The doctors told the consequence for survivors coronavirus


Photo: Sergey Bulkin/NEWS.EN

Specialists of the National health service of great Britain told what the consequences will stay with recover from coronavirus infection.


They came to the conclusion that people have after recovery can remain for a lifetime of lung problems and chronic fatigue and psychiatric disorders, misleading “Izvestia” with reference to the British newspaper the Daily Telegraph.

Doctors have noted that such consequences might face every third patient who recovered from COVID-19. They added that patients who have suffered a coronavirus infection, there may be disorders of the brain and increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

The head of the British centre for recovery from COVID-19 Dr Hilary Floyd announced that he has now recorded a large number of people of Mature age, who had previously been ill COVID-19, and now can’t handle chronic fatigue and restore the ability to work.





According to the National health service in the UK, approximately 30% of people who have recovered from coronavirus infections, there are prerequisites to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. The Department believes that half of ill COVID-19 will face problems mental, physical, and cognitive nature. Experts believe that the vast majority of patients (70%) may suffer from delusional disorder. They also noted that often patients who recover from coronavirus, detect acute heart attack.

According to observations by British Professor Peter Openshaw, on average, people who recover from coronavirus infection, it takes a year to recover. However, the Professor does not exclude that some of the patients will not be able to recover completely ever.

Wrote NEWS.ru previously, associate Professor, Department of faculty therapy of the First Moscow state medical University named after I. M. Sechenov Anton Rodionov said that people who recover from COVID-19, may suffer from myocarditis — inflammation of heart muscle. He noted that the elderly, children and those who have heart problems, will be at risk. The physician added that the effects from the coronavirus will be visible by the end of autumn.

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dying Zhanna Friske came to the salon to do the last hairstyle

Since the death of Jeanne Friske five years. The singer died from brain cancer June 15, 2015. Three months before his departure, the actress last seen with his close friend and stylist Vlad Lisova. A dying star came to him to do last in my life the hair.

Vlad Lisovets openly talked about his last meeting with Zhanna Friske. They were friends for many years, and met when the singer came to the “Brilliant”. The stylist worked with the girls, responsible for their images.

When Jeanne was engaged in solo career, she continued to chat with Vlad. Of course, he knew about her illness. Three months before death, the artist had realized what was happening to her. It was the hardest treatment, just returned from America. “Then she came to herself, for a short period, we all cheered… and That’s when Jeanne decided to come to the salon to get a haircut,” said the stylist.

While Vlad gently suggested to her friend: “Maybe home? Maybe in a closed space?”. But he sharply said, “No, don’t.”

According to him, she came to herself. Administrators, clients were all in some kind of shock at the sight of Pink. “By the time Joan lost weight, but still was great, had a limp, walked with a cane. I ran out to her car, wanted a hand, but she replied: “No, I myself.” I was dumbfounded,” continues his confession Lisovets.

Jeanne was in the salon, everyone smiled and said Hello as if nothing had happened. Then asked, where her to sit down. “I gathered strength and asked: “Jeanne, what can I cut?” And she answered: “Yes, without a difference. I still don’t see anything”“- quoted by stylist website mk.ru.

This situation, as admitted Vlad, he divided his life into before and after. When she left the salon, had a terrible tantrum.

“It was awful. I cut his girlfriend, who sees only a silhouette, which has virtually no hair… can You imagine? What force will it was. I’ve seen other people with tears looked at us, because everybody understood the situation, and everyone could see horror on their faces. In the head spun this phrase: “anyway I don’t see anything”. It was not said with self-pity, it was in our style, so cynical, ridiculous, stupid”, he concluded.

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using the mask is advantageous

The brain, in evaluating a choice, adopts weights and measures that change according to the knowledge of what could have been gained or lost in a given situation. This is what has been established by neuroeconomics research on the brain mechanisms of what is known from experience conducted by the University of Trento, in the laboratories of the CIMeC – Mind / Brain Interdepartmental Center, in collaboration with a French group (Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et Computationnelles, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale). The study, published in the journal “The Journal of Neuroscience”, suggests a possible strategy to encourage more informed and responsible choices, for example to raise citizens’ awareness of lifestyles and measures that can protect collective health.

