Fallout 4 is one of the video game most popular franchise Bethesda Softworks. Like its previous versions, the game poses a dystopian future, so the context in which it takes place is the result of a terrible nuclear war between the superpowers.
That is why it is not surprising that in history there are bombs of all kinds. The point is, the game has so much detail and the recreations are so realistic that they could easily fool anyone, even a head of state.
A clear example is the President of the Government of Spain, Pedro Sánchez. The president shared through his Twitter a publication where he recalled the first nuclear attack in history. We refer to the atomic bombing against the city of Hiroshima, Japan.
This unfortunate event happened 75 years ago within the framework of the Second World War, and this week its anniversary was fulfilled. That is why the governor decided to commemorate it, but had a mistake.
Users immediately noticed the bug and brought it up. The photograph was not about the Hiroshima disaster, as the actual photos taken on that fateful occasion were very different.
The photograph belongs to the filming of the game, specifically its prologue.
However, it is not the first time that this type of situation has occurred, because even the media have made mistakes like this. The realism of many games can fool many. The next time it only remains to investigate well and prevent this type of case from happening.
Immediately after the explosion, 70 to 80 thousand people, mostly civilians, died. Almost everyone who was closer than a kilometer and a half away died hypocentreBut Little Boy killed at twice the distance.
Another 70,000 people succumbed to the consequences of the injuries. “The problem is that the city was completely destroyed and the massive fire destroyed the archives and all documentation. So it is very difficult to specify it completely, “noted historian Ivo Pejčoch earlier.
“Another much-discussed issue is how many people died in the post-war years or decades as a result of radiation,” added Pejčoch, adding that these numbers vary considerably depending on the statistical or medical methodologies used by individual experts. According to Japanese official figures, the total number of deaths from Hiroshima exceeds 260,000.
Truman: We used the basic force of the universe against the perpetrators of the war in the Far East
About using a destructive bomb reported President Harry S. Truman soon introduced his nation. “Sixteen hours ago, an American plane dropped a bomb on Hiroshima, an important Japanese military base (…). It is an atomic bomb,” he said at the time.
“We have used the fundamental power of the universe. The power from which the Sun draws its power has been unleashed against those who have waged war in the Far East, “the president continued. He never considered his decision on the nuclear bombing of Japan bad, even though he called the nuclear weapon the worst bomb in world history after successfully testing it.
Conversely, Enoly Gay co-pilot Robert Lewis later recalled that his first thought, when he saw the bomb being fired and the city destroyed, was, “My God, what have we done?” In this context, Pejčoch pointed out that most of the aircraft staff did not know the purpose of their mission. Familiar to him was Commander Paul S. Tibbets and the bomb operators.
“The rest of the crew – at least according to what they claimed after the war – was informed only to the minimum necessary, but since they were all very experienced technicians, they estimated what effects the weapon could have,” the historian said. the reality was a surprise to them.
The American public approved the atomic bombing of Japan
As for the reaction of the American public, according to Pejčoch, it is necessary to be aware of the context of the time. “The Americans have been attacked by Japan. The Japanese army behaved in particular, especially in China or towards the indigenous people on the occupied islands, and committed a number of military crimes comparable to what the Nazis did in Europe, “Pejčoch described.
“For example, the Bataan death march is known,” said Pejčoch. For this reason, the nuclear bombing of Japan was then considered an act of necessity.
At that time, the Americans mainly wanted the war to end. “The local public was not prepared for tens of thousands more dead American soldiers,” historian Jaroslav Láník noted earlier.
The road to peaceful Japan
However, the inferno that the Little Boy brought to Hiroshima did not break the Japanese Emperor Hirohita. The Japanese did not give up. That is why the Americans decided to nuclear bomb another target, which was to be the city of Kokura.
However, the crew of the B-29 bomber, which was named Bockscar, could not aim at the target on the ninth of August, so they decided to drop their cargo – a plutonium bomb nicknamed Fat Man – on the second target. This was an important port and industrial center of Nagasaki.
