A new treatment for AIDS by injection

Viruses Retropion, and it can be given to the patient once every month or two, instead of taking daily medication pills to contain the disease, the agency said in a statement.

The Foundation indicated that these two oppositions are "First two" Which turns out to have an effect "long-term" By injection.

She stated that "The patients They will receive an intramuscular injection every month or two instead of the daily pill"According to what was quoted "France Brush".

The agency’s recommendation to allow marketing of this treatment should be approved European Commission, In order to be placed on the market in the 27 countries of the European Union.

The agency noted that the two anti-retroviral drugs were mixed "Rilpiverine" And"Caputegravir" Which will be sold under my name "Recampez" And"Focabria", Helps "Block the virus’s ability to reproduce".

The number of people living with AIDS in the world reached 38 million in 2019, including 2.3 million in Europe, according to the World Health Organization.

This disease has no cure yet, but antiretrovirals can control virus progression and contribute to avoiding transmission.

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The treatment mixes two antagonists Viruses Retropion, and it can be given to the patient once every month or two, instead of taking daily medication pills to contain the disease, the agency said in a statement.

The Foundation indicated that these two antagonists are the “first” that are found to have a “long-term” effect through injection.

She stated that “The patients They will receive intramuscular injections once every month or two instead of the daily medicine pills, “according to” France Press “.

The agency’s recommendation to allow marketing of this treatment should be approved European Commission, In order to be placed on the market in the 27 countries of the European Union.

The agency indicated that the combination of the two anti-retroviral drugs “Rilpeverin” and “Capotegravir”, which will be sold under the names of “Recampase” and “Vocabria”, helps in “preventing the ability of the virus to reproduce.”

The number of people living with AIDS in the world reached 38 million in 2019, including 2.3 million in Europe, according to the World Health Organization.

This disease has no cure yet, but antiretrovirals can control virus progression and contribute to avoiding transmission.

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Duh, it is feared that HIV cases will surge because ARVs are increasingly rare

Harianjogja.com, JAKARTA – The Covid-19 pandemic makes it difficult for people living with HIV / AIDS (PLWHA) to get access to antiretroviral drugs (ARV).

According to the rapid survey on the needs of PLHIV in ARV treatment on April 23-30 2020, 8.3 percent of the 660 respondents reported a decrease in the number of ARVs received, while about 50 percent reported changes in HIV services.

One of the researchers, Anindita Gabriella Sudewi said that PLWHA had to return to their hometown because they ran out of ARVs in their city of residence and had difficulty moving clinics or puskesmas to access these drugs.

Also read: Get to know Biotechnology, the Branch of Science in the Manufacture of Covid-19 Vaccines

Yes, according to a survey with respondents aged 30-40 years, on average or 47.7 percent of PLHIV received ARVs from government hospitals, 35.7 percent from puskesmas, 10.6 percent from private hospitals, 2.4 percent from private clinics , 2 percent from pulmonary centers, and 1.4 percent from clinics or through non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Of all that, 93 percent of respondents get ARV for free.

However, from the results of this survey, it was found that there are PLWHA JKN holders who have to pay to access ARVs. In addition, changes in the operation of the clinic / puskesmas have resulted in PLWHA having to queue longer and with shorter consultation times. Even though PLWHA is a group vulnerable to contracting the corona virus.

Gabi said, indeed, currently the government is focused on tackling the Covid-19 pandemic. However, it is also necessary to pay attention to sufferers of high-risk diseases such as PLWHA, to access medicines and health services.

“The Indonesian health system needs to anticipate health imbalances or inequalities in vulnerable groups,” he said.

Also read: Corona in Bantul Nowadays 383 Cases, This is the Latest Data for Each District

Nevertheless, said Gabi, there is still room for change in providing ARV access for PLHIV. For example, providing more ARV supplies and using courier services to deliver them.

“This kind of change brings hope to the existence of HIV services beyond clinics, including a community-based health service model, which involves resources outside the government-based service structure,” said Gabi.

Likewise, Epidemiology from the University of Indonesia, dr. Pandu Riono agrees that there is a need for innovation in addressing health services for vulnerable groups in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic.

“There are no ways before the pandemic. We must have new innovations to overcome services in the midst of a pandemic,” he said.