IN DEPTH

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In praise of slowness: only with normal rhythms the brain returns to create

Mathematics, neuroscientists: “Boys and girls have the same skills”

A study reveals why we are quick to judge and slow to praise

The research used the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a group of women and men while making decisions, it deepened the link between information, awareness and responsibility for a choice. “The result of our study – underlines the team of researchers – is the first experimental demonstration that the brain does not code the value of a choice always in the same way and offers a possible explanation of why the ability to make a better decision when it is provided more information ». About, for example, the use of the mask, “if I go out wearing it and I don’t get sick and I am aware of the risk I ran (not wearing it I could have got sick), I think I had an advantage that is worth more than what I would have gotten if I had stayed healthy not leaving the house or if I had gotten sick from not wearing it. This becomes an incentive to use it in a convinced way also in the future ».



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These are the foods you should never mix: they damage the brain

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Numerous recent studies have highlighted the need to improve the way in which humans feed. The diets considered healthy they stand out for their absence in many societies, or at least for having few followers, and it is known that the ‘western diet’ based on processed foods and ultraprocessed he is guilty of many diseases.

However, the increased health risks may not have to do exclusively with the food itself, but with how we combine it. This is suggested by a new study published in the magazine Neurology and in charge of the American Academy of Neurology. And it is that, as he affirms, although the consumption of ultra-processed foods would be harmful to health, the lack of variety combinations within the diet would also have a key role in increase the risk of dementia.

Within the study, the researchers looked at the food webs “of individuals, concluding that those with diets based on processed meats, starches how potatoes and sandwiches, and pastries how cookies and cakes, They had more likely to develop dementia years later compared to those with a wider food variety.

This is indicated Cecilia Samieri, researcher and main author of the study, from the University of Bordeaux (France). According to the researcher, there would be a complex connection between the food consumed, and its variety within a diet, and its effects on brain health and the potential future risk of dementia. In fact, several previous studies have already suggested that a healthier diet, rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and fish can reduce the risk of dementia.

The focus of these investigations was the quantity and frequency of consumption of these foods, but in this new study we tried to go further, analyzing the ways in which the food was consumed together, comparing individuals who developed dementia with those who remained healthy.

To demonstrate these effects, we analyzed 209 individuals aged 78 years on average, diagnosed with dementia, and were compared with 418 healthy people, matching them by age, sex and educational level in order to avoid bias.

All participants had completed a food survey five years before, describing what type of food they consumed during the year and how often: from less than once a month to more than four times a day. They also underwent medical check-ups every two or three years, and it was analyzed whathe ate food together, both in the cases of patients with dementia and in healthy patients.

According to their results, although there were few differences in the amount of food each participant consumed individually, the groups or food webs yes they were significantly different between the participants of both groups.

In the case of participants diagnosed with dementia, the food webs were based on processed meats; Furthermore, these people were more likely to combine meats like sausages, sausages or pates with starchy foods like potatoes and snacks, and also with pastries such as cookies or cakes, not forgetting alcohol.

According to the researchers, this could suggest that not only the quantity of ultra-processed foods consumed, but also the way of combining them. In fact, people without dementia were more likely to consume similar meat, but accompanying her more diverse foods, such as vegetables, fruits, or seafood.

In general, the participants without dementia were more likely to consume a greater variety of foods in your diet, including healthier food like fruitas and vegetables, seafood, and other meats like poultry.

Therefore, the researchers suggest, the variety and diversity in the diet, and greater inclusion of healthy food, would key to preventing dementia. In fact, they suggest, these differences in diet could be seen years before the diagnosis of dementia, something that could help carry out an early diagnosis and adequate prevention of the disease.

However, to finish, the study is not without limitations: food surveys were completed, so one would expect failures in the ability to correctly remember the food consumed; In addition, diets were only recorded once, years before dementia began, and it is unknown if the participants brought any change in your diet throughout the study time.

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SARS-CoV-2 also affects the brain

Fever, cough, shortness of breath or even loss of smell are the known symptoms of Covid-19. Researchers are now questioning the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the brain and nervous system, with some patients with the virus losing their bearings and showing signs of confusion.

