A rate observed both in hospitalized patients and in patients treated on an outpatient basis. However, in order to draw more solid conclusions, these results should have been put into perspective with the smoking profile of patients who usually attend this hospital, at the same periods in previous years.

Another parameter that seems to be excluded from most analyzes: the socio-economic profile of the groups studied, which can strongly influence the expected proportion of smokers. A limitation mentioned by the authors of the French study, who established their calculations “Assuming that the population studied who lives in a limited area around a Parisian hospital has the same smoking habits as the French population in general”, and who note that “Healthcare workers were overrepresented in the outpatient group due to routine workplace testing when they became symptomatic”. The study conducted at Crépy-en-Valois seems to take this parameter into account. And its results are consistent with the Pitié Salpêtrière study.

Third important pitfall: the quality of the information collected is not always there … far from it. In some studies used by epidemiologists to conduct their analyzes, the smoking status of the sickest Covid + patients was simply not informed. Commentators have also noted that one of these studies considered individuals to be “non-smokers” less than 30 packages per year – preventing any comparison with national statistics which relate to all cigarette consumers.

For its part, the study conducted at Pitié-Salpêtrière seems to consider as “former smoker” any person who had quit smoking at the time of his hospitalization … without mentioning the hypothesis that patients may have stopped smoking because of the first Covid-19 symptoms! A point which would considerably influence the results. Requested by CheckNews, Zahir Amoura, author of this work, has not yet commented on this point.

Is the phenomenon biologically plausible?

The interpretation of these statistics, as well as the extent of the associated phenomenon, are still questionable.

Researchers, however, have begun to explore the hypothesis of a direct causal link between smoking status and primary SARS-CoV-2 infection. The question arises indeed: from a physiological point of view, is it plausible that lungs exposed to tobacco are less permeable to this coronavirus? Could nicotine be involved in the phenomenon?

A possible link with the ACE2 receiver?

SARS-CoV-2 infects cells by binding to the ACE2 receptor, abundant on the surface, in particular, the cells of the mucous membranes and the alveolar pulmonary tissue. The expression of the gene corresponding to ACE2 is not identical in smokers and in non-smokers. Based on animal models, smokers have long been considered to express less ACE2 – which suggests a simple explanation for the phenomenon: less ACE2 induces a lower propensity for infection.

But recent data, which seem to be corroborated by new researchsuggest that in humans, smoking is associated with a higher expression of ACE2. A higher propensity for coronavirus infection would therefore be expected. The epidemiological observations mentioned above, suggesting a protective effect of tobacco, would therefore raise a paradox.

Several explanatory hypotheses have been formulated. Some authors have advanced that in all patients, infection with SARS-CoV-2 would decrease the availability of ACE2 receptors in the lungs. The biological processes that usually mobilize these receptors would be hindered, leading to various symptoms of the disease. People with more ACE2, even if they were infected, would develop fewer symptoms. However, this interpretation is challenged by the Crépy-en-Valois study, where the diagnosis of infection was made on a blood test, and not on a simple clinical assessment of symptoms.

According to other works, the nAChR nicotinic receptor could modulate the activity of ACE2. Could stimulating nAChR make infection through ACE2 more difficult? This fact is not yet proven. “The possibility of a reciprocal modulation between ACE2 and the nicotinic receptor is an interesting scientific question for which we have no answer”, insists Professor Jean-Pierre Changeux, co-author of a scientific article inviting this hypothesis to be explored.

La Pitié-Salpêtrière has announced the launch of several clinical trials in this direction. The first, conducted on caregivers, aims to compare the infection rate between a group carrying nicotine patches and a group carrying placebos patches. More trials need to be done on Covid + patients in hospital to assess whether nicotine affects the course of the disease – especially in smokers who are forced to quit as a result of hospitalization.