Pandu added that during this pandemic the possibility of an increase in people living with HIV because prevention and treatment was disrupted. “Because there are PSBB everywhere, the logistics chain for drugs will break. Because if there is an interruption, it can increase resistance. This becomes complicated,” he said.

As for Pandu said, until May 2020, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Indonesia was 640,443 people. A total of 394,769 were HIV positive, 202,919 of whom started taking ARVs, while 134,032 people were still on ARV therapy.

Source: Bisnis.com

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“We have to learn to live with the virus”

The corona virus has been determining our lives for months and will continue to do so for a long time to come. Will we have to learn to live with the virus?

Yes, because we have been living with viruses for millions of years. They attack humans, animals, plants, even bacteria, but all life forms have developed mechanisms to deal with them. And we will continue to have to do that, we humans too.

But should a vaccine come?

Even a vaccine will not change that, which is not the case for many viral diseases despite intensive research, the HIV virus is the classic example of this. AIDS has become a pandemic and has spread across the globe – and we live with it. Admittedly with very different and sometimes even catastrophic effects, especially in Africa, but in other regions mankind has half the virus under control – without eradicating it. Other viral diseases could be restricted regionally – thank God – regionally, just think of it if Ebola had also reached pandemic proportions.

But are we vaccinating against the normal flu?

Yes, there is still a third group of viruses, although we continuously vaccinate against them: influenza, i.e. the flu. We have been living with this virus for millennia, it causes different deaths every year. But societies can handle it. There has never been a shutdown call with all of its social, cultural and economic consequences.

The world has learned to live with it, but Corona is different.

Yes, but the attempt to narrow it down locally failed at least in the first wave. With a completely justified almost complete lockdown, we then reduced the new infections, at least in Europe, to a level that again ensures traceability and thus enables local isolation in a second wave.

The second wave will come?

This second wave will probably not start in midsummer, but only with decreasing temperatures and more stays in closed rooms and thus behave similarly to the famous flu waves. And then we have to learn to live with this virus too. Maybe it will also mutate, so that vaccinations will have to be given every year, but we also know that from the flu and should not be discouraged.

Honestly, that sounds pretty sobering …

… what we need is a strategy that aims to limit outbreaks locally. And if there are short-term travel restrictions like now in the Gütersloh and Warendorf districts, we should accept that.

The app is not enough?

For a local limitation of an outbreak, the Corona app is a first necessary but not yet sufficient step. A central, Europe-wide app would help us a lot more, maybe – hopefully – it will come later.

What if we cannot localize these new waves?

That is the big risk. The world definitely cannot afford a regular global shutdown like the one they are experiencing now.

Exactly, but what to do as long as we don’t have effective vaccination protection or more effective medication available?

Because of the higher morbidity and especially mortality, we cannot treat Covid-19 like a normal flu wave, but we have learned a lot in the course of the first wave: we know the different lethalities of different groups of people, we know the critical previous illnesses, and we know them Age dependence of the bad cases.

And what does that bring us now?

With this knowledge, we can give priority to protecting the most vulnerable groups of people, be it personal protective equipment, regular testing or preferred vaccination as soon as possible. Of course, this will cost individual companies, but they will be far less than further lockdowns.

What can the less vulnerable do?

We have to act in solidarity: adhere to hygiene measures, use the Corona app, be ready to accept warnings and temporary restrictions, and when the fall comes, take the flu shot too! This can also help Covid-19 patients, because then the capacity of intensive care units will not be restricted by flu patients.

So live with the virus?

If we all learn to live with the Covid 19 virus, nobody has to be discriminated against or even isolated. And if a vaccine is available next year – which I firmly believe, because the results available so far are positive – the situation will relax significantly anyway, even if we still have to live with the virus.

Until then do we have to hold out?

Yes. And longer.

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Corona research has long been laughed at


Construction of the key enzyme of Sars-CoV-2, which is also called the main protease. It is composed of two identical molecules. They each have three very stable sections, so-called domains (I, II, III). They also contain catalytic residues of amino acids. They are shown here in blue for histidine (His41) and yellow for cysteine ​​(Cys145).
Image: University of Lübeck

Rolf Hilgenfeld is a pioneer in corona research. In the beginning people laughed at him, today he is used. But the virologist cannot promise quick help either.