New York doctors treating patients with Covid-19 increasingly observe that with the fever, cough and shortness of breath, another symptom appeared. Some people are confused, to the point of not knowing where they are or what the current year is. This loss of bearings is sometimes linked to the lack of
Symbol: ON atomic number: 8 Electrons per energy level: 2.6 Atomic mass: 15,999 most stable isotopes … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/4 /7/d/47dc2cafaf_59586_rust-screw.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chimie-oxygene-798/ “data-more =” Read more “>oxygen in the blood, but in some patients the level of confusion seems to be out of proportion to the level of affection of their lung functions
The role of the two lungs is to carry out the gas exchange between the human body and the surrounding air. These exchanges take place in the alveoli, where the blood is then enriched in oxygen and depleted in carbon dioxide …. “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal /4/8/3/483ff8575d_50035566_poumons-wwwcfeducationca.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/biologie-poumon-7024/ “data-more =” Read more “>lungs. For Jennifer Frontera, neurologist at Langone University Hospital in Brooklyn, the question arises of the impact of the new coronavirus on brain function
Located in the cranial box, the brain is the seat of higher (cognitive, sense, nervous response) and vegetative functions. It is therefore an essential organ which ensures the regulation of all … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/5/c/b/5cb474dd85_121782_cerveau-3d .jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/biologie-cerveau-3125/ “data-more =” Read more “>brain and the nervous system.

Possible brain inflammation

Studies are beginning to describe the phenomenon. In the review ofAmerican Medicine Association (Jama), doctors reported last week that 36% of 214 Chinese patients had neurological symptoms, ranging from the loss of role of smell
Smell is based on chemoreceptors in the nose that detect volatile chemicals in the air. In some … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/b/1/6/b162e724ee_71939_odorat.jpg “data-url =” https: // news. google.com/sante/definitions/corps-humain-odorat-14735/ “data-more =” Read more “>smell Has pains nervous, and up to convulsive seizures and Before the accident: accumulation of risks (probability of causes), … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/ midioriginal / 4/0/9 / 409a56fb3d_125727_accident.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/divers-accident-17265/ “data-more =” Read more “>accidents cerebrovascular (Stroke).

In the New England Journal of Medicine, the most highly rated American medical journal, French doctors in Strasbourg described that more than half of 58 intensive care patients were confused or agitated. Of scanners brains have revealed possible inflammations.

Everyone says it’s a problem of breathing, but it also affects something very precious to us, the brain, told AFP S. Andrew Josephson, head of the department of The neurologist treats many pathologies, whether they are … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6 /images/midioriginal/b/d/2/bd2ecba368_43430_cerveau-4.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/medecine-neurologie-13729/ “data-more =” Read continued “>neurology at the University of California San Francisco. If you feel confused, have trouble thinking, these are good reasons to see a doctor, he adds. The old idea that you should only come if you are out of breath is no longer valid.

Viruses can affect the brain in two ways

Virologists are not entirely surprised that the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, may affect the brain and nervous system, as this link has been observed with others virus, including the AIDS Agent virus
The AIDS agent is a Lentivirus, HIV (HIV-1 and HIV-2) for human immunodeficiency virus. It infects cells of the immune system, T4 lymphocytes which … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/7/a/17a2164097_122278_sida-ruban-rouge .jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/medecine-sida-256/ “data-more =” Read more “>AIDS, the HIV. Viruses can affect brain in two main ways, says Michel Toledano, a neurologist at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota. The first is by triggering a immune response abnormal called ” thunderstorm of cytokine Which causes inflammation of the brain: this is called a diagnosis uses biological tests, medical imaging and the electroencephalogram.
Viral encephalitis: … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/8/a/6/8a6dad7ff7_78559_ixodes-ricinus.jpg “data-url =” https: / /news.google.com/sante/definitions/medecine-encephalite-3305/ “data-more =” Read more “>encephalitis autoimmune. The second is by direct infection of the brain: this is called viral encephalitis. The brain is protected by what is called the blood-brain barrier : its role is to block intruders, but it can be pierced.

Some hypothesize that the nose and the respiratory system
In humans, the nose is the only part of the respiratory system … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/a/e/7/ae7b9928e8_71945_nose.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/corps-humain-nez-14731/ “data-more =” Read more “>nose could be the pathway to the brain, since the loss ofsmell is common to many Covid-19 patients. But this is not verified, and many patients who lose their sense of smell do not have serious neurological problems.

Lasting troubles?

