Reservists will be called up for military training – Russian newspaper

The President of the Russian Federation issued a decree on the draft in 2020 for military training of Russian citizens in reserve. The document will be published in the next issue of “Rossiyskaya Gazeta”.

We’ll immediately clarify that this decree has nothing to do with the events in Syria or elsewhere. Military training of reservists is carried out every year, and the current one will not be an exception. By decision of the president, some reserve officers and officers assigned to military units and institutions in case of war or other emergencies will be temporarily called up to the Armed Forces, parts of the Russian National Guard, state security agencies and the Federal Security Service. The duration of their stay in the military system is agreed with the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. An exception will be made only for verification fees, whose duration will be determined by the Ministry of Defense.

All issues of the organization and conduct of military training are detailed in a special Regulation. The document says that the call of citizens for military training is carried out by military registration and enlistment offices on the basis of decrees of the President of the Russian Federation. And their duration, place and time are determined by the Ministry of Defense and other law enforcement agencies, where the law provides for military service.

Moreover, the Regulation severely limits the duration of military training – they cannot exceed 2 months .. As for the total time that a person spends at the military training camp for the entire period of his stay, there is also an “upper bar” – not more than one year .

The document defines the gradation of military fees. They are divided into enrollment training courses and verification fees. The first are held in military units, where the storekeepers are temporarily assigned to posts corresponding to their military specialties.

Such fees can also be held in the form of training sessions with full-time reservists. This is necessary to maintain army skills in people who have signed a contract with the Ministry of Defense to remain in a mobilization reserve. In addition, there are enlisted fees related to the training of citizens in military registration specialties and military posts, or in the maintenance of tangible assets.

As for the test camp, the combat and mobilization readiness of military units and military commissariats is assessed there. That is, their ability to perform their functions in a special period – during or in anticipation of a war.

The Regulation on the conduct of military training says that for the period of their holding, the average salary at the main place of work is kept by the storekeepers. In addition, people will receive cash allowances and payments due to contract soldiers. Travel expenses “partisans” paid by the state. And if the place of military training is 3 thousand kilometers or more from the storehouse’s home, then it will be delivered to the place of temporary service by plane.

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Lukashenko said the risk of the collapse of Belarus

Belarus risks being left without a part of its territories and returning to the borders of 1921. This was warned by President of the country Alexander Lukashenko in a private speech to an asset of the Minsk region.

He stressed that in 1921 they exchanged and gave land to “the West, Poland, Russia had something there in the east.” And in 1939, the border of the Byelorussian SSR passed near Minsk, reports Lenta.ru.

Lukashenko added that if in the fall of that year the Red Army had not annexed Western Belarus, which was part of Poland, then the borders of this state would now be different.

“So I don’t want this to happen now (the situation of 1921, – Ed.). So you think. You think what country we will live in,” said Lukashenko, whose performance was shown on the TV channel Belarus 1 “

See also “Lukashenko: the US and China are fighting for the redivision of the world”

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Lukashenko said the risk of the collapse of Belarus

Belarus risks being left without a part of its territories and returning to the borders of 1921. This was warned by President of the country Alexander Lukashenko in a private speech to an asset of the Minsk region.

He stressed that in 1921 they exchanged and gave land to “the West, Poland, Russia had something there in the east.” And in 1939, the border of the Byelorussian SSR passed near Minsk, reports Lenta.ru.

Lukashenko added that if in the fall of that year the Red Army had not annexed Western Belarus, which was part of Poland, then the borders of this state would now be different.

“So I don’t want this to happen now (the situation of 1921, – Ed.). So you think. You think what country we will live in,” said Lukashenko, whose performance was shown on the TV channel Belarus 1 “

See also “Lukashenko: the US and China are fighting for the redivision of the world”

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Hubert Germain, the companion of the Liberation, who needs to speak to Emmanuel Macron

In mid-June 1940, Hubert Germain preparing to take the entrance exam to the École navale in Bordeaux. In the exam room, he has the mind elsewhere. “Paris had just fallen, France was drowning. “So, Hubert, what are you going to do ? wondered the young man. You’re going to pass an exam, and you will, perhaps, be received. And after ? You’re going to become an officer of the navy or the air force of a State that will be the orders of the nazi Germany ?” Unthinkable. He rose, therefore, issued a white copy to the supervisor and went out “recounts the book We were not heroes Benedict Hopquin (Calmann-Lévy).