Nicotine and vaping: preliminary data not very encouraging

The return of associations of electronic cigarette users does not seem to go in this direction, however. According to the analysis of a questionnaire sent in early April to several thousand members of the AIDUCE and SOVAPE associations, the rate of patients suspected of being Covid + was similar whether or not there was nicotine consumption – around 2.5 %. “Although it concerns nearly 10,000 people, this citizen survey is inconclusive on a major protective effect of nicotine, note the associations in a press release. The first data show no major positive or negative effect of vaping when faced with the risk of contracting Covid-19 for vapers and their entourage. ”

Tobaccoologist Bertrand Dautzenberg, who had encouraged these associations to explore this hypothesis, notes on Twitter that the data was not collected under conditions “Respecting all the obligations of scientific studies”. He nevertheless considers that they are not showing strong signs of a beneficial effect of nicotine in reducing Covid-19 levels. ” He invites an analysis of the Health Database to further explore this hypothesis.

No reason to start smoking

The tobacco specialist recalls “That tobacco certainly brings a negative effect greater than that of a small benefit which is not confirmed at all”. “This leads to encouraging all doctors to advise and support smoking cessation for all smokers.” The authors of the Crépy-en-Valois study abound in this sense, recalling that tobacco is responsible for 75,000 deaths per year in France. “Smoking cannot therefore be offered as a way of protecting oneself against the new coronavirus”, they insist.

Unsurprisingly, this finding is similar to that of the authors of a review on the complications of Covid-19 related to smoking. “Risk factors for severe forms of Covid-19 (pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, etc.) are more common in smokers. Smokers with comorbidities should quit smoking by all means. ” They also observe that confinement can lead to social isolation and psychological distress that increase the need for smoking. [En outre], smoking is more prevalent among the economically less advantaged groups, and they are potentially more at risk for Covid-19. ”

For its part, the association Alliance contre le tabac urged the greatest caution with regard to speculative information in circulation. In the absence of more evidence, nicotine users, “Should not expect to be more protected than the population from the current epidemic”, she recalls. In addition, she advises non-smokers to use nicotine substitutes. A warning also formulated by the promoters of the Pitié-Salpétrière study or by the Minister of Health.

In summary

Although well publicized, epidemiological observations associating smoking and the risk of developing the symptoms of Covid-19 are difficult to interpret at this time. Under the hypothesis of a real cause and effect link, the biological mechanisms mentioned in the press are still hypothetical. None have yet been formally tested.

Listen to the weekly behind the scenes podcast of CheckNews. This week: Covid-19: what are the real figures for deaths in intensive care?

Jérôme Salomon, the Director General of Health, mentioned a mortality of 10% in intensive care of patients hospitalized for Covid-19. In this episode, Luc Peillon explains why this figure is largely underestimated.


Florian Gouthière

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Coronavirus: what are the implications for cancer patients?

Grandstand. With the coronavirus, we are living much more than a health crisis. It is also a test of resistance for our health systems, even for the countries considered as “best ranked” by the various evaluation institutes or bodies. The indicators used, such as economic performance criteria, minimization of the cost of production, satisfaction of a standard of equity specific to each company, now appear to be poorly calibrated and insufficient in the face of such an epidemic crisis. As this pandemic progresses, we understand less the absence of indicators relating to the conditions of practice of those who provide care and to their dedication.

The fight against Covid-19 goes beyond a fight against the epidemic. It is also a struggle to maintain care for other chronic or acute pathologies that have not disappeared during this epidemic period. No one can also conceal the social and economic consequences, possible obstacles to access to care for all. An estimated 3.5 million French people are affected by cancer in France and 382,000 new annual cases in 2018, i.e. around 1,450 new cases diagnosed every day of the week. The Minister of Solidarity and Health regretted that cancer screenings were no longer carried out, “Calling the French” to return to their doctor for these diagnostic procedures. This announcement is important but may not be sufficient or essential to avoid the potential serious consequences of delayed or unannounced diagnoses, treatments degraded by necessity, renunciations of care or the interruption of inclusions in therapeutic trials.

A national strategy to be implemented

It would now be necessary to quickly implement a coordinated national strategy with a coherent territorial variation adapted to the local epidemiological and health situation, even when efforts are made to limit the spread of the virus by containment and barrier measures. The paradox of our society overdone with inflationary regulations and saturated with organizations of all kinds, but which ultimately finds it very difficult to organize or impose cooperation in this unprecedented context. Yet we have entered a period when things that once seemed impossible are inevitable.

