Scientists “travel” to the center of the Earth




Everyone remembers the classic Julio Verne «Journey to the Center of the Earth». In the 1864 novel, the writer took explorers an arduous path to the depths of our planet to end up finding a gigantic hollow cave that housed a ancient orchard and in which the dinosaurs. The protagonists get to that point thanks to a drilling machine, a kind of «tank-submarine»That sails through the cracks of volcanoes. Despite the entertainment of reading Verne, the reality is far removed from current methods of studying the Earth’s core, the way in which researchers “travel” to the center of our planet. In fact, reality is much closer than we think: in surface.

Specifically, a team from the University of tokyo has managed to recreate the conditions of the outer core of the planet thanks to a diamond anvil than compresses iron samples at high temperatures and make sophisticated measurements with X-rays. This is how they have been able to determine that this molten region is less dense than liquid iron. The results are published in the magazine « Physical Review Letters».

The core layers

Today, the planet’s pulse is measured primarily through seismic devices, which use earthquakes to map the interior of the Earth. Thanks to this technique it is known today that the center has a solid core surrounded by a less dense liquid, the outer core. This new study provides, for the first time, details about the latter that until now had been For the first time, experiments and simulations have shown researchers details about this outer core that are unknown. Until now.

Diagram of the different layers of the Earth
Diagram of the different layers of the Earth – Kelvinsong – CC BY-SA 3.0

“It is not easy to recreate the conditions at the center of the Earth here on the surface,” he explains. it’s a statementYasuhiro Kuwayama, from the Department of Earth and Planet Sciences, University of Tokyo. “We use a diamond anvil to compress a sample of liquid iron subjected to intense heat. But rather than creating the conditions, we needed to keep them long enough to collect data. This was the real challenge.

The diamond anvil compresses an iron sample
The diamond anvil compresses an iron sample – Kuwayama et al

It is more difficult to measure the density of a liquid sample than a solid one, since technology takes longer to do so. But with a uniquely designed experimental setup, centered on the diamond anvil, Kuwayama and his team kept their shows enough time to collect the necessary data. Specifically, they used a highly focused X-ray source from the SPring-8 synchrotron, located in Japan, to probe the sample and measure its density.

“We found that the density of liquid iron, such as that found in the outer core, is approximately 10 tons per cubic meter at a pressure of 116 gigapascals, and the temperature is 4,350 Kelvin»Illustrates Kuwayama. “For reference, the typical ambient temperature is approximately 273 Kelvin. Therefore, this sample is more than 16 times the temperature in the room you are in right now and is 10 times denser than water».

Unknown additional items

Compared to this new measurement, the density of Earth’s outer core appears to be approximately one 8% less dense than pure liquid iron. This suggests that there are probably additional lighter elements in the molten outer core that are not currently identified.

“It is important to investigate these things to understand more, not only about the Earth’s core, but also about the composition and, therefore, the behavior of other planets,” Kuwayama concludes. “It is important to note that not only the elaborate equipment helped us find this new information, but also the applied mathematical model and analytical methods. We were pleasantly surprised by the effectiveness of this approach and hope that it can lead to a greater understanding of the world under our feet. ”


They detect an iron leak in the core of the Earth




Perhaps you have not stopped to think about it but you live in a huge ball of rock that travels through space at a speed of vertigo. Beneath the familiar and still surface, there is a very dynamic world, whose processes feed earthquakes, volcanoes, and the movements of the continents. In the deepest there is a large core of iron and nickel, which is not very different in size from the Moon, and which is at a temperature of up to 6,000 ºC. Furthermore, it is believed that there is a solid inner core and a liquid outer core.

A study that has just been published in « Nature Geoscience»Has concluded that the outer core could leak iron, which would inject heavy isotopes into the upper layers, into the mantle. This exchange would take place at about 2,900 kilometers deep and in an area where the core is at a temperature thousands of degrees higher than that of the mantle. Consequently, the deeper layers of the mantle would be enriched in heavy iron isotopes.

“If this is correct, it will help us improve our understanding of the interaction between the core and the mantle,” he said in a statement. Charles Lesher, study director and professor at the University of Aarhus, Denmark.

