Can we still make the public transport free when the coffers are empty ?

Encourage people to use public transport rather than the car – making them completely free, the idea is always included in the program of qualified candidates in the second round of municipal elections, which will take place on Sunday 28 June. This is the case for example in Montpellier of the candidate Michaël Delafosse (PS-PCF-EELV) in the lead in voting intentions and who has made it his flagship measure. To Nancy, the PS candidate, Mathieu Klein, also offers free, but only for the weekend to re-energise the shopping centre-city in trouble.

Shortfall of 4 billion

But in between the first and the second round, the health crisis has dealt a severe blow to the finances of local authorities. The shortfall related to the pandemic is estimated this year to about 4 billion euros (2.6 billion for the Ile-de-France) for the public transport sector. “Les organizing authorities of transport are close to the cessation of payments, explains Yves Crozet, senior economist, transportation specialist. They are the victims of a fall in commercial income (tickets and subscriptions). A decline in tax revenues (the payment mobility, the tax paid by the companies and which is calculated on their wage bill has generated less income with partial unemployment). They have also had to bear the increase in costs related to the reorganization of the services because of the epidemic.

In this context very complicated for all transport networks, cities that have adopted free public transport, the most iconic and the largest is the metropolitan area of Dunkerque (200,000 inhabitants), to assert less to accuse the shot. “The bus usage free of charge is to rise to 60% of the attendance usual“according to the director of the network Of Kbus, Laurent Mahieu. “It comes out pretty well compared to other networks“, he says.

Paradoxically, today, the networks that are passed to the free are rather comforted in this choice to the extent that they had already decided to spend revenue users and to finance their public transport otherwise“, explains Maxime Huré, president of the scientific council of the Observatory of the cities of the free transportation, a structure that is very favorable to the free and installed in Dunkirk.

In France, some thirty cities have a bus service free of charge. Generally, these are cities where the public transport network was not very developed and where the population moves around mostly by car. These communities have been able to pass this recipe linked to ticketing, without weighing too in their finances. Dunkerque, for example, or to Niort, the revenue users accounted for about 10% of the transport budget overall before moving to the free. While on large networks, such as Paris or Lyon, the revenue related to the securities of transportation are rather of the order of 30% of the overall budget. The networks were not saturated as in the city of paris or lyon.

The walk to the free is expected to accelerate

Yves Crozet, senior economist, Transport

Free is not going to spread like wildfire“, says Yves Crozet. On the other hand, “the walk to free education is expected to accelerate“. The economist estimated that two of the arguments of the defenders of the free transport – and in particular the city councils in majority (or large minority of green) – can “run a full“in the current context. Namely : “it is necessary to make it back at all costs-customers to use mass transit”. Free can be a way to attract them. In addition, “since the commercial revenue represent almost nothing, why not go completely”.

But the debate is far from closed. The Grouping of the transport organizing authorities (Gart), which brings together local elected officials, warns that the passage to the free cities that are considering it would be an additional difficulty. “If you do free it does cost more. We also need to invest in the network. However, in a context of post Covid, it becomes very complicated“says Bernard Soulage, chairman of the scientific committee of the Gart. “The studies also show that the question of price is not a determining factor. As soon as there is a concern of health, the people are picking the car that is much more expensive than transport in common“, he adds.

In the current context where the payment mobility declining and the commercial revenue are on the decline, there’s so much to compensate that it seems to me a bit suicidal to sit on the little commercial revenue that we have“, also believes Joel Hazan, an expert in mobility at the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), as cited by AFP. “What public transport need, it is extra money“he points out. “Free, as it makes a return in the public transport of people who would not have moved or who would have market“, he says, adding that it is always possible to improve the pricing of social for those who really need it.


a platform for cooperation between companies


Grenoble CCI

The CCI of Grenoble, like other CCIs, offers a mutual aid exchange, which puts companies in touch to cooperate and preserve their economic activity.

Specially designed for the crisis period linked to the COVID-19 coronavirus, this mutual aid exchange identifies the needs and offers of local businesses.

