We do not laugh with the summons of justice. Monday, May 11, the first day of deconfinement and the day of reopening of the courts, the clerk of the Assize Court of l’Aube proceeded to appeal the 35 full jurors and 10 substitute jurors registered on the session list.
Eight of them are absent and have not invoked “Reason for absence”, according to the decision opening the session and revising the list of session judges.
“Failed and not excused”, they were therefore fined € 100, according to this document.
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“Given the particular context, fining these people … They must have been persuaded that the hearing would not be held … It is edifying”, a lawyer from the Troyes bar was surprised.
The jurors would have been “regularly summoned”
The court found on Monday May 11 that the jurors had been informed “The resumption of judicial activity from May 11” and that they had been “Regularly convened”, reacted for its part the attorney of Troyes Sophie Macquart-Moulin.
This type of sanction “Is regularly pronounced in court of assize against summoned jurors and who do not justify their absence”, she said.
No hearing was held at the Assizes in Troyes during the confinement.
Is over Wide sleeve Police with whom they skip home confinement. The reason: the increase in arrests and sanctions for not respecting the limitation of movements imposed by the state of alarm, which have exploded in recent days. From now on, the State Security Forces will apply zero tolerance in the face of flagrant and repeated breaches, although they will continue studying “case by case” to always act with “proportionality and common sense”. The Interior Minister, Fernando Grande-Marlaska, estimated yesterday at 31,000 the fines imposed to date.
Police sources have explained to LA RAZÓN that both the Civil Guard and the National Police, in addition to the regional and local police, have received instructions with the recommendation to request from people who are not confined to their homes any type of supporting document. the reason for their presence on the street. It would go from the supermarket ticket to a pharmaceutical prescription, through a medical certificate, a bank receipt or a business pass for those who go to work. However, lacking any of these documents does not automatically entail a sanction, the aforementioned sources add.
The first days of the state of alarm, decreed by the Government last weekend, resulted in a few hundred fines throughout Spain and many more identifications and verbal warnings by the State Security Forces to citizens. who ignored house confinement and went out into the street. The same recommendation was received by the owners of establishments that did not comply with the order to close their premises, especially bars and small shops.
According to the sources consulted, the Civil Guard, the National Police and the regional and local police forces had so far applied a protocol of left hand with people who skipped home confinement to go jogging, cycling, bathing or sunbathing on the beach (especially last Sunday, due to the high temperatures throughout the country), taking children to a park or just walk. Agents generally chose to issue hundreds of warnings but made few complaints, unless, as has happened in some cases, they received an insult or attempted assault in response.
Now, the Security Forces have received an express order, added the aforementioned sources, to sanction fines of between 300 and 1,000 euros for all drivers who are caught when accompanied by one or more passengers in their vehicle. However, the agents have the power to evaluate one-on-one particularly special cases, such as the transfer to a health center of a disabled person or an elderly person.
These changes in police protocols are the answer to a certain ‘relaxation‘in the fulfillment of the norms contained in the state of alarm by an increasing number of citizens, a trend that is exacerbated with the passing of days and the accumulation of tension and fatigue due to the obligatory quarantine, in the opinion of the mentioned sources. This past Thursday, the feast of San José in some autonomous communities, Madrid capital broke its record of fines in a single day, almost a thousand, most of them for disobeying the agents and refusing to return to their homes.
In a press conference held late yesterday afternoon at the La Moncloa palace, Grande-Marlaska acknowledged that the Security Forces have so far imposed 31,000 acts of denunciation against as many citizens, the vast majority of them for breach of house confinement and travel on public roads, “putting everyone’s health at risk, which is the ultimate reason” for the alarm decree, added the interior minister.
In the Basque Country, one of the communities where Thursday 19 was a holiday, it also reached a thousand sanctions (and 18 arrests), much of it because not a few citizens took advantage of the bridge to move to their second homes or communities autonomous neighbors. In Catalonia, the Mossos d’Esquadra have so far made around 4,000 identifications and imposed more than 2,500 complaints only in Barcelona, where there have also been numerous incidents in the public space due to quarrels between neighbors.
In Navarra, the provincial police again insisted yesterday on repeated signs of picaresque related to the use of dogs to violate house confinement, which include the rental of these pets to go outside. In its Twitter account, the provincial police warned: “We verified the ownership of the dog by reading the microchip. It is necessary to avoid picaresque in the walks ”. For their part, the local police in Pamplona warned, on the same social network, that “being too far from their home [con el perro] or to spend half a morning walking it, are reasons for sanction ”.
Interior sends a circular to the FSE with the catalog of sanctions to be imposed
The Ministry of the Interior has sent to the Security Forces a circular that establishes the sanctions that can be imposed, based on the laws in force, for those who fail to comply or oppose the orders issued to tackle the coronavirus crisis.
In this order, to which LA RAZÓN has had access, it is recalled that non-compliance or resistance to the orders of the competent authorities in the state of alarm will be punished in accordance with the laws.