Earth's outer core would lose heavy iron isotopes, which would access the deeper layers of the mantle, according to a study
Earth’s outer core would lose heavy iron isotopes, which would access the deeper layers of the mantle, according to a study – L. O’Dwyer Brown, Aarhus University

According to Lesher, understanding this detail is relevant to study various processes, like heat and matter transfer from inside, or the seismic images of the deep mantle.

In addition, it would also explain why there are usually more heavy isotopes of iron in mantle rocks than in meteorites, formed by the primordial materials of the early Solar System. “If this is all true,” said Lesher, “the results suggest that the nucleus has been losing iron for billions of years.”

The research has been the result of computer simulations that reproduced environments at high pressures and temperatures. In addition, these have allowed to deduce that materials enriched in heavy iron isotopes could reach the surface, through the cloak feathers, columns of material from the depths that produce hot spots and volcanic regions.

In support of this hypothesis, it has been observed that lava from certain hot spots, in Samoa and Hawaii, is indeed enriched in iron.


Who gets the most credit: Brady or Belichick? – NBC Boston

From 2001 to 2019, the New England Patriots have won the AFC East 17 times. The other two years ended in a tie in first place.

In that time frame, they went to 12 AFC championship games and nine Super bowls. Six have won.

Bill Belichick and Tom Brady have been together for the entire race and – thanks to the past two decades – are now recognized as the best coach and quarterback in NFL history respectively.

Trying to share credit for a race never seen before the NFL domination and perhaps the most incredible trait in the history of professional sport – to some extent – is missing the point.

Did the ancient Egyptians stand in front of the pyramids and discuss whether the architect or builders deserved more credit? Did Mrs Wright analyze which of her children – Wilbur or Orville – was primarily responsible for the invention, construction and flight of the first plane?

There is something to be said just to close and appreciate the realization, isn’t there? Yup.

And we will get there.

But right now, with the engines going down Route 1 to pack Tom Brady’s remaining stuff and take him out of Foxboro forever, the question hangs on everything. Which man was most responsible for creating the story we’ve seen written in the past two decades: Belichick or Brady?

Results may vary. In fact, I know they will. But here’s how I see it.

If it hadn’t been for Belichick, there would never have been the mini-dynasty that they became in the decade 2000-2009.

If it weren’t for Brady, the Patriots would never have become the Super Dynasty that they became from 2010 to 2019 when they blew up the 60s Packers, 70s Steelers, 80s Niners and 90s Cowboys to become the only franchise that has dominated two decades.

Bill gets the first decade

The moment Mo Lewis cut an artery in Drew Bledsoe’s chest in September 2001, he is touched as the history of the NFL has changed. It wasn’t. It will only speed up a trial that began when Robert Kraft decided to hire Belichick to succeed Pete Carroll in January 2000.

Belichick took a look at the team’s register and management and started fumigating and renewing. In the end – despite the heavy contract that the Patriots gave Bledsoe in January 2001 to help strengthen public confidence and private investment in building CMGI Field (possibly Gillette Stadium) – Belichick was wary of being tied to a quarterback that the coach was able to routinely undress whenever he trained against him.

Especially a quarterback who had to be paid as the top of the market, as Bledsoe and his agent David Dunn made clear.

Brady was not enlisted in the sixth round of the 2000 draft as Bledsoe’s successor, but in September it became clear to Belichick that he had something. And it became obvious during the 2001 offseason and the training camp that – although not better than Bledsoe in all – the child who made $ 298,000 was more mobile, more precise, more ready in his pocket and destined to be more suited to handling a Bledsoe game.

Mo Lewis accelerated the process and – with a painful stroke – made the transition relatively painless. But the credit goes to Belichick for seeing what he had, promoting it and having the decision to pull the trigger.

The fact that the Patriots went 14-5 under Brady after starting 5-13 under Bledsoe is persuasive evidence that Brady was the missing piece. But Belichick created the register, built the culture and hired the right people – from managers to coaches – to put the team in a position to succeed. It deserves more credit.