Read also “My confinement started in January, when the pain put me in bed”

Since the epidemic crisis and the post-containment period are expected to last several months, the fear of the medical community with which I associate and of the nursing staff of my establishment specialized in the fight against cancer is that we are faced with a first “wave” of more serious cases than before linked to deferred care. After this period of crisis, the duration of which no one can seriously determine, health facilities that have been under tension for many years may find it difficult, especially if they have been considered as “Covid-19 hospitals”, to be absorbed into reasonable times the care of patients awaiting treatment as well as the flow of patients with newly diagnosed cancer reintegrating a course of care. It will most certainly take months to restore optimal organization. In addition, even if the epidemic crisis ends, the deterioration of the economy could accentuate inequalities with all its consequences on access to healthcare, particularly in the case of cancer.

Towards an increase in mortality?

For breast cancer, the most frequent cancer in women, whose annual number of new cases is estimated at 54,000 in France, the surgical management of patients with favorable prognostic criteria has been postponed, in accordance with the opinion of the High Council of Public Health available from mid-March and on the recommendations of learned societies. Even if these are remarkable recommendations which are unanimous during this period, it should not be forgotten that these are expert agreements for degraded care which should not last, at the risk a loss of luck for patients with even cancer said to have a good prognosis. Other examples could be taken, such as pancreatic cancer, the incidence of which has more than doubled over the past twenty years and whose unfavorable prognosis means that any delay in diagnosis by limiting access to radiology services, that any delay in surgical management due to the absence of an available operating theater or access to post-operative resuscitation could inevitably lead to an increase in mortality.

The Lombardy region of Italy, very affected as everyone knows by the pandemic, has managed to organize itself to maintain adequate care for cancer patients during this epidemic plague. Several platforms (HUB centers) have been set up, dedicated solely to the treatment of cancer patients (including the European Institute of Oncology and the National Cancer Institute in Milan). They receive newly diagnosed surgical candidates from area hospitals more dedicated to treating Covid-19 patients. These Covid-19-free cancer hospitals can continue to care for cancer patients even if they are small cancers with good prognosis.

This attention-grabbing pandemic should not make us lose our minds. After having wagered on economic performance for years, we suddenly moved on to the almost exclusive total fight against the Covid-19. It must be remembered that there is a middle way in everything that avoids extreme attitudes while preserving the future.


Emmanuel Barranger Surgeon oncologist, director general of the Center for the fight against cancer Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (Fédération Unicancer)

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Paradox of the corona quarantine: friends and no contact

FFriendship is one of the terms that have become more interchangeable in the digital years, the tighter the social networks have been. Even where there are often only contacts like on Facebook, the “friends” are diligently counted as if there were no social tomorrow in real life. Of all these contacts now remain in the anti-corona battle undisturbed by the official order to drastically reduce our contacts for two weeks or more.

Instead it hits our real friends again. We do not have to talk about the value and the validity of real friendships in the crisis, there is enough evidence for that. But what we might be able to use the days of the pandemic in front of the screen for is deeper reflection on some of our paradoxical contacts. Which will still be worth preserving or deepening amicably after the end of the social distance requirement? Not easy to decide in quarantine.

Not as easy as the vampire bats, which are largely underestimated in relationship issues, which Simon Ripperger from the Berlin Natural History Museum and his colleagues from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute had kept in social isolation for almost two months. Until then, the reputation of the bloodsuckers was underground. They usually sleep twenty-three hours a day hanging upside down on the ceiling, only to then fly out briefly and fall on unsuspecting animals in the dark of night, shamelessly scratching their skin and greedily absorbing the warm blood in large quantities. If you live like this, you think you don’t need friends. However, completely new relationships developed in the cage in which Ripperger had held the vampire bats and digitally networked them with transmitters.

The vampires became blood brothers. One bat that was allowed to drink provided the other, starving companion with choked blood. This led to friendships in the cage that lasted even after the bloodsuckers were released from solitary confinement and hung together from cave ceilings. Such a thing is of course not to be thought of in the pandemic in a dream. We only maintain contacts across social distances. And as good cage animals, we naturally submit to fate and look forward to when the door opens and real friends finally end the low-blood contact banter on the screen.

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