Among others, the following are specified:
Slight penalty, fine from 100 to 600 euros: the removal of fences, tapes or other fixed or mobile elements placed by the Security Forces and Bodies to delimit security perimeters, even as a preventive measure, when it does not constitute a serious infraction. .
Serious penalty, fine of 601 to 30,000 euros: disobedience or resistance to the authority or its agents in the exercise of their functions, when they do not constitute a crime, as well as the refusal to identify themselves at the request of the authority or its agents or the allegation of false or inaccurate data in identification processes.
Serious offenses, a fine of 3,001 up to 60,000 euros: the conduct of conduct or omissions that may produce a risk or serious harm to the health of the population, when it does not constitute a very serious offense.
Very serious offenses, a fine of 60,001 up to 600,000 euros: the carrying out of conducts or omissions that produce a risk or a very serious harm to the health of the population; non-compliance, repeatedly, with the instructions received from the competent authority, or non-compliance with a requirement of this, if it involves serious damage to health.
They constitute SERIOUS infractions, a fine from 30,001 to 600,000 euros: in declared emergencies, non-compliance with orders, prohibitions, instructions or requirements made by the heads of the competent bodies or the members of the intervention and assistance services, as well as the duties of collaboration with the surveillance and protection services of public or private companies, when it is not particularly dangerous or transcendent for the safety of people or property.
They constitute very serious infractions, a fine of 1,501 to 30,000 euros: in declared emergencies, non-compliance with orders, prohibitions, instructions or requirements made by the heads of the competent bodies or the members of the intervention and assistance services, as well as the duties of collaboration with the surveillance and protection services of public or private companies¸ when it supposes a special danger or importance for the safety of people or property
They will be punished with a prison sentence of three months to one year or a fine of six to eighteen months: those who seriously resist or disobey the authority or its agents in the exercise of their functions, or duly identified private security personnel who carry out private security activities in cooperation and under the command of the Security Forces and Corps.
The enemy Hank Bolden
faced did not come from a distant front line.
It came from the skies.
It’s a battle that’s still going on 65 years later. Bolden, who is now 82 years old, is an atomic veteran – one of hundreds of thousands of American service members used in human testing by the United States government during post-WWII nuclear tests and sworn to a secret life.
“They wanted to see how the living soldiers would resist the exposure
to radiation, ”recalls Bolden. “Before using live soldiers they were using
mannequins. But you don’t get real results using mannequins as you would
live bodies. “
A DIFFERENT TIME
While accompanying a friend to a New Haven recruiting station in 1953, Bolden was invited to join the army. At just 16 years old then and already out of high school, he admits that he “pulled down” his birth certificate to move to the age of 18, joining the approximately 200,000 underage soldiers who would have served during the Second World War and the eras of the Korean War.
After basic training in
Fort Dix was assigned to work as a tank mechanic in Texas before moving to Texas
California and becoming a surface-to-air missile mechanic.
Despite an executive order issued in July
26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman to desegregate the armed forces, the last one
the all black units of the army were not abolished until 1954. And in 1955, Bolden
he says, racist attitudes persist even after the units have been racially integrated.
“The residual thoughts of people were firm
linger, “he says.” My outfit was 800 people strong. Thirteen of us were
black. Ten were from the South, who were more tolerant of treatment
they got racially. But the three of us from the North couldn’t tolerate it,
so I have had many fights over this. So I was the guy they wanted
get rid of.”
It would not be the only race
discrimination Bolden would witness as a soldier.
In 1955, the seventeen year old
he was suddenly ordered to the Nevada desert without explanation.
“They don’t tell you what you’re going to face,” he said. “Nobody
they knew what they were going to face. ”
What he would eventually face was a classified operation known as Operation Teapot at the Nevada Test Site. In a series of 14 bomb throws, or “hits”, military officials tried to test the effects of nuclear bombs on structures and strategies, animals and people.
All races of military personnel
participated in the Teapot operation. But upon arrival in Nevada, Bolden was
astounded to accomplish all the other soldiers in his new specially selected unit
for a mysterious assignment they were also black.
“There was this myth about black people
be able to resist, tolerate certain things more than any other race “, he
He says. “So it was a test on that too.”
AN ATOMIC NIGHT
One morning in February, Bolden
the unit was ordered in a desert trench. Unbeknownst to them, it was excavated
the expected route of the fallout, only 2.8 miles away from what it would have become
ground zero for the launch of an atomic bomb.
Even though a countdown sounded on the speakers, Bolden says, the soldiers still had no idea what they were about to face. Without protective gear in addition to the normal fabrics and helmets, they waited and looked.
“They tell you to cover your eyes”
On February 18, 1955, Shot Wasp, the first nuclear test of Operation Teapot, detonated a Mark 6 nuclear bomb dropped by a B-36 exactly at noon. A monstrous cloud of mushrooms filled the sky, reaching 21,500 feet in height.