As part of its mutual aid grant, the Grenoble Chamber of Commerce and Industry presents the requests and offers of companies from South Isre likely to make a contribution from other companies on all subjects: raw material, under -treatment, supplier, logistics, transport, maintenance, IT, service, product, staff
A descriptive sheet allows companies to send the necessary information to the Mutual Aid Exchange platform. These are the sole responsibility of the company.
The requests and offers put online must concern the district of the CCI of Grenoble, namely the South of Isre.
The mutual aid exchange opened by the CCI of Grenoble has for only ambition to allow companies to make known their needs and to find contacts likely to bring them a help in the realization of this request. It does not intervene in any way in the conclusion of relations between companies, and disclaims all responsibility for the outcome or not of the present request.
Companies can submit their request or offer directly online.

More info on:–54190.kjsp?RH=CCIG



DAX outlook: mood barometer cloudy outlook

Frankfurt In the past weeks there have been repeated attempts to recover the course, on some days one could believe that the corona pandemic has already been overcome. But on Friday, disillusionment returned – the collapsed ifo business climate index made the whole dilemma clear.

The course of the mood barometer looks like a “Highway to Hell”, was the analysis of the VP Bank. The index is now significantly below the values ​​of the crisis year 2009. The simple message for the future was: “Massive income losses are imminent. We will all get poorer. This applies not only to Germany, but to all economies. ”Sometimes it is better to hear the unvarnished truth.

Other analysts and experts are also skeptical about the weekly outlook. Cautious savings by consumers and companies create a completely different economic and inflation environment than one knows from the post-war period, the analysts at MFS Investment Management believe.

They expect the earnings recovery to be weaker than the market and point to the possible dilution of earnings through capital increases. They particularly highlight 2008 as a comparison.

“When the extreme risk of the international financial crisis subsided, companies were no longer concerned with distributions, but with recapitalization. To this end, new shares were issued – at the expense of existing shareholders, whose capital was heavily diluted, ”said the investment professionals. The new wave of recapitalization has probably just started. In the past few weeks, leisure companies and service providers in the United States and Europe have already offered new shares.

Warning to bargain hunters

The BLI – Banque de Luxembourg Investments is also cautious. “The financial markets are currently giving the impression that they are underestimating the extent of the economic damage and are counting on a rapid recovery as soon as the containment measures are reversed,” is the BLI’s assessment.

Many investors are conditioned to view any decline as an opportunity to buy. However, the analysts recall that while the fall in share prices in February / March was dramatic, the valuations were also very high. As a result, the markets today are anything but cheap, especially after the recent price recovery.

Quality companies with a very solid balance sheet, one or more sustainable competitive advantages and the ability to self-finance should be preferred. The main factor that will continue to speak for stocks remains the low interest rate level and thus the lack of alternatives. At the same time, gold will become an “indispensable part of a balanced portfolio because of the inflation risks.”

After the significant recovery since mid-March, the European stock market has recently lost some momentum, the Weberbank experts believe. In addition, the balance sheet season that is already underway shows significant impacts on corporate balance sheets due to the global “lockdowns”.

Correspondingly, the analysts have also significantly lowered their profit expectations for industrial companies, but also for the banking and energy sectors. Due to the economic slump, banks faced increased write-downs on their credit books and the massive drop in yields clouded interest income. Most recently, they also negatively impacted the rating agency Standard & Poor’s (S&P).

The Deutsche Bank and the Commerzbank were therefore particularly under pressure on Friday “We continue to distance ourselves from these sectors and prefer creditworthy pharmaceuticals or companies from the non-cyclical consumption. In addition, titles from the technology sector are promising in our eyes, ”said the Weberbank experts.

Central banks meet worldwide

If the economic situation continues to be poor, the states and central banks will have to take further support measures. Robert Greil, chief strategist at Merck Finck Privatbankiers, sees an opportunity for this next week because the European Central Bank, the US Federal Reserve and the Bank of Japan are meeting.