“I’m leaving for war “launches from Hubert Germain, as he enjoyed the telling by 2018. A few days after, general de Gaulle launched an appeal on the airwaves of the BBC in London. Eighty years later, to commemorate the famous speech calling to continue the fight, Hubert Germain will discuss with Emmanuel Macron, Thursday, June 18, at the Order of the Liberation in Paris. For almost a hundred years, he also took part, on Wednesday, at the Invalides, a ceremony of the forage of the Order of the Liberation to the cadets of 2e battalion of the école spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr.

→ TO READ. Call of 18-June : the challenges of memory of Emmanuel Macron

Resistant the first time, Hubert Germain is one of the last four companions of the Liberation still alive with Daniel Cordier, secretary of Jean Moulin, Edgar Tupët-Thomet, one of the first four involved military secrets of the FFL in France, and Pierre Simonet, benjamin companions of the Liberation. A title awarded to 1 038 people, five French communities and eighteen combat units since November 1940.

The battle of Bir Hakeim and the Provence landings

Born August 6, 1920 in the beautiful districts of Paris, the son of a general of the colonial troops, Hubert Germain sailed for England, June 24, 1940, in Saint-Jean-de-Luz. With three comrades, he joined the Polish troops on board theArandora-Star. Committed to the FFL, he was assigned to the battleship Courbetwhere it follows the courses of the cadet of navy. On the day, between the alerts, it is studying. At night, he took part in the air defence against the raiding germans.

Hubert Germain then joined the foreign Legion. He is fighting in Syria, Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, and Italy. During the campaign of Libya in particular, he distinguished himself as a section leader anti-tank in the battles of Bir-Hakeim from 27 may to 11 June 1942. In Italy, 24 may 1944, it is “wounded while directing the fire of the heavy machine guns of his section to continue to support the battalion attack along the Liri “tells the Order of the Liberation. Evacuated to Naples, he was decorated by general de Gaulle in Italy in late 1944.

Meanwhile, in August 1944, Hubert Germain participates in the Provence landings and the liberation of Toulon, in the valley of the Rhone and Lyon. His journey does not stop there : he takes part in the campaigns of the Vosges, Alsace and finished the war in the massif of Authion. Called as an aide-de-camp to general Pierre Kœnig, commander of the French forces of occupation in Germany, he was demobilized in 1946.

Political commitment

After the fights, Hubert Germain agrees otherwise, in to politics : mayor of Saint-Chéron (Essonne), member of parliament for Paris, and then PTT minister and relations with Parliament. On 17 march, at the beginning of the containment to combat the coronavirus, Hubert Germain launched, with Daniel Cordier and Pierre Simonet, a particular call. “We fought five long years for that France kind of victory of that terrible Second world War. Today, we are all faced with another threat, a war of a different kind “wrote the three resistance fighters, calling on the French to do “evidence of reason, solidarity, national cohesion, and individual responsibility “.

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Between Nato allies, the confidence troubled

Donald Trump throws once again the turmoil in the transatlantic relationship. The defence ministers of Nato met on Wednesday 17 and Thursday 18 June in the video conference, should adopt a series of measures to prepare for a possible second wave of the pandemic of sars Coronavirus but it is a whole other subject that will occupy their minds.

→ TO READ. Coronavirus : Nato in the event of the pandemic

Donald Trump has confirmed, on Monday, 15 June, its intention to reduce the nearly 10, 000 men to the american troops in Germany, or one-third of the workforce. “Germany, behaves like a delinquent in its payments to Nato. It needs billions of dollars for years. Therefore, we will reduce the number of our soldiers to twenty-five thousand men. “ The u.s. president also reiterated some of his fixed ideas on the imbalance of trade relations between Germany and the United States and on purchases German to Russian gas, while benefiting from american protection.

Strong opposition in Congress

Neither the Pentagon nor the State department appear to have been consulted prior to this announcement, which faces strong opposition in Congress. This decision “encourage more aggression and opportunism of the Russian federation “ have warned 22 elected republicans in an open letter.