“With radiation, when you put your arms over your eyes or hands, you actually see the bones, you see the bones in your body from the exposure. You can see your skeleton. “
After the relapse the warning came.
“You swore not to speak
“said Bolden. The soldiers were threatened with imprisonment and fines for violation
For 60 years, Bolden didn’t tell anyone. No this
family, not his wife, not his children. Not even her doctors when she spies on her
tumors have started to show. He developed bladder and posterior subcapsular cancer
cataract and in 1990 multiple myeloma was diagnosed.
“They actually gave me three and a half years
four years to live, ”recalls Bolden. So in 1995 I should have been a statistic. “
But in 1995, Bolden was in remission. He is a citizen
the secret was coming to light.
Government figures estimate between 400,000 and 550,000 US military personnel who participated in a series of nuclear tests between 1946 and 1992. According to the Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency, this includes post occupation forces -Second World War of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, prisoners of war in Japan at the end of the Second World War, participants in the atmospheric nuclear tests in Nevada and the Pacific from 1945 to 1962 and participants in the underground nuclear tests in Nevada from 1951 to 1992.
Many of these “atomic veterans” have succumbed before their own
the stories have become public, their bodies are full of tumors. In
1990, the veil of secrecy began to lift.
After setting up the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments to investigate 10-year experiments, President Clinton made a formal apology to American atomic veterans on October 3, 1995. By order of the president, Congress would repeal the nuclear radiation agreement law. and secrecy, allowing atomic veterans to talk about their experiences without fear of fines or treason charges. And financial compensation has been opened to all qualified atomic veterans.
“Those who led the government when these decisions were made are no longer here to take responsibility for what they have done. They are not here to apologize to survivors, family members or their communities whose lives have been overshadowed by shadow of these choices So today, on behalf of another generation of American leaders and another generation of American citizens, the United States of America offers sincere apologies to those of our citizens who have undergone these experiments. the government is wrong, we have a moral responsibility to admit it, “said President Bill Clinton on October 3, 1995
But the television address has been obscured. The same happened
day when OJ Simpson’s verdict was issued in a live classroom feed, taking
on televisions and news cycles across America.
As a result, many skilled veterans had no idea of the ban
the secrecy had been lifted, nor that they could claim benefits. Bolden no
find out until he researched the Internet, he says, in 2015.
“I was once so angry and so aggravating with the government that I thought I would be murdered to keep me from talking,” he says.
When Bolden attempted to apply for subsidies, he found that the burden of proof was placed on his fellow atomic veterans. The government would give compensation from the date a complaint was filed, but not retroactively, and only if the veteran could prove that he had participated in the tests – which proved to be an almost impossible task after millions of military documents were destroyed in a 1973 fire against the National Staff Registration Center. As many as 18 million documents were burned, including 80% of all army personnel discharged between 1912 and 1960.
“They hoped for it
would have died sooner or would have been one of those guys who surrendered ”
says Anthony Bolden, Hank’s son. “No thanks. Hank doesn’t have it.”
After paying her
own pocket for a polygraph lie detector pouch, Hank eventually claimed
approved, setting a precedent for other atomic veterans whose records were
Photo: Hidden story: the atomic veterans of America
Hit a high note
“The love of music has
I’ve always been there. “
After his honorable discharge
from the army, Bolden went to work as an engineer before deciding to pursue a
career as a jazz musician who works while his family grows. Tell the story
while cradling the tenor saxophone that has been at his side since 1967. The “Rolls
Royce “of tools, he says.
The brand is Selmer. IS
in a strange coincidence, the model is a 6 sign. It is the same name as the shot
Wasp atomic bomb design.
But this is where the
the similarities end. The bomb was his nightmare. Music, his dream and his
outlet to work through the trauma of what lived in Nevada
“It’s like the blood inside
my veins. It takes away all my other thoughts, “he says
Bolden is finally
he receives compensation from the government and is now using it to help make his dream come true.
He returned to school, studying jazz performances at Hartt University of Hartford
“They are like the relic
here with all these kids, you know, “he chuckles.
Professor Javon Jackson
says that the 82-year-old is leaving a unique mark on the prestigious program.
“He has a lot of emotion,” says Jackson. “He is a very bluesy, very full of feeling, a natural player. His life, wisdom and the things he has acquired allow him to play the way it sounds.”
The vast majority of
Today, the American atomic veterans of the atmospheric test era are gone. About
400,000 veterans were present during these tests, according to the veterans
Administration. Survivors’ numbers vary, from around 10,000 to 80,000
Bolden believes he is one of only two surviving African American atomic veterans who are recognized and receive compensation from the government. He is on a mission to reach as many survivors as possible and help them request the long-awaited recognition and compensation.
And he’s sharing his story, he says, to make sure the plight of American atomic veterans is no longer ignored.
“When people like me pass by, this won’t be part of the story unless someone makes sure it’s kept alive.”