It was the destruction of the second city that forced Japan to accede to the demands of the Allies. The Empire, to which Stalin’s Soviet Union declared war on August 8, 1945, finally capitulated six days after the bombing of Nagasaki. The signing of the surrender document followed about two weeks later.
Immediately after the surrender, the Allies established an occupying administration in war-torn Japan. Although formally international in nature, it was in fact an American occupation. The United States, led by General Douglas MacArthur, implemented it indirectly through the Japanese government.
The goal of the seven years of occupation was to transform Japan into a democratic and demilitarized state. The adoption of the new constitution played an important role in this process. It came into force in May 1947, and Japan relinquished its right to own an army and rejected the war.
Japan’s nuclear bombing is still controversial
The use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki remains controversial to this day. Proponents point out that the bomb saved many lives of American soldiers. However, there are opinions that at the time of the deployment of nuclear weapons, Japan was militarily and economically on its knees and the dropping of bombs did not significantly bring the end of the war.
On the other hand, there are also voices that the atomic bombing of Japan – the only use of these destructive weapons in human history to date – has helped prevent a similar move during the Cold War. This is pointed out, for example, by historian Prokop Tomek. “Without the Hiroshima experience, we would have no idea how terrible a weapon it is. ‘I don’t think Hiroshima civilians died in vain because they showed the danger in that weapon,” he said earlier.
“What is wrong with trying to judge Oppenheimer for his betrayals?” Nicknamed “The father of the atomic bomb”, the American physicist Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967) was the scientific director of the Manhattan project from which the first atomic bombs produced in the laboratory of Los Alamos, in New Mexico, were produced. On August 6 and 9, 1945, bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They caused the deaths of more than 200,000 people when the war was almost over and Germany had surrendered. Robert Oppenheimer therefore had reason to appear before judges; he himself felt that he had blood on his hands: “I have become death, the destroyer of the worlds.” He said these words after the test which took place, at his request, on July 16, 1945 in the desert of New Mexico. “Trinity” is the name from which he baptized this essay. It’s also the title that the American Louisa Hall gives to her novel, a composite and post-mortem portrait of Robert Oppenheimer. She establishes it from the fictitious testimonies of seven people who would have approached the scientist: a private detective, his secretary at the time when he directed the Institute for Advanced Study of Princeton, a journalist, etc.
This discontinuous, kaleidoscopic, chaotic form, similar to the fire released by a bomb, draws an Oppenheimer in progress. The architecture of the novel also echoes the unofficial trial to which Robert Oppenheimer had to submit: in April 1954, his opposition to the development of the hydrogen bomb, his preference for the transparency of nuclear tests and his former proximity to members of the Communist Party earned him three weeks of“Safety hearings” from the United States Atomic Energy Commission. McCarthy America suspected him of being a spy in the pay of the Soviets. His secret defense privilege was revoked. This episode deeply affected Robert Oppenheimer. By adding testimonies of which it is never specified which authority requires them, if not that of the author, Trinity takes place a kind of appeal trial, which leads to the rehabilitation of Robert Oppenheimer.
Who was he ? The gifted son of a prosperous and cultivated German Jew and American woman. Robert Oppenheimer enjoyed listening to Bach and collecting minerals. At 17, cured of tuberculosis, he left New York to spend his convalescence in New Mexico, in the desert of Jornada del Muerto. This landscape appeals to him. When he returns to develop the bomb, he travels there in an old Jeep and in jeans. He wears the same hat as that of Robert De Niro in Mean Streets and moves forward as “Hanging on a string”. Trinity scattered this biographical information in small doses in each testimony. They mingle with the story of the witness’ own life. For everyone, everyday life is chaos. Some are more interesting than others, but the high quality of the set allows to overcome some weaknesses.