“As a result of the unprecedented economic downturn caused by the Covid 19 consequences, all central banks will reaffirm their willingness to support,” says Greil. The economic downturn left neither governments nor central banks a choice but to take further measures to support and recover the economy.

The gross domestic product for the first quarter of 2020 will be published in the euro area on Thursday, and new growth figures will come in the US on Wednesday. Further important economic data in Germany are the preliminary inflation figures and the labor market report for April.

According to DZ Bank, the next quarter should bring an improvement in the economy, but there does not have to be a “V” or “I” recovery. This is not ignored on the stock market, many stocks are up to 80 percent down.

A large number of “mega-caps” hold up against this, mainly in the USA. Amazon, Google, Microsoft, Netflix and Facebook, but also Adobe or Comcast, be stable on the way. Things are also going well for the great values ​​of the “old economy”, including Pepsico, Johnson & Johnson, Procter & Gamble, Home depot and Pfizer. The German Leading index Dax the strategists from DZ Bank see 11,200 points by the end of the year, and the S & P-500 for US equities at 2,800. This would at least stabilize in the medium term.

More: Yield in Corona times: With which investments you can still make money


The State releases 7 billion euros to avoid the bankruptcy of Air France

Heard Wednesday in the Senate, Anne-Marie Couderc who chairs the Air France KLM group, was very clear. The French government’s announcement of massive aid to Air France was a matter of days. She was right. Friday evening, after a board meeting, the state, which owns 14.3% of the Air France KLM group, unveiled its plan to fly to the rescue of its national airline.

The financial envelope is impressive: 7 billion euros will be contributed to Air France in early May. This support will be provided in two ways: on the one hand, 4 billion euros in bank loans guaranteed by the State at 90%; on the other hand, a shareholder advance by the state of 3 billion, which Bercy will draw from the envelope of 20 billion intended for capital operations voted in the framework of the latest amending finance law.

KLM must also receive aid from the Dutch state. We are talking about 2 to 4 billion. But this plan should not be ready for a few days or even a few weeks.

Air France KLM group loses 25 million euros per day

This intervention by the French state in favor of Air France is anything but a surprise. As early as mid-March, the government claimed it would support its flagship company. On April 8, Bruno Le Maire, put the points on the i: “This is not a boost that Air France will need, it is massive support from the Statesaid the Minister of Economy. And Air France will have this massive support from the state. We want to preserve the airline which is a French industrial flagship at all costs.

There was an urgent need for the State to keep its promise because, in this period when world transport is almost at a standstill, Air France KLM is playing with its survival like others. “A need for liquidity is expected in the third quarter of 2020”, recognized Anne-Marie Couderc on Wednesday. Because even if Air France has an activity reduced to less than 5% of its usual offer and therefore a tiny turnover, its fixed costs (loans to pay for planes, maintenance, personnel costs despite the use of short-time working…) remain huge. As a result, the Air France KLM group is losing 25 million euros a day.

A scenario seems to be emerging which could be a return to the level of activity from 2019 around 2022

Ben Smith, CEO of Air France KLM

Aid from the French government was all the more expected since many other countries have already drawn their plans to save their companies. Singapore bailed out Singapore Airlines. The Trump administration has developed a package of measures for airlines worth $ 50 billion (25 billion in loans and 25 billion in aid).

This contribution of fresh money will be welcome for Air France because air transport is likely to be in turmoil for a long time. “A scenario seems to be emerging which could be a return to the level of activity from 2019 around 2022”, Air France KLM chief executive Ben Smith said in the Senate on Wednesday. This help, the group also counts on it to be able to participate in the consolidation of the sector which, according to Ben Smith will take place “In the world and in Europe.” Clearly, at the end of the crisis, be able to buy companies in bad shape or enter their capital.

If France has been slow to complete this rescue plan, it is for several reasons. First, it had to coordinate with the Netherlands, also shareholders of the Air France KLM group to the extent of 14.3% and with whom relations on the group’s governance are often troubled.