Professor, as a biochemist you have been researching corona viruses for a long time. They are said to be your passion. How did you get involved?

I started with the corona viruses at the university in Jena because I was interested in proteases. These are proteins that split other proteins. I found these corona virus proteases remarkable because they were larger than those of other viruses. I wanted to see what they look like. And that’s why I started working on these coronavirus proteases around 1998. We published the first structure in 2002, before the Sars epidemic.

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The European Commission approves a package of aid to support the Spanish economy

The European Commission has approved theSecond framework regime to support the Spanish economyin the context of the health and economic crisis ofCovid-19 coronavirusduring this year, as reported by the agency in a statement.

Specifically, the aid will beintended for research and developmentrelated to coronavirus, investment intesting infrastructure, to the investment for theproduction of coronavirus related products,deferrals in the payment of taxes or contributions to Social Securityand subsisted salaries for employees to avoid workforce reductions.

The notified measure expands the aid modalities that can be granted under the first National Temporary Framework, approved by the Commission on April 2, since support can also be granted in the form of guarantees, interest rate subsidies, as well ascapital for a nominal amount of up to 100,000 euros to a company active in the agricultural sectorprimary, up to 120,000 euros to an active company in the fishing and aquaculture sector and up to 800,000 to an active company in all other sectors.

The executive vice president and head of competition policy, Margrethe Vestager, has pointed out that this second Spanish framework regime will allow Spain to provide more support to the economy during this crisis. “It includes support for research and development, testing and production of products related to coronavirus,” he added.

Vestager has pointed out that this framework also includes wage subsidies and deferrals of taxes and social security contributions to support the maintenance of employment. “We continue to work closely with Member States to ensurethat national support measures can be implemented on time and in a timely mannercoordinated and effective, in line with the rules of the European Union, “he stressed.

Following the approval by the Commission of a first Spanish framework regime on April 2, Spain notified the Commission, under the Temporary Framework, of a second National Temporary Framework applicable to state aid intended to support companies affected by the pandemic of coronavirus.

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HIV carriers and former TB patients need to be very vigilant

Published on :

The presence of other pathologies increases the risk of complications in a patient with the new coronavirus. Hence the importance for people with HIV or former tuberculosis patients to be extra vigilant. Interview.

The professor Jean-Marie Kayembe is head of the pulmonology department at the university clinics of Kinshasa. He is also the dean of the Faculty of Medicine in Kinshasa, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Wednesday April 22, he was the guest ofprogram Health priority, on RFI.

RFI: What has this pandemic changed in your exercise for a lung health specialist like you?

Pr Jean-Marie Kayembe: Breathing difficulty being included among the reference consultation reasons, anyone with these signs, associated with fever, immediately forgets bacterial or viral pneumonia … All attention is focused on this rapid killer that is the coronavirus. Chronic conditions are still there, but attention is being capitalized on by this pandemic, which teaches us all to be humble.

Is there an additional risk for someone who has had pulmonary tuberculosis in the past with coronavirus? Do we have any feedback on this comorbidity?

We still learn a lot from this affection. At this time, we are not aware of any of our patients treated for tuberculosis who have contracted Covid-19. Tuberculosis as a chronic condition is cured when treated properly. Our countries and health systems are well organized around this chronic condition. On the other hand, the Covid-19 falls to us as a kind of fatality, for which we must keep a cool head and the humility to learn more every day.

A series of chronic diseases is an increased risk factor. The same is true for immune deficiencies. We are of course thinking of the situation of people with HIV. Is there targeted awareness-raising in services dedicated to HIV-AIDS?

Effectively. Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have national HIV care programs. The most important recommendation is that people on treatment do not give up on it. They must be very attentive to the barrier measures. In a period of confinement, an HIV subject should adapt better than anyone else to all these barrier measures, which have proven to be effective in all countries.

In case of pulmonary symptoms, is there also a recommendation for a screening for HIV or tuberculosis, during a Covid-19 consultation ?

It is important to remember that the Covid-19 is there, but that we still have this procession of chronic diseases whose symptoms are known. It doesn’t have to distract attention from these other illnesses. For example, I was contacted by an asthmatic patient. He takes inhaled corticosteroids that stabilize him. After learning that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were banned in Covid-19, he didn’t know what to do. Treatments that stabilize patients must be continued! Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease. The current pandemic does not justify that patients stop their treatment.