“Frail, and slaughtered”
In 1943, Oppenheimer was hired for the Manhattan project. His surveillance by the FBI begins at the same time. He is the star of the laboratory. One day, he leaves the base to visit his mistress, Jean Tatlock, who lives in San Francisco. Trinity opens with the story of this reckless runaway observed by a private detective. Six months later, Tatlock, psychiatrist and communist, committed suicide.
The last chapter, the best, is the one in which Louisa Hall takes the most distance and height. There she spoke to a journalist who met Oppenheimer in 1966, a few weeks before he died of cancer. It is “Frail and downed”. The woman first shows herself as a joker. Oppenheimer still made the A-bomb and accused his former German student, Bernard Peters, of being a communist sympathizer before the Atomic Commission. Then the reporter softens, she notes the “Melancholy patience” of Oppenheimer and realizes that “He too lived in this same uncertain world, he had always lived there, including when he developed these weapons, thinking he had control of their destinies, not yet knowing that it would not be up to him to decide where and when army would use it […] for what reason and for what purpose. ” She adds : “A story always has holes from which it draws its strength.” Louisa Hall does not aim for the beatification of Oppenheimer, but by departing from the mode of the Inquisition, she pleads for a presumption of complexity. She behaves like a writer.
The enemy Hank Bolden
faced did not come from a distant front line.
It came from the skies.
It’s a battle that’s still going on 65 years later. Bolden, who is now 82 years old, is an atomic veteran – one of hundreds of thousands of American service members used in human testing by the United States government during post-WWII nuclear tests and sworn to a secret life.
“They wanted to see how the living soldiers would resist the exposure
to radiation, ”recalls Bolden. “Before using live soldiers they were using
mannequins. But you don’t get real results using mannequins as you would
live bodies. “
A DIFFERENT TIME
While accompanying a friend to a New Haven recruiting station in 1953, Bolden was invited to join the army. At just 16 years old then and already out of high school, he admits that he “pulled down” his birth certificate to move to the age of 18, joining the approximately 200,000 underage soldiers who would have served during the Second World War and the eras of the Korean War.
After basic training in
Fort Dix was assigned to work as a tank mechanic in Texas before moving to Texas
California and becoming a surface-to-air missile mechanic.
Despite an executive order issued in July
26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman to desegregate the armed forces, the last one
the all black units of the army were not abolished until 1954. And in 1955, Bolden
he says, racist attitudes persist even after the units have been racially integrated.
“The residual thoughts of people were firm
linger, “he says.” My outfit was 800 people strong. Thirteen of us were
black. Ten were from the South, who were more tolerant of treatment
they got racially. But the three of us from the North couldn’t tolerate it,
so I have had many fights over this. So I was the guy they wanted
get rid of.”
It would not be the only race
discrimination Bolden would witness as a soldier.
In 1955, the seventeen year old
he was suddenly ordered to the Nevada desert without explanation.
“They don’t tell you what you’re going to face,” he said. “Nobody
they knew what they were going to face. ”
What he would eventually face was a classified operation known as Operation Teapot at the Nevada Test Site. In a series of 14 bomb throws, or “hits”, military officials tried to test the effects of nuclear bombs on structures and strategies, animals and people.
All races of military personnel
participated in the Teapot operation. But upon arrival in Nevada, Bolden was
astounded to accomplish all the other soldiers in his new specially selected unit
for a mysterious assignment they were also black.
“There was this myth about black people
be able to resist, tolerate certain things more than any other race “, he
He says. “So it was a test on that too.”
AN ATOMIC NIGHT
One morning in February, Bolden
the unit was ordered in a desert trench. Unbeknownst to them, it was excavated
the expected route of the fallout, only 2.8 miles away from what it would have become
ground zero for the launch of an atomic bomb.
Even though a countdown sounded on the speakers, Bolden says, the soldiers still had no idea what they were about to face. Without protective gear in addition to the normal fabrics and helmets, they waited and looked.