The us ambassador to Nato, Kay Bailey Hutchison, has confessed that she did not know “all the details “ in an exchange with the press. Even embarrassment of the secretary-general of Nato, the Norwegian Jens Stoltenberg, who spoke of the issue on the phone with Donald Trump. “The president has not said how and when this decision would be implemented “, he said, reiterating that the us military presence in Europe was strengthened with the arrival of Donald Trump at the White House.

The Polish president invited to the White House

On a visit to Warsaw, Tuesday, June 16, the head of German diplomacy Heiko Maas has confirmed that Berlin had received no details on the date and modalities of this reduction. Any change in the architecture of the european security “must be discussed “has-t-he stressed.

His Polish counterpart, assured, on his side, that talks between Warsaw and Washington on the strengthening of the american military presence on Polish soil had “no link “ with the statements of Donald Trump. Poland has long sought the strengthening of the american presence on its soil, and the White House would be getting ready to welcome the president of poland Andrzej Duda, a few days before the presidential election of poland of 28 June.

“The Europeans are not ready”

“This decision destroys the trust between allies, and it is contrary to american interests. But the problem is more important for Europeans, who are not ready to replace the american contributions to european defence “analysis Claudia Major, a specialist in issues of international security at the German Institute for international affairs (SWP) in Berlin.

Between 34 000 and 35 000 american soldiers are stationed permanently in Germany. Their total number may temporarily exceed 50,000 depending on rotations during exercises in Europe.

The HQ of the american army to Europe and Africa are based in Stuttgart. The us air base Ramstein plays a major role for the transport of men and equipment in Iraq and Afghanistan. The hospital in the u.s. military Landstuhl, near Ramstein, is the largest outside the United States.

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Fire on the submarine ” the Pearl “, the impact will be major on the operations of the navy

The fire that has ravaged, Friday 12 June, the submarine nuclear attack Pearlin dry dock for renovation on the building of Toulon, lasted fourteen hours. It has been a “unheard of violence “, according to the minister for the armed forces Florence Parly, on-site the next day. “The submarine looks like one of those wrecks that can be seen under the water “, note an officer of the Navy, which did not show very optimistic on the ability of the building to return to sea.

→ THE FACTS. Toulon : the fire has been controlled on board the submarine military ” Pearl “

The submarine, which had no nuclear fuel and no weapons onboard, has been very badly damaged inside. But its thick shell has been damaged ? The building entered service in 1993, will he be out of use ? The ministry of the armed forces had exhumed the contracts to look at the responsibilities of each party and the time of analysis. Investigations judicial and technical have been launched and the general inspectorate of the armies was seized. “We expect the data of expertise on the materials. The minister wishes to have an idea of the options to be submitted to the president of the Republic before the end of the month of July “, indicates his / her office, Monday, June 15.

The master of works, Shipyard Group, has commissioned its own surveys. “For the moment, the origin of the fire is not known and we examine all the assumptionssays a manager of the industrial group. The most important thing is to understand and measure the extent of the damage to see if it is possible to repair or not. “

The escort of the SSBN that ensure the nuclear deterrence

Without waiting for the results of the expertise, the ministry of the armed forces knows that the incident will have consequences on certain military missions. “The fire will have no impact on operations in 2020, since the program of the activity of the submarines had been made without the Pearlhis technical stop is planned for one year. On the other hand, the fire will have a major impact in 2021, and we are working to modify the activity other SNA “, explains captain Eric Lavault, a spokesman for the Navy.

The nuclear submarine attack (SNA) plays an important role in several types of missions, including intelligence. They are in support of the nuclear submarines launchers of machines (SSBN), which will ensure the permanent presence at sea of nuclear deterrence, and escort the aircraft carrier Charles-de-Gaulle, which will return to sea in September. They can also be projected on the different theatres of operations. This is the case in the Mediterranean, near the coasts of Syria and Libya, or even in the Indian ocean.

Three SNA operational and maintenance currently

France has officially six SNA type Ruby since 1983 – five, in reality, after the disarmament of the Sapphire in July 2019. Three, therefore, are operational, the Rubythe Casabianca and theEmeraldwhile a last, theAmethyst is in maintenance.