The main track is actually that of the overheated immune response. To have a clear heart, it would be necessary to detect the virus in the Role, composition and manufacture of the cerebrospinal fluid
Its function is to protect the central nervous system from … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/d/1/a/d1aa59f3e3_104078_liquide-cephalorachidien.jpg ” data-url = “https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/medecine-liquide-cephalorachidien-2639/” data-more = “Read more”>cerebrospinal fluid. This was done once, in a 24-year-old Japanese man, whose case was described inInternational Journal of Infectious Disease. He suffered from confusion and convulsions and imagery of his brain showed inflammation. But the test is not yet validated and the scientists remain cautious.

To unravel these mysteries, Jennifer Frontera, who teaches at New York University School of Medicine, is collaborating on an international research project to standardize data collection. His own team has documented seizures in Covid-19 patients who never had them before they fell ill. The researchers also observed tiny cerebral hemorrhages described as “new”. They also want to take the cerebrospinal fluid from a fifties including organic matter, nitrogenous matter, etc.
There are different families like:

organic matter, which constitutes living things (animals or plants) or … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/7/0/e70ccaaf4a_91935_matiere. jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/matiere-matiere-15841/ “data-more =” Read more “>matter white brain is severely affected. But these levies, just like the MRI, are difficult to do on patients on an artificial respirator. And as the majority die, there is little study of neurological damage.

We see a lot of patients in states of confusion

Those who survive, however, end up consulting neurologists. ” We see a lot of patients in states of confusion “Rohan Arora, a neurologist at Long Island Jewish Forest Hills Hospital, told AFP. He claims that 40% of coronavirus survivors are affected. It is not known if these disorders are lasting. The transition to intensive care is, in itself, a source of confusion, especially due to medication. But the neurologist finds that the return to normal, for Covid patients, seems to take longer than for those who survived a heart attack or one Stroke.

This will also interest you

Coronavirus versus Flu: their differences, their similarities At the very beginning of the epidemic, Covid-19 was compared to the flu, with some calling it “the flu.” However, it is not. Since then, scientists around the world have shared their observations, drawing in particular on those of the Chinese.

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How does confinement affect the health of our brain?

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One of the most important consequences of the coronavirus crisis has undoubtedly been the restriction of people’s mobility and their confinement. Although it is an essential measure to face the pandemic and it is saving thousands of lives, it is also obvious that it can produce negative effects on the population. Especially if it lengthens a lot over time and if we do not put in place measures to reduce its impact.

In the end, we are a social species. Interaction with our fellow human beings is a fundamental part of our lives: our brain is designed to socialize and suffers when relationships are reduced.

Having few relationships reduces health

Social isolation, unfortunately, is not unique to the current pandemic. It is a very widespread phenomenon throughout the world, and as far as we know it has serious consequences on people’s health.

Scientists have been observing for many years that individuals who have less quantity or quality of social relations present more health problems and a higher risk of dying. In particular, there is abundant evidence that prolonged social isolation has a negative impact on the nervous system and our behavior.

To make matters worse, it can be a trigger for different psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, depression or anxiety. Neurobiologists and neurobiologists are aware of these negative effects thanks to both human studies and, in my case, laboratory animals. However, it must be recognized that we are still far from knowing in detail what are the neural disorders that cause isolation to trigger these changes in our behavior.

It is not the same in all phases of life

Isolation can affect us at all stages of our lives, but it certainly has a greater impact in the first stages of our existence. It is because our brain is particularly sensitive during childhood and adolescence, because it is still finishing its formation. Specifically in some brain areas, such as the prefrontal cortex – the most anterior part of our brain – contacts are still forming between neurons and the brain circuits that will govern critical aspects of our behavior are being polished.

So any adverse experience, and in particular isolation, can have a stronger impact at these ages. To such an extent that it can interfere in the construction of our brain circuits and produce alterations that persist until adulthood.

These changes can be the basis of behavioral disturbances that in some cases they could become pathological. To take a close example, in our laboratory we have seen how mice subjected to prolonged isolation during adolescence present, when they are adults, volume changes in some brain structures such as the amygdala, the main center of emotion regulation.

Likewise, we have detected changes in the levels of some molecules involved in the transmission of signals between neurons that could affect the activity of the amygdala and other brain regions. These structural and neurochemical changes occur in parallel to behavioral disturbances. Namely: isolated animals present more locomotive activity and increased anxiety.