To convince French banks – two of the largest French banks would miss the rescue of space – and international banks, the French government had to guarantee loans up to 90% rather than 70%. Above all, it must make a commitment now, through the shareholder advance which gives guarantees of a future recapitalization. “The involvement of the banks shows their confidence”, indicates a source close to the file.

Hop! under pressure

In return, Air France has committed to making two copies: an economic plan, which must, according to someone close to the case, “Air France one of the most profitable airlines in its category”, and an ecological plan.

The group’s transformation plan presented in November will be “Accentuated”said Ben Smith on Wednesday. Air France’s domestic network, structurally in heavy losses, could be revised downwards. Among the ideas mentioned, reduce the interregional links provided by Hop! and transfer Air France routes from Orly to Transavia, the group’s low-cost subsidiary.

The company will continue to offset 100% of its carbon emissions on all its domestic flights as it has been doing for a few months

This restructuring will join ecological ambition. For the government, the plane is no longer justified when there is a rail alternative in less than two and a half hours (except to power the hub). The company will also continue to offset 100% of its carbon emissions on all its domestic flights as it has been doing for a few months. And it will continue to renew its fleet at the rate planned with planes that consume less fuel. The government needed this commitment: it would have been difficult to lend billions if its flagship company did not make efforts in this area at a time when air transport’s responsibility for global warming was singled out.

The same advice for all files

Two banks – Crédit Agricole CIB and Citi – and a law firm – Allen & Overy – will support Bercy for all of the major “hot” files of the coming weeks and months.

This “horizontal mandate” relates, from concordant sources, to the implementation of loans guaranteed by the State (PGE) to very large companies, and in particular to groups of the portfolio of the State shareholder, as well as to the deployment of 20 billion euros planned – at this stage – for possible capital transactions and included in the just adopted amending finance law.

The PGE procedure for large groups was released last weekend by Fnac Darty (500 million euros, guaranteed by the State at 70%).

The Air France file, closed on Friday, was much more complex. The company is advised by HSBC bank. The state is also supported by the BDGS cabinet for the occasion.

See also –Social distancing: why conventional airlines are better off – Watch on Figaro Live


Amazon keeps its French warehouses closed

Amazon France has lost the legal showdown engaged by the SUD union. The e-merchant drew the consequences Friday evening, and decided to extend the closure of its French warehouses until April 28. During this period, he will continue to pay his employees in full.

The decision rendered today by the Versailles Court of Appeal reinforces the idea that the main issue is not so much security, as the desire of certain trade union organizations to take advantage of a complex consultation process with social and economic committees, says Amazon. The penalty, as specified by the Court of Appeal, could imply that even a tiny rate of accidental treatment of unauthorized products, of the order of 0.1%, could result in a penalty of more than a billion euros per week. Unfortunately, this means that we have no choice but to extend the temporary suspension of the activity of our French distribution centers.

The Versailles Court of Appeal largely confirmed on Friday the decision rendered in summary proceedings on April 14 by the court of Nanterre. Amazon must restrict the activity of its French warehouses to certain categories of products; while waiting to make up for shortcomings related to employee health security.

This does not prevent Amazon, which had closed all of its warehouses following the first decision, to continue its commercial activity and to deliver its French customers from its warehouses abroad, or when shipping is taken care of by third-party sellers from its marketplace. From Fnac Darty to Cdiscount, most of his rivals have seen no impact from the closure of Amazon’s French warehouses on their own e-commerce activity for the past ten days.

Like the Nanterre court, the appellate court accuses Amazon of gaps in the protection of its employees from the risks associated with Covid-19. It also sanctions him for not having sufficiently consulted the employee representative bodies. The SUD union welcomed the ruling on Friday. “We welcome it. Amazon pays for ignoring alerts from staff, unions, and the Labor Inspectorate. He pays for the fact that he felt that everything had been done to protect employees. The judgment challenges this postulate in a major manner “, says Laurent Degousée, SUD-Solidaires central delegate.

SUD and CFDT lawyers point out that the judgment is all the more significant since it took into account Amazon’s practices at the date of the hearing in the court of appeal and not during the action in the first place.

