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The depopulation got into the campaign of the generals and is capital in half of the8,131 municipalitieswho now elect their mayors. There are many problems, but also some brave ones that defy the lack of infrastructure and housing and launch initiatives to turn Spain emptied into repopulated Spain
In the afternoon of a working day, on the road that crossesOrea, a small and secluded village nestled in the heart ofAlto Tajo Natural Park, on horsebackGuadalajaraYTeruel, crosses a livestock road and another of construction materials, while a group of elderly people hurries the day sitting on a bench in the sun. Located at 1,497 meters, Orea is the tallest town in Guadalajara. The spring has green fields andSierra del Tremedalrests at the foot of the terrace from which several young people who decided to leave the city to go to live in the town.
Pablo Martnez, 19 years old, I was born inCabañas de Ebro, next toEjea de los Caballeros (Zaragoza). After obtaining the average degree of forestry, he recalled in Orea more than a month ago to work in a cattle farm: I do not understand the people who say that the town is boring. If there is no time to get bored !.
I like it because you can say hello to everyone and there are no traffic jams. I think the interest in depopulation is a political fad that happens after the elections, warns for its partPilar Gasca, 30, owns the only hairdresser inCzech(Guadalajara).
Rodrigo Calvo, after studying Business in theUniversity of Alcal, changed Guadalajara a year ago to go live in his town. He does not regret it. He runs the rural hotel El Portn de la Sierra, a family business. Without internet, he says, I would not have come. Not only for a personal need, but for work. I have the hotel reservation program in the cloud. Here we do not have cable, but Movistar has installed the radio-internet system. The wifi works with the 4G of mobile phone coverage. In other neighboring towns there is ADSL. I watch Netflix and play Play with the friends who live in the city, he explains.
Precisely, the internet connection is what has led toJaime Herranz, 29 years old, to start a businessonlineto sell products from the area, especially jamn, Bajo Aragn oils and game sausages. What the earth gives Before I had studied inSegorbe (Castelln),ValenciaYBarcelona. When I finished a master's degree in mechanical engineering,MadridtoSaragossawith a temporary stay inIreland. I had a steady job and good salary, but one day I woke up in the morning and said to myself: I'm leaving here, I do not paint anything.
The interest in depopulation is a fad and it is happening, warns a young woman
Orea has managed to attract 30 inhabitants during the last three years. It is a remarkable figure considering that its census, according to theINE, reaches 177 inhabitants. Two decades ago, it was close to 300. Today, despite the policy of depopulation and the implementation of specific plans in several autonomous regions, historical deficiencies persist, such as the loss of infrastructure, excessive bureaucracy, housing shortages (in fact , there is no market neither of sale nor hardly of rent), the closing of banking offices or the borders that raise the own autonomous communities. The logistics company with which my company will work, explains Herranz, does not collect it until Orea because it only works in Aragn. To collect the shipments I have to travel to Orihuela del Tremedal, in Teruel.
The boredom of the interior Spain has provoked the irruption of the depopulation in the first political and meditative line. He has done it without a unified strategy and incurring what the poetMara Snchezcalled journalism gravedigger in his essayLand of women(Seix Barral). Journalism gravedigger is the one that abuses the terrorist statistics – Lapland of the South or Siberia of Spain are some of the frequent hoses – or the one that approaches the rural environment with a vision between compassionate and stereotyped.
The data that radiographed Spain emptied are, in any case, bleeding. According toCommissioner for the Demographic Challenge, 10% of the Spanish population (4.6 million people) resides in 70% of the territory, with an average density that fries the 14 inhabitants per square kilometer. In 4,800 municipalities, more than half, the aging index already exceeds the two highest for every 15 year old, which adds to the high masculinization of the census. The reports ofPilar Burillo, researcher ofInstituto Serrana Celtibrica, certify that 5% of the Spanish population lives in 54% of the territory. This extension covers 4,375 localities, precisely 54% of the 8,131 Spanish municipalities that on May 26 elect their mayors.
The Government approved the general guidelines of theNational Strategy for the Demographic Challenge. A document composed of 80 vaporous ideas that should now be filed by autonomous communities. To this is added the recent decision of theEuropean Parliamentto allocate 5% of the cohesin funds to alleviate the depopulation, which opens an Indian window for the Spanish countryside.
All political formations take advantage of the campaign of the autonomous and municipal to emphasize the emptied Spain, after the massive demonstration on March 31, in Madrid, backed by more than 80 platforms. After his last meeting in La Moncloa, Albert Rivera proposed to Pedro Snchez a state pact on the matter. With half a country empty, there are no opportunities for half of the population, he said.vilathe president of Ciudadanos, hand in hand with a package of tax reduction measures for municipalities with less than 5,000 inhabitants.
Introducing the topic in the political agenda has meant an important advance. What is not debated, does not exist. Now we have to go to the facts, he saysLuis Antonio Sez, director of the Department of Depopulation of the University of Zaragoza. The territorial agenda in Spain had two axes: the autonomic, structured through the services but without a global strategy, and the one that ties to the social cohesion.Ortega y Gassethe talked about territorial disloyalty, but also social.
Whoever comes must leave the urban mentality in the city and adapt
Given the lack of specificity of the administrations, several entities have launched repopulation initiatives. They are voluntarist and have limited effects, but more and more arise. The programs stand outEmbrace Earth, the most veteran of all, and the oneNew Trails, oriented to facilitate the integration of immigrant population; the plan of the neighbors ofThe Velosillo (Segovia)destined to revitalize this town with the creation of a venture capital fund of 200,000 euros to attract companies; The initiativeStirringdirected to theSierra de Aylln, in Guadalajara; or the rural development projectStart Artieda, that drives the arrival of new settlers in the Aragonese region ofJacetania. The common objective in these initiatives is to fix the population, although they suffer from a state coordination.
One of the engines of this movement is located inThe Hollow of Soria, an entrepreneurial space that promotes a message of resilience linked to an economic model that moves from intensive agriculture to embrace ecological protection and technological transformation.Joaqun Mayor, coordinator of El Hueco and director of Presura (National Fair for the Repopulation of the Spain Vaca), confirms that there is an incipient but growing tendency to come to live in rural areas of young people of urban origin.
El Hueco covers the work developed by the G-100, a group made up of 50 men and 50 women from all over the country who aspire to articulate a new rurality. According to Mayor, never like in the last decades there has been more money for regional development, but the model is so perverse that it has continued to expel people from the countryside. Among the 12 proposals presented a month ago are the creation of the Ruralista real estate portal; a bank of spaces in disuse oriented to art, culture and sports; or a rural Uber, a computer platform that, once installed on the mobile phone or the tablet, connect passengers, packages or services in real time.
Secundino Case, president of theSpanish Rural Development Network(REDR), which brings together 180 groups of local action, is in favor of separating that bucolic and idyllic vision that is manufactured in the urban world. You have to be prepared for the silences and the cultural and social shock that you encounter. The towns are a place of opportunities, but whoever comes must leave the urban mentality in the city because you get in touch with the people and the times are slower. Paradoxically, when you live in your flat in the center of Madrid, you do not know the neighbors. Here space and life are shared, and that requires an adaptation.
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