On the other hand, similar studies by other colleagues also point to a increased aggressiveness and fear, two behaviors that depend greatly on the function of the amygdala. The data obtained in humans also point in the same direction: it seems that children who have suffered significant social isolation during childhood tend to present problems in their education and psychological problems.

Transient isolation

Charles Darwin said that his father, who was a doctor, had had a patient with heart problems from which he finally died. The patient, who was very observant, reported a very irregular pulse. However, invariably, when the doctor came to visit, he became regular.

Doctors have long observed that contact and social relationships have therapeutic effects. Furthermore, different studies have shown that “resocialization” can reverse the effects of isolation. When the mice that have been isolated during their childhood and / or youth return to live together in a group, they begin to normalize their behavior and reverse some of the changes that had occurred in their brain.

Obviously, the transitory isolation that we are suffering from the pandemic should not represent serious difficulties for our minors if they are at home with their parents. But it would not hurt if we tried to stimulate social relations during this time in all possible ways. These days, affection and relationship are very necessary in our homes., but also, more than ever through any other way to avoid isolation and loneliness.

It is worth remembering that there are many complicated social circumstances, in addition to minors at risk of social exclusion whose situation may have been aggravated by the crisis of the COVID-19. Fortunately, technology puts fantastic tools at our fingertips so we can stay in touch, even if virtually.

Juan Nacher Roselló is Professor of Cellular Biology and researcher CIBERSAM and INCLIVA at the University of Valencia.

This article was originally published in The Conversation.

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How sugar drives the craving for sweets – naturopathy & naturopathic specialist portal

Gut-brain circulation drives cravings for sugar

After consuming sugar, our intestines send out a signal that increases the craving for sweets in the brain. An American research team has now demonstrated a special connection between the intestine and the brain that can explain why many people develop a real cravings as soon as they consume some sugar.

Researchers at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute discovered that sugar molecules activate certain sensors in the intestine, which then transmit a signal to the brain. These sensors only act on sugar and may explain how the seemingly insatiable appetite for sweets arises. The results of the study were recently published in the renowned specialist journal “Nature” presents.

Sugar molecules trigger a signal between the gut and brain

A little sugar is enough to increase the craving for everything that is sweet for most people – whether cookies, chocolate, whipped cream or cake. A new study now shows that this desire is triggered by a signal connection between the intestine and the brain that only reacts to sugar molecules. This signal path does not start with artificial sweeteners.

An independent neurological pathway

In addition to the taste buds on the tongue, the connection between the intestine and the brain represents a completely separate neurological signaling pathway. In experiments on mice, the researchers documented how the first sugar molecules that arrive in the intestine trigger sensors that send signals to the brain, which then increase appetite. This gut-brain signaling pathway seems picky and only reacts to sugar.

Gut-brain signaling explains long-observed phenomenon

Scientists have long observed that sugar has a unique effect on the brain. However, the causes of this phenomenon have so far not been sufficiently understood. Another study in 2008 showed that mice prefer sugar even if they lack the ability to taste sweet things. The signal path now discovered offers an explanation for this connection.

Sweet taste and sugar are two pairs of shoes

“We have to separate the terms sweet and sugar,” emphasizes neuroscientist Charles Zuker. While sweet taste reflects a preference, sugar stands for a real desire. The study paper reveals the neural basis for sugar preference.

Refined sugar makes the appetite run amok

Sugar is a collective term for a whole range of fuels that are absorbed through food. According to the study, the subsequent signal from the intestine activates the brain’s reward system and ensures that people feel good. In today’s diet, which is characterized by refined sugar, the appetite runs amok.

Sugar consumption increased tenfold

This is also reflected in the American diet. While the average annual sugar consumption per head was around five kilograms at the beginning of the 19th century, it is now around 50 kilograms. This increase is related to numerous health problems like Obesity and type 2diabetes connected.

Sweetener cannot satisfy sugar cravings

The team led by research leader Zuker also showed in previous studies that artificial sweeteners cannot satisfy the craving for sugar. The researchers gave mice water to drink that was mixed with the widely used sweetener acesulfame K and refined sugar. The mice could choose which water to drink.