As a result of these breaches, the court ordered Amazon to review its copy. The e-merchant is ordered to carry out an assessment of the professional risks linked to the Covid-19 epidemic across all of its French warehouses, this time involving staff representatives.

The court of appeal went further than the court in Nanterre, by requiring that the central social and economic committee (CSE) of the company in France be associated with this consultation, as well as the local CSEs of the six sites studied. Amazon has so far only done site by site. The e-merchant will have to implement all the protective measures that are missing.

“A long-awaited stop”

Until the American giant complies with its obligations, the court forced the company to restrict the products received, prepared and shipped to its warehouses. It thus confirms the first instance decision but widens the range of products that Amazon has the right to process in its warehouses, and above all, specifies the list. After the April 14 decision, Amazon said it could not distinguish in detail between authorized and prohibited products. Is a nail clipper an essential product? Faced with this uncertainty which could cost it dearly, Amazon had chosen to close all its warehouses. The court this time ordered Amazon to reduce the activity of its warehouses to high-tech products, computer, office, pet, health and body care, drugstore, grocery and drinks.

The court ruled that Amazon’s actions were not up to the pandemic and had been taken day by day without a master plan

Lionel Vuidard, associate lawyer at Linklaters

The penalty imposed in the event of default has also been reduced, to 100,000 euros per product, instead of 1 million euros. Insufficient, however, in the eyes of Amazon, who believes that the risk of an exorbitant penalty is still too high.

Beyond Amazon, the decision of the Versailles Court of Appeal will be scrutinized by a number of companies. “This judgment was eagerly awaited by our customers, who sometimes say that they have not done any better in terms of employee protection”, notes Lionel Vuidard, associate lawyer at Linklaters. The court did not deny that Amazon had taken numerous protective measures (reorganization of the shift gates, deactivation of the gantry cranes to smooth the passage, freezing, proposed temperature measurement, etc.).

“What is striking is that Amazon has implemented many measures”, Sabrina Kemel, lawyer at FTMS, also notes. But “The court considered that these actions were not up to the pandemic and had been taken day by day without a master plan mastered”, explains Lionel Vuidard. Amazon pays mainly for the gaps in social dialogue within the company. “The CSE should have been consulted on major changes which have changed the organization of work but have not been. However, this does not explain the restriction of activity “, believes the lawyer.


State guaranteed loan of 5 billion euros under study for Renault

The Minister of the Economy Bruno Le Maire announced this Friday that the French State envisaged a bank loan guaranteed by the State of approximately 5 billion euros to help the automobile group Renault to cross the crisis of the coronavirus.

“We are working on a loan of 5 billion euros for Renault, which this time would be a loan guaranteed by the State”, declared the minister on TF1. “What is at stake? It’s our automotive industry, it’s an industrial flagship that belongs to our culture, to our history, Renault! It’s a million jobs across our territory that are linked to the automotive industry ”said Bruno Le Maire. Emphasizing character “historical” of the crisis, the minister continued: “I want every entrepreneur, whether he is the head of an SME, a VSE, or the head of a large company, to know that the State will be by his side and that we will do everything that ‘It will cost, whatever the cost, to defend our businesses’, he said in particular.

This state aid had been in the air for several weeks: as of April 8, Bruno Le Maire had opened the door to state support for the builder, in which he controlled 15% of the capital. Renault was confident Thursday on its solvency, despite a turnover which plunged 19.2% in the first quarter, to 10.1 billion euros, victim of the collapse of the world market caused by the coronavirus epidemic.

“A safety net, nothing more”

The group, degraded by the rating agencies, burned 5.5 billion cash over three months for the automotive activity alone. However, it still had 10.3 billion in cash reserves at the end of March, said Renault, however. Acting Executive Director Clotilde Delbos said on a conference call with analysts on Thursday that the use of state-guaranteed loans represented “Only a safety net (…), nothing more” and that this was justified by the unknowns on the duration of the crisis and the pace of recovery.