Brady may have helped them get where they did, but the Patriots were undoubtedly headed in the right direction and the fruits of Belichick’s designs were collected in 2003 and 2004.

Those Super Bowl wins – the first at the end of a season that started with the shooting down of lawyer Milloy in favor of Rodney Harrison; the second thanks largely to a dice throw on Corey Dillon – they were the victories for “culture”.

Disinterest imposed. All done for the greatest good of the team. Everything ego in your pocket. The most impressive aspect of the patriots was therefore their stamina and mental endurance. Brady was an important part. But so were Tedy Bruschi and Harrison, Matt Light, Richard Seymour, Mike Vrabel and so on.

Fifty-three very intelligent and capable players row together in the hold of the big ship while Belichick was over the bridge to trace a route. It was from 2001 to 2004.

The dips in 2005 and 2006 began the process that would have led Brady to become, largely on Belichick’s design, the engine.

The 2005 Patriots were hit by injuries – not a hindsight surprise when you consider the nine extra games played in the previous four seasons and the difficulty of staying on top. They started to see some friction to grow old – Troy Brown was 34 then – and the ongoing game was marked as well as their defense on the run. They went 10-6 and lost in the division round.

The following season, a protracted squabble over the contract led to the Deion Branch being swapped with Seattle shortly before the season began. Reche Caldwell led the team in receptions followed by Ben Watson, Troy Brown and Kevin Faulk. However, they were unable to advance to the Super Bowl, but lost on the road to the Colts.

That season, Brady got a toy he had never had in Randy Moss and a Troy Brown replica model named Wes Welker. The entire set of record sets went 16-0 and lost in the Super Bowl.

Which brings us to 2008. This is the season that many are aiming for when they say that it is Belichick’s genius that is most responsible for twenty-year success. The Patriots went 11-5 with Matt Cassel starting in quarterback. Hadn’t he been a beginner from high school, yet the patriots still went 11-5?

Cassel was exceptional, better than anyone could hope for. But it’s still a sharp drop from 16-0 to 11-5.

In 2009, the central defense core was expelled or withdrawn: Vrabel, Bruschi, Seymour and Harrison. Belichick complained to Brady on the sidelines during a defeat for the Saints that season that “I just can’t get these kids to play the way I want them. So frustrating.”

The season ended with an ignominious home defeat against the crows in the AFC division playoff round.

Brady gets the second decade

The patriots renewed in the off-season and, in my opinion, Brady was at the forefront of finding their places where they had no business at that stage of their reconstruction. In 2010, the Patriots went 14-2, they were seed no. 1 and Brady was the unanimous MVP.

The offense, moving away from the narrow final position, enlisted two – Rob Gronkowski and Aaron Hernandez – and their production would become historic in 2011 when the Patriots arrived at the Super Bowl and lost again to the Giants. Brady launched for 5,235 career yards with 39 touchdowns and 12 picks.

In the 2012 season, he launched 637 times, a career high and one of three times in four seasons that attempted more than 600 passes. With a defense that too often seemed to resist better teams, it was Brady and the offense to score and score and score a little more. They were the first, third, first and third in points marked from 2010 to 2013. Defensively in that period they were eighth, 15th, ninth and tenth.

Even in 2013, when Hernandez was jailed for murder, Gronkowski was grounded due to back surgery and then with an ACL, Brady still ran by hitting the ball with Julian Edelman, Danny Amendola and – to a lesser extent – Kenbrell Thompkins, Aaron Dobson and Shane Vereen.

They won the Super Bowl in 2014, winning a shootout against the Ravens in the Divisional Round, 35-31, and then overcoming a 24-14 deficit against the Seahawks in the fourth quarter when Brady moved to a completely different level in the fourth quarter.

The previous April, Belichick had enlisted Brady’s aspiring successor, Jimmy Garoppolo, in the second round. Brady, perhaps remembering the shrug that Drew Bledsoe had encountered Brady’s arrival 14 years earlier, would not have fallen asleep on the move with the team that ran Garoppolo.

