The Function of Microtubules in Animals and Plants, Check Out the Explanation


Merdeka.com – Microtubules are cell organelles in the cytoplasm in the form of long, hollow cylinders. Microtubules themselves have an outer diameter of about 25 nm and a long diameter of 12 nm, which are made up of spherical protein molecules called tubulins.

The structure and function of microtubules is regulated by a group of proteins known as Microtubule Associated Proteins (MAPs). Where this protein regulates the length of the microtubules, the arrangement of the microtubules, and the functions of the microtubules. In addition, microtubules will act as belts on conveyers inside the cell, and will help move granules, vesicles, cell organelles, mitochondria and chromosomes through special attachment proteins.

In general, the function of microtubules is to maintain the shape of the cell and play a role in cell movement. In addition, there are several other functions of microtubules that are important to know. The following are the functions of microtubules and their explanations quoted from Microscope Master:

Analyzing Microtubule Structure

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As is well known, microtubules are tubular components of the cytoskeleton. Microtubules themselves are composed of alpha and beta tubulin heterodimers in the form of linear structures called protofilaments.

The wall structure of the microtubule tube is composed of 13 protofilaments that form a cylindrical structure. Where the cylindrical structure has an outer diameter of 25 nm, while the inner diameter of 15 nm.

In addition, each microtubule also has a polarity, that is, there are positive (+) and negative (-) ends where heterodimers are added to increase the length of the cytoskeleton, while the negative ends are embedded in a ring-like structure composed of gammatubulin.

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Microtubule Function

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One of the most important functions of microtubules is as a structural element in the cell by involving many cellular processes, such as mitosis, cytogenesis, and vesicular. As it moves to mitosis, this process will be facilitated by a subgroup of microtubules known as astral microtubules.

In addition, there are several other functions of microtubules that are important to know. The following are the functions of microtubules and their explanations, including the following:

Support Material Transport

The function of microtubules is to support the transport of materials that are the main components of flagella, cilia, and the spindle fibers of the cell during division. Microtubules play an important role in cell division because each chromosome moves into a cleft junction which is bound by the mitotic spindle created against the microtubules.

Not only that, the function of microtubules is also as a channel for the flow of cytoplasmic material in the cell which is a structural component of cilia and flagella. Therefore, microtubules play an important role in motility and support the movement of chromosomes during cell division.

Determinants of the Direction of Cell Motion

Microbultus plays an important role in cell movement, especially in mobilizing cell movement by polymerization and depolymerization as well as forming cilia and flagella for locomotion.

One of the movements carried out by cells is crawling movement. The crawling movement of mammalian cells, such as fibroblasts in connective tissue, depends on their ability to elongate. The results of this elongation will form lamellipodia and attach to the substrate surface.

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Cilia and Flagella

The next function of microtubules is as a constituent of cilia and flagella. In eukaryotes, a special arrangement of microtubules is responsible for vibrating cilia and flagella.
There are many unicellular eukaryotic organisms that move in water with the help of cilia and flagella, one of which is animal sperm. Where cilia appear in large numbers on the cell surface.

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