The French manufacturer, which recorded its first losses in ten years last year, had seen its rating lowered in April to the rank of speculative investment by Standard and Poor’s. The manufacturer’s global sales volumes to the five brands (Renault, Dacia, Lada, Renault Samsung Motors and Alpine) fell 25.9% to 672,962 vehicles, in a market that tumbled 24.6% in January to March, which allowed it to maintain its market share of 4.1%.


Air Liquide withstands the global pandemic of Covid-19

In the first quarter, the industrial gas giant posted growth in activity.

Air Liquide managed to grow its turnover by 0.6% in the first three months of 2020.
Air Liquide managed to grow its turnover by 0.6% in the first three months of 2020. ERIC PIERMONT / AFP

The performance is remarkable. Like-for-like, Air Liquide managed to grow its revenue by 0.6% in the first three months of the year, to 5.37 billion euros. In published data, however, it fell by 1.3% due to the variation in energy prices.
essentially. Benoît Potier, CEO of Air Liquide, congratulates himself
of this performance obtained, “Despite the worldwide spread of the Covid-19 epidemic from January, with the corollary the establishment in the group of business continuity plans in almost all branches of the ‘activity”.

The group’s two largest divisions, the sale of industrial gases and the implementation of a complete solution for large industrial customers, suffered a 2% and 1% decline in activity in the first quarter. On the other hand, electronics, which requires industrial gases for the manufacture of semiconductors and other flat screens, resisted with an increase of 4%.

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how much do screening tests cost?

500,000 screening tests per week from May 11. The government’s objective is clear: the end of containment will be accompanied by a major screening campaign. For the past few weeks, the executive has displayed its willingness to evolve on its strategy in the face of the new Coronavirus, in order to avoid an upsurge in the epidemic in the coming weeks.

If you have symptoms and want to know if you are sick, or if you have been in close contact with a person who is known to be sick, you can, you should benefit from this virological test», Assured Olivier Véran. Currently, 150,000 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests are performed each week, said the Minister of Health last week. For comparison, Germany already performs an average of 400,000 tests per week, according to the Robert-Koch Institute.

In April, the departmental laboratories came to reinforce the national effort, whereas they had been excluded from human biology since 2011. “ At the rate at which things are changing, it is difficult to be certain of the number of tests that can be carried out after May 11Explains to Figaro Frédéric Altare, immunologist and research director at Inserm.

How much do PCR type screening tests cost?

Conventional PCR tests, which seek to detect the presence of the virus, are billed by city laboratories for 54 euros and are carried out on medical prescription. “Their price was defined by an agreement between the Health Insurance, the manufacturers, the city laboratories and the State “Says the Ministry of Health. They were registered, on March 8, 2020, in the nomenclature of medical biology acts by order of the Minister of Health.

These tests are reimbursed up to 60% by Health Insurance (CNAM), like any biology test, while the mutual (or CMUc) covers the remaining 40%. “The price of the tests takes into account the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases. It is also the gross cost of the reagent, quality controls, labor cost for the sample preparation and testing stages, as well as the time for biological validation and interpretation of the test.Explains to Figaro the Union of Young Medical Biologists. Tests not included in the nomenclature are not reimbursed. Their purchase price per unit varies between 30 and 50 euros.

How much do serology tests cost?

In addition to conventional screening methods, healthcare professionals are looking into the use of serological tests. Carried out from a blood test, these tests can detect people who have developed a form of immunity against the virus thanks to the presence of antibodies. These tests are not, to date, listed in the nomenclature and are therefore not reimbursed by Health Insurance. They remain the responsibility of the patient or of various actors through local initiatives, such as town halls, departments or nursing homes.

Today, the situation around serological tests is very confused. Many non-validated tests circulate on the market, with a price oscillating between 10 and 25 euros per unit for quick tests at your fingertips “Explains the Union of Young Medical Biologists.

The ELISA serology test, developed by the major diagnostic manufacturers, displays unit prices around 15 euros. Last week, the Swiss pharmaceutical group Roche, announced that it is working actively with the American drug agency, the Food and drug administration (FDA), to obtain a marketing authorization for the tests in early May, as part of an emergency procedure.