Is the prevention message going well with the populations?

I do not think that the awareness-raising work should stop in any way. We face in our countries another common enemy: poverty which calls for overcrowding and daily resourcefulness to survive. Despite this, wearing a mask has just been made compulsory in public places in our country. We welcome it as an additional barrier measure that will protect sick people from their environment, but also those who are not. We have liberalized the availability of imported surgical masks. These masks are not within the reach of all budgets, we encourage the wearing of the fabric mask, manufactured by our local tailors. The advantage of this mask is that it can be cleaned and used more than once. We must not witness a vertiginous rise in the price of these masks, even made locally. It’s a story of national solidarity. This is especially not the time to seek illicit enrichment which risks going out of common sense.

When you have a chronic disease, in no case should you take treatment for self-medication, without notifying your doctor because there can be interactions and contraindications, right?

We can see the place that comorbidities occupy in the prognosis of Covid-19 infection, in particular hypertension, diabetes, obesity, sleep apnea syndrome, etc. It is important not to forget the patient’s medical card only because he is now Covid positive.

Our selection on SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus

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lessons from the HIV pandemic for tomorrow from COVID-19

Madrid

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One more week, we are still confined at home. The SARS-CoV-2 virus, colloquially called coronavirus, the causative agent of COVID-19, has generated a social earthquake that many of us have never experienced. Without being the deadliest pandemic that humanity has suffered – the HIV pandemic, which we will now talk about, has already carried 30 million people ahead – it is being the first to It has confined more than two billion people to its homes in less than two weeks.

It is also the first pandemic suffered by the western world in a present characterized by the media explosion, social networks and the continuous and immeasurable flow of information.

It is still difficult to predict what the near future will be like, especially when it comes to what social life will be like when the confinement. Let’s see that those infected people will have immunity for a time, and therefore will be able to lead normal lives.

But we don’t know for how long, or what the relationships will be like between immunized and non-immunized people. Thus, like previous pandemics, one of the social consequences that COVID-19 could have is the stigmatization of those infected during or after confinement.

Despite the uncertainty we are faced with, there are lessons to be learned from previous pandemics. In this article I will try to explain how a stigma is generated And what can we learn from the HIV pandemic to manage, as far as possible, the stigmatization and discrimination that may arise in the morning of the COVID-19 crisis.

What is the stigma waterfall? The four steps

Bruce Link and Jo Phean are the authors of one of the most followed conceptual models to study stigmatization phenomena and their consequences: the waterfall in four steps.

The first step in this waterfall, and the easiest to identify, is labeling. I mean, the identification by name or tag of a human characteristic, visible or invisible, that deviates from what is socially considered normal.

The second, more unconscious step is the association to that label of negative attributes. These attributes usually have a deep moral origin and are in line with what a society, at a certain moment, considers inappropriate.

The third step, and which already requires human action, it is the separation, physical, social or symbolic, of those individuals who possess that label negatively connoted. That is, the generation of an otherness and its isolation.

Finally, the fourth step, and that supposes a logical trigger of the previous ones, is the loss of status of those separated individuals. That is to say, The discrimination.

The stigma cascade in the HIV pandemic

Labeling, attribution, separation and discrimination these are the four steps we can find in generating any stigma. If we consider how the stigma of HIV was generated and what triggered it, we can clearly distinguish this cascade.

In the beginning of the HIV epidemic, and until the beginning of the development of antiretroviral treatments, the vast majority of infected people developed AIDS, a syndrome that left very evident marks resulting from strong immunosuppression: thinness, paleness, sarcomas, etc. Even until recently, most antiretroviral treatments had the side effect of lipodystrophy, which caused marks on the skin of the face and hands.

Thus, HIV left for a long time easily recognizable physical marks that were immediately labeled (seropositive, AIDS) and assigned with negative attributes that are a reflection of the morale of the moment: promiscuous, dirty, irresponsible, drug addict, buscona, pariah. Definitely: whores, junkies and fags.

The social separation of people living with HIV was not long in coming, and many of them were harassed by graffiti on their homes or suffered public derision. As a consequence, strong discrimination occurred, and people with HIV had their possibilities of accessing work, travel or were restricted criminalized only for being carriers of the virus.