Brady went on to launch 69 touchdowns and 16 predictions in 2014 and 15. He lost four suspension games in 2016 – Garoppolo overcame six quarters of Brady’s relief before hurting himself and giving way to Jacoby Brissett – but he still threw 28 touchdowns and two interceptions before ending that season with a 43- record. by-62, 466 yards in the Super Bowl when the Patriots canceled out a deficit of 28-3. Brady did it at 39.

At 40 in the AFCCG, without Edelman, without an injured Gronkowski, Brady and Amendola joined together to push the Patriots beyond the Jaguars and in the Super Bowl against Philly where he would have launched for 505 yards.

So let’s tell here. From 2010 to 2017, the Patriots have reached seven consecutive AFC Championship Games and the year they didn’t, Brady was the unanimous MVP. He wrote the filming of the playoffs against Ravens and Seahawks in 2014, the Falcons in 2016, the Jaguars in 2017 and led the team to two Super Bowl wins.

In 2018, Edelman was exiting an ACL and was therefore suspended for the first four games. Gronk was injured for a large chunk of the year. Phillip Dorsett and Chris Hogan were the main gimmicks for a while until the team faced Josh Gordon. It’s still? The team went 11-5, Brady put them on his back in the fourth quarter and overtime in Kansas City in the AFCCG and then the Patriots defense checked against the Rams and delivered a Super Bowl to Brady – apart from the shot at Gronk which led to the game’s winning touchdown – he just had to play OK to win the team.

The final verdict

So, see what my answer to this debate is now. Bill gets a bigger share of the first three Lombards. Tom gets a higher share than the second three.

So many people over the years have speculated that Belichick wants to prove that he can win a championship without Brady. I don’t know if it’s true.

I think if Brady was gone, Belichick would appreciate the opportunity, but I never thought he would have wanted to get rid of what he thinks is a quarterback capable of giving him a title that the others couldn’t.

Maybe that’s why we’re here. Belichick doesn’t see Brady as special as he once was. Great? Sure. Are there other guys who can do things they can’t do now? Belichick seems to think so. Brady has apparently survived its usefulness here.

Bill will do what he has done to so many other players. Go ahead. But this is the life cycle of the NFL.

From what I’ve been told and what I’ve collected, Brady agrees. He hoped to be special and to be able to write a different ending here, but to realize he couldn’t shock him. For a legend, it is rather well established.

Playing for Bill Belichick will help keep a player that way. And maybe even for that, Belichick deserves a lot of credit. He allowed Tom Brady to become Tom Brady because he was eternally and exasperatedly Bill Belichick.

Every. Single. Year.


“The Bologna debate discussed more titles than learning, which was the core”

He has just published a book focusing on debates in the Congress of Deputies on the reforms of the university system implied by the Bologna Declaration, a text of just over two pages that opens the door to a profound change in higher education. the mobility of students, teachers and researchers. Montserrat Palma, a professor at the University of Girona and a former socialist MP, has published Bologna 20 years later. The European Higher Education Area in Spain: An Analysis of Parliamentary Debates. The book, jointly edited by the Ministries of Education and Science, discusses parliamentary debates over the Bologna plan of the last twenty years. Palma, who lived through this process from the University, Education and Science commissions, devoted his doctoral dissertation to the early years of the debate on the transformation of the university model and has now expanded his analysis.

Montserrat Palma, a professor at the University of Girona and a former socialist MP, has published Bologna 20 years later. The European Higher Education Area in Spain: An Analysis of Parliamentary Debates. The book, jointly edited by the Ministries of Education and Science, discusses parliamentary debates over the Bologna plan of the last twenty years. Palma, who lived through this process from the University, Education and Science commissions, devoted his doctoral dissertation to the early years of the debate on the transformation of the university model and has now expanded his analysis.

What is the Bologna Plan?

We talk about the plan, but Bologna is a declaration, an agreement that is initially promoted by France, Germany, Italy and Great Britain, and which are subscribed to by about twenty countries, from within and outside the Union. Europeans, up to about 50. There are just over two pages that establish a framework agreement to promote a European higher education space, a common space, where the ease for the mobility of students, teachers, technicians and students is established. researchers. In order to do this, we must agree on a minimally homologable structure and with procedures for exchange and mutual recognition.