Limited production capacities

The new nature of the epidemic restricts the ability of manufacturers to set up test production lines sufficient to support global demand in record time. “ The limited production capacity explains the rather high cost of the tests. In addition, the PCR technique requires the use of high technology, which is very expensive vis-à-vis serology. Not all French laboratories are equipped with machines and reagents“Explains the Union of Young Medical Biologists.

Mass production of PCR tests on French soil would require the purchase of expensive machines. “ These machines cost between 100,000 and 150,000 euros, or even 250,000 for the most expensive. The cheapest are available around 50,000 euros“, Continues the Syndicate. In addition to purchasing equipment, laboratory staff should also be trained in the use of the tests.

If the French production capacities remain limited, the executive thus puts on the order of these tests by millions. But competition for the purchase of tests is raging between countries. Like China and the United States, with the giants Abbott, Becton Dickinson and Cepheid, the countries benefiting from diagnostic industrialists on their soils supply local demand first before exporting. While some states have chosen, for the time being, not to export.

Testing the entire population in PCR would be very difficult in terms of means, the sampling is rigorous, long and painful. In addition, a negative test can be positive 2 days later and it is impossible to screen everyone, as regularly“, Supports the Syndicate. “The idea would be to draw inspiration from states like Taiwan or South Korea who have implemented a targeted strategy, a strict confinement of positive people and a system of tracing those around them. The hotels could allow the future confinement of those affected ”.

If their reliability rate, of the order of 60%, remains to be improved, the use of a massive use of serological tests seems feasible. “ Analysis laboratories are equipped and capable of producing hundreds of thousands per dayExplains the Syndicate. For its part, the Ministry of Health tells the Figaro than “serology tests, not validated for diagnosis or immunity research, will only be deployed selectively for specific uses (seroprevalence or new studies) ” During questions to the government on Tuesday, Edouard Philippe showed reluctance in the face of a “usage doctrineOf these tests. The Prime Minister considered that their low reliability rate did not allow “to design a public health policy” He also questioned the value of this type of screening even though immunity to the new coronavirus has not been established.


justice maintains restrictions on the sale of products in France

A mixed victory for the Solidaires union union. This Friday, the Versailles Court of Appeal confirmed the judgment rendered ten days earlier by the Nanterre court. Amazon will therefore “proceed, by associating staff representatives, with the assessment of the occupational risks inherent in the Covid-19 epidemic in all of its warehouses as well as the implementation of the measures provided for in article L. 4121-1 of the resulting Labor Code

Nevertheless, the American group obtained a relaxation of the restriction of the activity of its warehouses. Previously reserved for a limited number of categories of goods, such as groceries or health, its warehouses can now also handle those belonging to groups “High-tech, IT, Office”, “Everything for animals in the Home, DIY, Pet shop” section, Health and body care, Men, Nutrition, Parapharmacy in the Beauty, Health and Well-being section“And”Groceries, Drinks and Maintenance“Declares the Court of Appeal.

The company has two days to submit to these rules, pending a risk assessment. After this time, she exposes herself to “a fine of 100,000 euros“For each prepared order that does not fall within this framework,”for a maximum of one month

Social partners welcome decision

During a telephone press conference, several union players welcomed the decision of the court of appeal. The CFDT lawyer thus welcomed “sacred union»Of the social partners facing Amazon. “Before the Court of Appeal, we had a real collaborative work“Between unions for”resist the arguments raisedBy the group, he said. The secretary general of FO Transports, Patrice Clos, said that “David won against Goliath“:”even if we are a global and American mega-giant moreover, that does not prevent that there are French laws and that we must respect them“, He hammered. The CGT Transport Federation, for its part, regretted the posture “hard-hittingFrom the firm.

Shortly after the communication from the court of appeal, the Amazon group reacted. In a press release, the company said it had “noted the outcome of [son] call” “We will assess as soon as possible the consequences of this decision for our business as well as for our employees, for customers in France as well as for the many French VSEs and SMEs who rely on Amazon to develop their business.He wrote.