While the same amount was drunk from both containers in the beginning, the mice drank almost exclusively the sugar water after two days. “We concluded that this insatiable motivation that the animal has for eating sugar instead of sweet taste could have a neural basis,” explains Zuker.

The sugar cycle between the gut and brain

In the current study, the researchers made the rodent’s brain activity visible. It turned out that the brain only jumps on sugar, but not on artificial sweeteners. The signal from the intestine is sent directly to the brain stem and processed by a region that is independent of the taste processing.

The signal is sent out by the intestinal mucosa and reaches the brain via the tenth cranial nerve (vagus nerve). This signaling pathway is particularly strong on glucose and glucose-like molecules. Surprisingly, the signaling pathway does not seem to jump to some other types of sugar, such as fructose derived from fruit.

Why is the body so sensitive to glucose?

The researchers suspect that this signaling pathway should draw the organism’s attention to glucose as a special source of energy for all living things. “The discovery of this cycle helps to explain how sugar directly influences our brain to control consumption,” Zuker sums up. The discovery also offers new approaches for strategies that could curb the appetite for sugar. (vb)

Author:

Graduate editor (FH) Volker Blasek

Sources:

  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute: A Gut-to-Brain Circuit Drives Sugar Preference and May Explain Sugar Cravings (released: Apr 15, 2020), hhmi.org
  • Hwei-Ee Tan et al .: The Gut-Brain Axis Mediates Sugar Preference; in: Nature, 2020, nature.com

Important NOTE:
This article contains general information only and should not be used for self-diagnosis or treatment. He can not substitute a visit at the doctor.

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Long-lasting space travel permanently deforms the brain

Madrid

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Even before a pandemic paralyzed the planet, there were serious doubts that man was going to reach Mars in the 1930s, as the United States government announced. The task is too complex and the money is too little: you have to prepare the technology for astronauts to spend three years in space and don’t succumb to radiation or weightlessness. It just isn’t possible yet.

Now, a study has revealed new health effects of long-lasting space travel. An investigation published in « Radiology», And carried out when examining 11 astronauts of the International Space Station, has concluded that these trips alter the volume of the brain and deform the pituitary gland. Some of these changes are maintained for at least a year after the end of the trip, which suggests, according to the authors, that they are permanent effects.

Astronaut's brain before (left) and after flight (right)
Astronaut’s brain before (left) and after flight (right) – Radiological Society of North America

«When you are in microravity, fluids like venous blood do not go to the lower extremitiesthey are redistributed upwards, “said Larry A. Kramer, researcher at the University of Texas (United States) and director of the study. “This may be one of the mechanisms that cause the changes that we are observing in the eye and the intracranial compartment.”

Too much blood on the head

Images arriving from the International Space Station shows astronauts congested, with the skin on their faces strangely raised, because of the microgravity conditions. Blood, which accumulates on the surface of the Earth in the lower part of the body, in space increases its pressure in the head, as if on Earth your body was inverted. This is why astronauts who spend a lot of time in space can develop vision problems: blood pressure ends contracting the optic nerve, causing retinal hemorrhages or deforming the structure of the eyes.

Changes in the pituitary gland of two astronauts (up and down)
Changes in the pituitary gland of two astronauts (up and down) – Radiological Society of North America

On this occasion, examinations of 11 astronauts who passed through the International Space Station, using MRI techniques, have revealed that long-duration missions increase the volume of the cerebrospinal fluid, which fills gaps within the brain and spinal cord, and the volume of the white matter. These changes last for at least a year after the end of space flight, suggesting permanent transformations.

Alterations in the pituitary gland

Besides, the pituitary gland, a pea-sized part of the brain with a central role in regulating metabolism, flattens and shrinks, probably due to the existence of abnormal intracranial pressures for prolonged periods of time.

An increase in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid and the growth of the lateral ventricles, two of the spaces through which it circulates, have also been observed. On Earth, the increased flow is associated with dementia, trouble walking or to control the bladder, although these difficulties have not been observed in astronauts until now.

The researchers believe that this work can help both develop countermeasures to protect astronauts and care for people on Earth who, for example, have hydrocephalus or other conditions.

With a view to preparing future long-term missions, there are investigations that are considering measures to counteract weightlessness and or microgravity, such as installing centrifuges to return blood to its channel or suits to create negative pressures on the lower extremities.