Many of these restrictions still exist today: 48 countries around the world prevent people with HIV from entering (Russia, Australia or Paraguay being some examples), and 1 in 5 declare having been rejected by a health system.

Invisible marks

The current HIV situation has changed a lot in the past 40 years. Thanks to antiretroviral therapies, people living with HIV are able to maintain undetectable viral loads and, as a result, prevent completely transmission of the virus (I repeat, completely). Furthermore, current treatments no longer generate lipodystrophy.

However, in addition to the stigma caused by visible marks, it was fueled by a multitude of invisible and symbolic marks that are what keep the stigma alive today. The stigma continues there, and that moral attribution, that second step of the waterfall, has not been disarticulated. And the media is not helping much.

Ask yourself, if not, how many times have you heard on television that undetectability means intransmissibility and how many times the very stigmatizing “nowadays you have to be an idiot to get infected with HIV.” Or better, put yourself in the situation of a dinner at your house with friends and acquaintances in which someone confesses that he lives with HIV. Would you put more effort into scrubbing the cutlery when finished, knowing that there is no risk of transmission? You will surely see that the stigma is still there.

Beyond discrimination

The consequences of stigma do not stop only in social isolation and discrimination. They also have a direct effect on the health of stigmatized people. Several meta-analyzes show that people living with HIV are 29% more likely to suffer from mental health problems due to stigma. These results are repeated, for example, in people with obesity. It has even been shown how the stigma can increase incidence of comorbidities of some types of cancers.

The physiological causes why stigma can have a direct impact on mental and physical health they are not yet precisely known. However, there is evidence that allows an approximation. For example, stigmatized people have been shown to maintain slightly higher levels of activation of the neural stress pathways, which can result in loss of concentration or the appearance of mood disorders such as anxiety or depression.

COVID-19 and stigma

Knowing the history of stigma generation in the HIV pandemic and its consequences should prepare us to manage possible stigmas in the next phase of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Unlike HIV, the COVID-19 pandemic occurred in the middle of the Information Age, which is why we are constantly being bombarded, by all the means at our disposal, from data, interpretations and, how could it be otherwise, multitude of fake news.

This is causing, in a very short time, a very edgy climate of opinion, plagued by exhaustive and immovable moral interpretations, is being formed. Something that seems to sound similar to that second step of the stigma cascade.

“Selfish”, “irresponsible”, “capricious” … are some of the names that are most read or heard these days to point out people who are on the street, without knowing their motives. In some small towns people who have been infected and their families are singled out (do we remember those graffiti at the start of the HIV pandemic?). Neighbors denounce other neighbors. “Balcony vigilantes” abound. “The old woman with the net curtain” returns.

This crisis has pushed us to establish new social norms very quickly and without a clear normative correlate. In every social norm there is morality. And morally, and more without accumulated memory, we tend to put ourselves at the top. The me in the citadel of the good citizen.

The problem is that in setting a new social norm in such a fast way it is very easy to cheat the solitaire: point the finger at the one who goes to the supermarket two days in a row while an Amazon delivery man comes home for the umpteenth time.

Point out those affected?

This cocktail of moral attributes is the ideal breeding ground to generate a stigma. In the case of COVID-19, however, the first step of the waterfall, the labeling, It is not so clear since, for now, there is no physical mark that allows to identify the infected.

However, we are heading towards a morning of confinement where, for example, it may be mandatory for people who test positive wear masks, or that they must be absent from work to isolate themselves.

Those marks or actions will allow to easily point to those infected, assign them a moral attribute and, therefore, discriminate against them. To this we must add, let us not forget, that visible marks are added to many other invisible marks that abound in the definition of stigma.

Thus, it is necessary for us as a society to reflect more calmly on how we designate those who will eventually become infected after confinement. And, above all, the media must act as dykes for the propagation of negative attributes and not as propagators.

They should better educate us on hygiene standards, but they will also have to make us better aware of how the virus works, its epidemiology, its transmission and its immune process to avoid unnecessary public scorn and, therefore, the social and health cost that this new stigma can carry.

Author Sergio Villanueva Baselga. Professor of Media and Communication, Universitat de Barcelona.

Fully published in THE CONVERSATION.