The SNA are designed to sail 220 days per year and two crews of 70 men are needed for each, specified by the ministry of the armed forces. The activity of a crew takes place in the following way : “Six weeks of training on the simulators of underwater navigation ; and three to five weeks of maintenance carried out in common by the two crews and the second crew returning from a mission : it is the handover between the two crews ; thirteen weeks of operational activity at sea ; a new maintenance period for the return of the sea ; the permissions. “

The submarines of the class Ruby will be gradually replaced by those of the new class Barracudaincluding the first copy, the Suffren, started at the end of April its sea trials. But it will not be delivered to that end of 2020 in the Directorate general of armaments. In service until in the years 2060, it will also support missions to nuclear deterrence and intelligence along the coasts. “We expect the Suffren discretion almost ten times higher than the sub-marine current “explained the past year The Cross, the captain Bertrand Dumoulin, former commander of the SNA Pearl then the SSBN The Terrible.

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The expert was accused of bias by the Prosecutor in the case of the Malaysian “Boeing”

On the court in the Hague prosecutors do not use verified information

In absentia in the Hague on trial four members of the Donetsk obtain, including byvshego the DPR defense Minister, Russian citizen Igor Girkin (strelkov). When conclusive evidence in case is not, for example, the American pictures from space, allegedly recorded the starting place anti-aircraft missiles, or data from Ukrainian radars on the air situation at the time of the tragedy over Donetsk region in the course are the arguments of another kind. Let’s call them izmyshlizmy.

One of these prosecutorial shenanigans drew the attention of the specialist in the field of technical expertise Gennady Poluyan.

In one of his diatribes Girkin Prosecutor Thijs Berger said the following (quote resource “Censor.no”): “Sometimes the way the suspects publicly deny their role is also important. July 28, 2014, Girkin gave a press conference stating that he is not responsible for the Downing of MH17, because in his possession was not “Beech”. It was a remarkable statement, because at that time — eleven days after the crash of MH17 — has not yet been established that the rocket was fired “Buk”. At that time there were many rumors of fighter jets and other reasons. The confidence with which Girkin already points to a missile “Buk” 28 Jul 2014, raises questions”.

Yes, that really there to be modest – raises questions. Speak plainly, is the desire in whatever was to sue!

Like, it turns out that the Prosecutor caught the leader of the militia in the word, and that kind of split. The first said the magic word “Buk”, though none of his language is not pulled. But first you?

It turns out that the Dutch Prosecutor had missed. Even if, as they say, “googled” the question. And it turned out funny.

Know who first said the word “Buk” after the tragedy in the skies over South-photoscom Ukraine? Top leaders of Ukraine

After a few hours after the disaster they are the first(!) began to call the kind of murder weapon – a Buk missile system.

After only an hour after the tragedy on the application settings “Beech” anti-aircraft declared the Ukrainian side in the person of Secretary of the security Council natsionalnoy A. Lysenko. His statement still can be found in YouTube.

Lysenko, by the way, did not fail to mention that all Ukrainian combat planes are safe.

The same evening, 17 July, 18:27, on the website gordonua.com this message appears: “adviser to the interior Minister Arsen Avakov Anton Gerashchenko confirmed that passenger Boeing 777 was shot down by terrorists in the Donetsk region of the missile complex “Buk”.

Later on the resource unn.com.ua there is yet another statement of the Minister of internal Affairs of Ukraine Anton Gerashchenko: “Putin! You and your cronies did not escape from the international Tribunal! This photo contrail left after launch missiles SAM “Buk”.

And this is only the beginning. Following this, only lazy people in Kiev and in the West screaming about “bouquet” and militias. Is it any wonder that answering the question of journalist, “new York times”, Girkin 11 days after the tragedy, denied these allegations.

But prosecutors in the Netherlands are surprised. And even build on your ignorance of the charges.

The claims of prosecutors that the Gunners themselves unmasked, referring to the “Buk” in its response, despite the fact that at that “time there were many rumors of fighter jets and other reasons” are false, because immediately after the accident Ukraine has accused the militia is “Beech” on the “Boeing”, the expert believes Gennady Poluyan.

Presumably, Dutch prosecutors scour all the performances of their accused. All of a sudden the something else said it first. It is much more important than to ask a direct question: so why is Kiev not closed airspace for civil zametov over the zone of hostilities, he was shot down several planes and helicopters of the Ukrainian army?

Or this question: why Dutch authorities allowed the airline to transport the citizens of the Netherlands and the Dutch taking off from the airport, to fly a dangerous route?