And what is the origin of the project?

It is the result of the years of Erasmus. In 1999 we had been holding Erasmus calls for some years and from the European institutions it was very interesting to build Europe, to build citizenship. Apart from this mobility with a social dimension, quality was also sought, which is why there is an important point that speaks about the evaluation of training and the creation of quality assessment agencies. One of the first was the AQU, that of Catalonia.

Why did Bologna have such a bad press when it was implanted?

Sometimes we talk about Bologna and blame it on many other things that are not Bologna: on behalf of Bologna we have said things that were not and we have not done everything Bologna promised to do.

For what reason?

There are things that have to do with the university policy that each government has decided. With or without Bologna, university rates would have risen the same if the government had decided; that there is a precariousness of the teaching staff’s work, it has not to do with the government’s decision not to remove seats or allocate more funding to the public system; Whether scholarships are better or worse depends on the policy of each government. In Bologna what is Bologna and the responsibility of each government, to whom it belongs.

Is it one of the processes that has the greatest impact on the university in recent years?

The efforts that have been made in these twenty years, especially the first ten, have been very important and helped to change things. I would say that the sum of efforts and constant work between countries has been very important. The problem is that since there is no common European educational policy, because it is from the states and the EU does not have jurisdiction, after each meeting to make commitments everyone went home and took the most appropriate measures: some have better scholarship systems, invest more, or the laws are different.


Progress has been made in this shared space, but with differences and dysfunctions. Although there is considerable effort to put in place a minimum of agreements, for example in the structure of degree programs – undergraduate, masters and doctoral degrees -, the European credit or the European supplement to the degree, an annex that defines the competences purchased and this is compatible in another country. But there are still difficulties to overcome.

Wasn’t that the great revolution that was to be?

Bologna was a great opportunity to modernize and adjust and adapt higher education to the knowledge and technology society. Sometimes you have the feeling that Bologna should have been a great opportunity to make this revolution, this change in methodologies, in putting the student at the center of the process, that this is also Bologna: the learning model and passing from the transmission of knowledge to the construction of knowledge. Little attention has been paid to this, especially in political debates.

And the universities?

Universities have made a lot of effort, methodologies have been changed and despite having no resources and suffering the crisis, because the cuts have affected us so much, efforts have been made to renew and adapt to new formats. The Faculty of Medicine of the UdG is an example of online teaching innovation of the proposals around the Bologna Declaration.

So have universities, more than states, believed in the philosophy of declaration?

It depends. There have been governments that have made very clear commitment to methodological change. In our case, an analysis of the parliamentary debate, which is where political groups bring the topics of interest to them, is seen in years where only Bologna was talked about in commissions, and then a moment comes when there is controversy on the street, and the debate is in full swing. When there is mobilization and conflict, in 2008 the congress also increases the interest, with more initiatives, questions to the president of the government …

What was it talking about?

The reform of the degrees was the star theme in Spain. We were very worried about the titles: how many were there, which ones were put and which ones were taken away, whether they were worth it or not … The professional colleges, not the employers, were the ones who made the most of their voice, in what I think was a corporate debate, of “my, my, my” in engineering, architectures … The debate had keys that are not the same as in other countries, because our titles et they give you professional qualification from the moment you take it, and in other places you need some kind of exam or process to enter the profession.

There was a feeling that he was running to implant something that would have a very important impact.

In Spain, there were half of the calendar there, doing nothing. The process starts in 1999, and Spain does not really work in Bologna until 2004. At the end of 2003, some agreement is being started, but more by the work of the universities than by the government. The PP governments that existed until 2004 did not move tabs, they were not interested in Bologna. If you look at the debate, you don’t even talk about government appearances.

And as of 2004?

From 2004 to 2010, a lot of work had to be done, and when you run sometimes you make hasty decisions, you make some mistakes and there is no time for debate, explanation and information to generate a level of understanding appropriate to the affected population.

Why were there protests?