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Social systems: an epidemic of fear

Vor exactly thirty years ago, the British medical sociologist Philip Strong published an essay on the sociology of epidemics, which was soon to become a citation classic in social science disaster research. At that time, AIDS was the threat of the hour, and the author’s interviews also related to the uncertainty it caused. Strong also considered ancient and medieval epidemics because he was looking for a general model. It is therefore a deliberately unhistorical thought, which is supposed to affect the constant features in response to a major, new and largely unexplored disaster.

The author is not concerned with the objective course of an infectious disease, which one has to fear that it will endanger the health or survival of many people – and under the tightest time pressure and with this a sharply limited repertoire of useful remedies and reaction options. Instead, he is interested in the orientation crisis that such prospects trigger in society. This second crisis is not simply a more or less faithful reflection of the first. For its part, it spreads like infection, but it follows its own logic and can therefore cause its own “excitement damage” (Niklas Luhmann), not only temporarily in terms of the judgment of those involved, but also permanently in the facilities of their society.

Necessary subjectivity

Philip Strong sees the main reason for this autonomy of social development in the fact that, given the great, acute and novel dangers, it is not possible to rely on proven knowledge. When, for example, the Black Death came for the second time, the pandemic had experience and routine, but the first appearance met unprepared people. According to Strong, acting in a crisis of this type is not simply right or wrong, and apart from drastic mistakes here, it is not simply too early or too late. Historians may see it that way later, but contemporaries of the unknown disaster have no access to their knowledge. You have no other option but to overdraw insufficient information and act on self-made security foundations. Their reactions are inevitably subjective, and it is precisely this necessary subjectivity that makes many objective traits of social development understandable.

Strong explains this using the example of distrust in people who are considered dangerous. That may be a subjective misjudgment. But as such it tends to self-reinforcement and open hostility in normal situations, and in severe orientation crises this hostility may be against those who are believed to have or could spread the disease. As is well known, one of the first reactions to AIDS was the attempt to see it as a disease of the gays alone, if not a punishment for their sexual orientation. Strong speaks of an epidemic of fear to describe such waves of distrust.

Alarmists and deniers

The necessary subjectivity of the reaction explains quite well why there is no unanimous but rather competing assessments of the danger, for example in that alarmists and deniers face each other, both with strong emotional commitments in favor of their own views. Scientific controversy may then also be waged like wars of faith, and there may also be conversions that drive followers from one camp to the other, where they then continue to preach with the zeal of the newly converted. Philip Strong speaks of an epidemic of explanation and an epidemic of recommendations for action in order to describe this uncoordinated handling with strong convictions.

The doubts about this unhistorical process are obvious: Didn’t pre-modern civilizations react differently to epidemics than modern societies? And doesn’t it make a significant difference whether priests or scientists act as competent interpreters? Strong would perhaps reply that the simplification of the model affects one aspect of the matter itself, that crises have a pull to simplify the perspective. The intellectual and emotional regression are part of their side effects, a strong trend towards social dedifferentiation is one of their permanent identifiers. That sounds plausible: Saturated people can differ, but almost unbearable hunger makes everyone the same. Similarly, one may turn here or there in the midst of a familiar living environment, but given the unfamiliar danger, less differentiated and, above all, less independent reactions are obvious.

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Could SARS-CoV-2 have been created in the laboratory and escaped?

A Nobel laureate in medicine, Professor Luc Montagnier, affirms this, establishing a link between Covid-19 and HIV, of which he is the discoverer.

Two researchers at the P4 laboratory in Wuhan.
Two researchers at the P4 laboratory in Wuhan. Johannes EISELE / AFP

THE QUESTION. For several days, across the Atlantic, the possible involvement of China in the origin of the Covid-19 has been mentioned, more or less explicitly, by the press, but also by the political authorities. The Washington Post notably had access to “memosOf American diplomacy: two years ago, the American embassy in China would have warned Washington of security risks at the Institute of Virology of Wuhan. “We are conducting a full investigation into everything we can learn about how this virus has spread, has infected the world”, reacted in the aftermath the head of American diplomacy, Mike Pompeo.

Emmanuel Macron also made enigmatic remarks in an interview with Financial times . “There are obviously things that have happened that we don’t know”, explained the President of the Republic. Still on the French side, the main accusation came from a Nobel Prize in medicine, Professor Luc Montagnier, discoverer of the AIDS virus,

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