Apart from this, there are many others trouble getting to Mars. One of the most serious is radiation: therefore, they are thinking of creating ships with armor and new pharmacological treatments. The long distances and the travel time of the waves are forcing the creation of life support systems that allow to recycle nutrients and artificial intelligences to manage the ships without depending on the ground support teams.

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TV Story (s) – Culture / Next

Even if we are probably looking at it even more now, the little box, well let’s say the flat screen, has long inspired musicians. The proof with these five groups whose television inspired the name.

1) Television Personalities

The British are famous for their humor, Dan Treacy is no exception. It takes a fair amount of self-irony to call yourself Television Personalities for forty years when his group has never had enough success for a television to really care about it. Accompanied by a slew of collaborators coming and going according to the albums, Dan Treacy and his hoarse voice are the only masters on board of this formation born from punk and influenced by the mods of the 60s, author of many discs always a bit noisy and uncertain but endearing. Cult par excellence, interested only a handful of journalists and enthusiasts, Television Personalities had a career break when Dan Treacy, heavily addicted to heroin, was imprisoned from 1998 to 2004 for shoplifting. Returning to business in 2006, the group has nevertheless been handicapped since by the degraded health of its singer following a brain operation.

2) Psychic TV

Probably the most curved television of this selection. Formed in 1981 by Genesis P-Orridge and Peter “Sleazy” Christopherson on the ashes of Throbbing Gristle, Psychic TV has never ceased to oscillate between nice seemingly harmless pop songs and disturbing experiments, with a pronounced taste for multimedia adventures . With mutations, collaborations and a labyrinthine discography marked by dozens of live recordings, Psychic TV was also one of the pillars of English acid house in the mid-90s. Worrisome and difficult to tackle, like all bloated production of the late Genesis P-Orridge, who died in March, the discography of Psychic TV nevertheless includes some essential albums like Dreams Less Sweet in 1983.

3) Head on Television

The late Patrick Le Lay, former historic boss of TF1, will forever remain the man capable of measuring the famous “Available brain time” assigned to the communi hominum to the practice of the small screen. With his nickname, this Parisian duo may enter head first on TV, he devotes since 2014 most of his activities, not to zapping excessively, but to the production of a kindly pop electronic music, like l ‘EDM doped with stevia. Relatively tubesque. Finally, especially for those who like to spread their cracker with a large layer of Nutella. In this case, the hopping Out of Body Experiences guarantees the absence in the next few hours of hypoglycemic disorders. At least until the lunch break, naturally with Jean-Pierre Pernaud in the background.

4) Television

Television is the story of an essential New York post-punk group from the late 70s, which will become a major influence for generations of artists, but also a childhood friendship, dented between the brilliant Tom Verlaine and Richard Hell. In their native Delaware, the two dream of being poets and join the creative broth of New York. In 1972, they set up the group Neon Boys with drummer Billy Ficca, then became Television and hired a second guitarist, Richard Lloyd. Despite promising beginnings, tension is at its height between Verlaine, applied to the extreme, and Hell, always on the razor’s edge, the first even accusing the second of jumping too much on stage. Hell eventually left the group to found The Heartbreakers, becoming one of the first punks and the main source of inspiration for the Sex Pistols. Television, for its part, will publish in 1977 the masterpiece Marquee Moon, followed by a sequel a year later, Adventure, before separating in July 1978.

5) TV on the Radio

While in 2020 it is no longer rare or surprising that the radio is filmed, in 2004 the Americans TV on the Radio proposed to cut the image and keep only the sound. And what a sound! Led by singer Tunde Adebimpe, guitarist Kyp Malone and producer David Sitek before becoming a quintet, TV on the Radio flourished at the crossroads: neither totally arty, nor entirely accessible. Based on Brooklyn, like all the scene of the 2000s, but faithful to the creative effervescence of the New York megalopolis, TV on the Radio signs from its first album, Desperate Youth, Blood Thirsty Babes, hybrid music, fireworks of jazz, rock, electronic loops, soul and punk, where the Bad Brains and Prince scrapped with Trent Reznor and David Bowie (among others). Perfectionist but productive, the group, marked by the death in 2011 of its bass player Gerard Smith, released five albums in a decade, before going into hibernation in 2014.


Alexis Bartier

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