Much of the protests were the result of misunderstandings, and some were responded to with interest in provoking conflicts in the governing body. The funny thing is that some student protests had more to do with the corporate interests of professional colleges than on their own. In the Bologna debate we talked more about attributions than competencies, titles than learning, which was the core. Bologna did not force us into anything, it set a framework for us, a space for establishing mechanisms for understanding, exchanging and recognizing ourselves.

In the presentation of the book, Minister Pedro Duque spoke of a legal reform to internationalize the Spanish university. Is this reform necessary?

We tend to fix everything with laws, but rather than making new ones, we need to make good use of the ones we have. The 2007 University Law, of which I was a speaker, may have had more appeal than it has ever had. Reviewing and activating some of the things I anticipated might be enough.

The main problem for the university today is funding?

Yes, we have under-funded universities. We cannot demand it when we do not invest enough in future capital. The university is the engine of progress, of well-being of life. Many rankings come out, but on funding we are in a position to compete with colleagues in the common space.


Intel Core i9 9900KS seems to be going EOL

We revised it in November, the Intel Core i9 9900KS, Intels’ premium processor that uses an all-core 5 GHz seems to have made EOL as availability if the processor went down massively and prices went up.

All in all, this isn’t a big news since Intel has clearly indicated that the 8-core processor would be a limited edition production run. If you want one as it is probably the fastest game processor your money can get, it’s better to do it now as prices have already gone up by around 50 ~ 75 EUR overall. Obviously you could wait on the new generation desktop processors, but this requires the investment of a new motherboard as they will be based on LGA1200 sockets.

Core Core /
Smart cache
i9 9900KS 8/16 16 4.0 5.0 5.0 16 DDR42666 127 $ 513
i9 9900K 8/16 16 3.6 5.0 4.7 16 DDR42666 95 $ 488
i9 9900KF 8/16 16 3.6 5.0 4.7 16 DDR42666 95 $ 463
i9 9900 8/16 16 3.1 5.0 4.6 16 DDR42666 65 $ 439
i7 9700K 8/8 12 3.6 4.9 4.6 16 DDR42666 95 $ 374
i7 9700KF 8/8 12 3.6 4.9 4.6 16 DDR42666 95 $ 349
i7 9700 8/8 12 3.0 4.70 4.4 16 DDR42666 65 $ 323
i5 9600K 6/6 9 3.7 4.6 4.3 16 DDR42666 95 $ 262
i5 9600KF 6/6 9 3.7 4.6 4.3 16 DDR42666 95 $ 237
i5 9600 6/6 9 3.1 4.6 4.0 16 DDR42666 65 $ 214
i5 9500 6/6 9 3.0 4.4 4.0 16 DDR42666 65 $ 192
i5 9500F 6/6 9 3.0 4.4 4.0 16 DDR42666 65 $ 167
i5 9400 6/6 9 2.9 4.1 3.9 16 DDR42666 65 $ 182
i5 9400F 6/6 9 2.9 4.1 3.8 16 DDR42666 65 $ 157
i3 9350K 4/4 8 4.0 4.6 4.3 16 DDR42400 91 $ 173
i3 9350KF 4/4 8 4.0 4.6 4.3 16 DDR42400 91 $ 148,
i3 9100 4/4 8 3.6 4.2 3.6 16 DDR42400 91 $ 122
i3 9100F 4/4 8 3.6 4.2 3.6 16 DDR42400 91 $ 97

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The announcement for the casino appears on the side of the “Leaning Tower of Dallas” – NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth

A casino took advantage of Dallas’ new landmark Tuesday evening by projecting an announcement on the side of the “Leaning Tower of Dallas”.

An advertisement for Choctaw Casino & Resort in Durant, Oklahoma appeared on the side of the tower on Tuesday evening.

The tower was supposed to have imploded on February 16, but the central core of the building survived the implosion.

On Monday, demolition teams started using a demolition ball to knock down the rest of the building.

In the middle, the “Leaning Tower of Dallas” has become a sensation on social media, with people stopping to pose with what’s left of the structure.

The development company said Tuesday or days may take weeks to completely complete the demolition process.