Well, in terms of who first said something, maybe prosecutors will be interested in the statement of the then President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko, who a few days before the tragedy with “Boeing” after the breakdown of peace negotiations with the rebel republics, openly declared that he had prepared a plan “B”. Maybe he meant “B” – “Boeing” or “B” “Book”?

Or just plan “B” is the use of the army against the civilian population, which led to the killing of more than 10 thousand people, including the elderly, women, children? This, incidentally, is 30 times more than died in the tragedy with “Boeing”.

That would be something to ask the prosecutors of the Hague. Or never before?

According to Gennady poluyana, prosecutors in the Hague “to such an extent biased, that does not hesitate to sell to both the judges and the lawyers outright lie”.

Such confidence can only be based on the fact that the lawyers of one of accused will cross-check and refute the blatant prosecutorial lies. Like the lawyers were prosecutors able to surprise and exposed the false arguments, said Gennai Poluyan.

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the war, we never come back quite…

25 shades of docs

Of Men and War

Tuesday, June 9, at 00: 40 on France 2 (and france.tv)

It is a shock. For more than two hours, Of Men and War (Of men and war) invite them to bring to the meeting of young american soldiers returning from the war with this injury is invisible, but very real, identified under the name of the state of post-traumatic stress disorder. State that prevents them from resuming a normal life and keeps them in an unfathomable inner suffering.

With great precision, striking, harrowing without being sensational or voyeuristic, this documentary has requested his director and producer five years of research and preparation. And so many years during which the filming was extended, offering to follow a dozen of these men in their crack and existential. Often unable to rework, or reconnect with a family life, they are not trying to not rebuild. The time – the filming, the film itself – is one of the essential strengths of this film that attempts to show these young soldiers in two situations : their sessions of group therapy, in a centre founded in California by Fred Gusman ; their all – too – rare reunion with parents, wives and children.

Oppose “the front” and ” rear “

The film, ” said Laurent Bécue-Renard, “looking for a word that is not expressed “. One who is aroused abyssal vertigo : “I realized that I had no idea what lived in my wife, married to a man twice his size, trained to kill and who passes his rage on it “says a patient. “I wanted to, continues the director, that opposes “the front”, always present in the psyche of these men, and “the rear”, that is to say, their surroundings, their community life, and we, the viewers. “

His topic was naturally brought to the United States, “great western power sending today the addition of men to the war, but also a country which has, after the Vietnam war, carried out important work on the theorization of the state of post-traumatic stress disorder “. For all that, this film, on both sides of the Atlantic, bears a startling universality. What is the French family has never been affected, to varying degrees, by the injury mental of one of its ancestors or its members, returned from the war and locked up in the silence of his hell ?

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“mistakes” but no “mistakes”

How did two-thirds of the crew of the aircraft carrier “Charles-De-Gaulle”, or nearly 1,100 sailors, become infected with the Covid-19? The Minister for the Armed Forces, Florence Parly, provided elements of response on Monday 11 May. She presented to the defense committee of the National Assembly, with her secretary of state Geneviève Darrieusecq, the results of two investigations into the epidemic on board the French ship.

The virus introduced on board in the Mediterranean

The “Charles-De-Gaulle”, recalled Florence Parly, had sailed at the end of January for a mission in the Mediterranean, then a second in the North Atlantic. Between these two phases, the ship made two stops: in Cyprus from February 21 to 26, then in Brest from March 13 to 16. It was in the Mediterranean that the virus was first introduced on board. However, it was reintroduced during the Breton stopover.

→ LIVE. Coronavirus: the latest information in France and worldwide

Florence Parly recalled that the aircraft carrier, a veritable “Floating airport”, is the subject of regular human movements, at quay and at sea, for “Reinforcements, replacements, returns after absence, delivery of equipment”.

Departing from Brest, the ship’s command imposed on the crew a fortnight, which was relaxed on March 30. No case had been identified at the time, said the minister, who stressed that these strict measures had “Weighed heavily on the bonds of command and the morale of the crew”. From March 30, briefings are restored, as well as “Common opportunities for exchange”. The sport is authorized with measures of distancing and as of March 30, a concert was given by the amateur orchestra on board.

This decision, explained Florence Parly, was provoked on the one hand “Because of the low morale of the crew and its consequences on the mission”, and on the other hand, because of a “Overconfidence of the command and the medical service”, who thought that “The virus had not returned on board”.

A case confirmed on April 5

“Unfortunately, the weak signals of the presence of the virus were not identified in time”, continued the minister. Several cases with little symptom were in fact confused with influenza-like illness, and one suspect case gave rise to a pulmonary scanner, which turned out to be negative. It was not until April 5, after being warned that an officer who landed in Denmark on March 30, had tested positive for Covid-19, that command reinstated strict measures. Three vulnerable people were evacuated the next day.

→ READ. Coronavirus, the sailors of the aircraft carrier “Charles-de-Gaulle” in medical isolation

The Minister for the Armed Forces regretted that this information was not “Lifts only on April 7 at the army headquarters and at my level”. It was on this date that Florence Parly indicated that she had decided to interrupt the mission and return the aircraft carrier to its base in Toulon.

“Errors” and poor communication, but no “mistakes”

“The spread of the disease was very rapid, it surprised the command and took over the logistics organization”, insisted the minister. However, it considered that the command and the medical service had “Excessive confidence in the ability of the carrier strike group to cope with the coronavirus”. “There were errors in the management of this situation”, she said shortly after. “But the investigations did not report any errors concerning the command. “

The Minister conceded that he was “Easy to see these errors a posteriori”claiming that the command had “Always cared about the health of the crew”.

However, it deplored shortcomings in the coordination between and within the chains of command, regretting a functioning “Too compartmentalized” and one “Too slow and partial sharing of information”. Florence Parly indicated that she had asked the Chief of the Defense Staff to make proposals to him to respond to these difficulties, which will have “Vocation to apply to all armies”.

She also indicated at the beginning of her remarks that all the sick sailors were now cured, except one who was still hospitalized but had come out of intensive care.

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19 dead on Iranian warship

An Iranian warship was hit by a missile during naval maneuvers in the Arabian Sea on Sunday, May 10. A friendly fire that left 19 dead in the context of tensions between Iran and the United States in the waters of the Persian Gulf.

The accident occurred in the afternoon near the port area of ​​Bandar-e Jask, off the southern coast of the Islamic Republic of Iran, state television said on Monday, May 11. The Konarak, a logistics support vessel, was hit “ after moving an exercise target to its destination, without creating sufficient distance between it and the target Added the television. She did not specify the total number of crew members at the time of the accident.

→ READ. Washington wants to extend embargo on arms sold to Iran

In a statement, the Iranian army reported 19 dead and 15 injured in a “ accident “Involving the Konarak during an exercise, without providing further details. The vessel was towed ashore for ” technical surveys “Added the statement, calling for” avoid speculation Until the publication of more information.

Intensive care

The Iranian news agency Tasnim said in an English tweet that ” Konarak was struck by friendly fire, as Jamaran’s frigate accidentally hit it with a missile during a live fire exercise in Persian Gulf waters on May 10 ” The 15 injured were hospitalized in south-eastern Sistan-Baluchistan province, a local medical source said in the Isna news agency. Two of them were admitted to intensive care. Iranian chief of staff and chief of diplomacy Mohammad Javad Zarif extended condolences to the families of the victims in separate statements.

Made in the Netherlands, the logistics support vessel Konarak was bought by Iran before the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Weighing 447 tonnes and 47 meters in length, the ship is equipped with four cruise missiles installed on board, according to state television.

The Arabian Sea is located between Iran and the Sultanate of Oman, at the edge of the crucial Strait of Hormuz, through which much of the world’s oil transits and where a coalition led by the United States operates. This area of ​​the Gulf, including the Strait of Hormuz, is experiencing chronic tension. Western ships have patrolled there regularly since last year to ensure freedom of navigation after several incidents involving the Revolutionary Guards, the ideological army of the Iranian regime.

Trump’s threats

The last Iranian-American incident dates back to April 15. The United States then reported that eleven Iranian boats had harassed their ships, in what it described as international waters of the Gulf accusing Iran of ” dangerous maneuvers “At sea. US President Donald Trump then said he ordered” for the US Navy to shoot down and destroy any Iranian craft that harass our ships at sea

→ READ. Pax Christi calls on US to suspend sanctions on Iran

The two countries, enemies for more than 40 years, have been at loggerheads since the United States’ unilateral denunciation in 2018 of the Iranian international nuclear agreement.

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