“They tell you to cover your eyes”
On February 18, 1955, Shot Wasp, the first nuclear test of Operation Teapot, detonated a Mark 6 nuclear bomb dropped by a B-36 exactly at noon. A monstrous cloud of mushrooms filled the sky, reaching 21,500 feet in height.
“With radiation, when you put your arms over your eyes or hands, you actually see the bones, you see the bones in your body from the exposure. You can see your skeleton. “
After the relapse the warning came.
“You swore not to speak
“said Bolden. The soldiers were threatened with imprisonment and fines for violation
For 60 years, Bolden didn’t tell anyone. No this
family, not his wife, not his children. Not even her doctors when she spies on her
tumors have started to show. He developed bladder and posterior subcapsular cancer
cataract and in 1990 multiple myeloma was diagnosed.
“They actually gave me three and a half years
four years to live, ”recalls Bolden. So in 1995 I should have been a statistic. “
But in 1995, Bolden was in remission. He is a citizen
the secret was coming to light.
Government figures estimate between 400,000 and 550,000 US military personnel who participated in a series of nuclear tests between 1946 and 1992. According to the Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency, this includes post occupation forces -Second World War of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, prisoners of war in Japan at the end of the Second World War, participants in the atmospheric nuclear tests in Nevada and the Pacific from 1945 to 1962 and participants in the underground nuclear tests in Nevada from 1951 to 1992.
Many of these “atomic veterans” have succumbed before their own
the stories have become public, their bodies are full of tumors. In
1990, the veil of secrecy began to lift.
After setting up the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments to investigate 10-year experiments, President Clinton made a formal apology to American atomic veterans on October 3, 1995. By order of the president, Congress would repeal the nuclear radiation agreement law. and secrecy, allowing atomic veterans to talk about their experiences without fear of fines or treason charges. And financial compensation has been opened to all qualified atomic veterans.
“Those who led the government when these decisions were made are no longer here to take responsibility for what they have done. They are not here to apologize to survivors, family members or their communities whose lives have been overshadowed by shadow of these choices So today, on behalf of another generation of American leaders and another generation of American citizens, the United States of America offers sincere apologies to those of our citizens who have undergone these experiments. the government is wrong, we have a moral responsibility to admit it, “said President Bill Clinton on October 3, 1995
But the television address has been obscured. The same happened
day when OJ Simpson’s verdict was issued in a live classroom feed, taking
on televisions and news cycles across America.
As a result, many skilled veterans had no idea of the ban
the secrecy had been lifted, nor that they could claim benefits. Bolden no
find out until he researched the Internet, he says, in 2015.
“I was once so angry and so aggravating with the government that I thought I would be murdered to keep me from talking,” he says.
When Bolden attempted to apply for subsidies, he found that the burden of proof was placed on his fellow atomic veterans. The government would give compensation from the date a complaint was filed, but not retroactively, and only if the veteran could prove that he had participated in the tests – which proved to be an almost impossible task after millions of military documents were destroyed in a 1973 fire against the National Staff Registration Center. As many as 18 million documents were burned, including 80% of all army personnel discharged between 1912 and 1960.
“They hoped for it
would have died sooner or would have been one of those guys who surrendered ”
says Anthony Bolden, Hank’s son. “No thanks. Hank doesn’t have it.”
After paying her
own pocket for a polygraph lie detector pouch, Hank eventually claimed
approved, setting a precedent for other atomic veterans whose records were
Photo: Hidden story: the atomic veterans of America
Hit a high note
“The love of music has
I’ve always been there. “
After his honorable discharge
from the army, Bolden went to work as an engineer before deciding to pursue a
career as a jazz musician who works while his family grows. Tell the story
while cradling the tenor saxophone that has been at his side since 1967. The “Rolls
Royce “of tools, he says.
The brand is Selmer. IS
in a strange coincidence, the model is a 6 sign. It is the same name as the shot
Wasp atomic bomb design.
But this is where the
the similarities end. The bomb was his nightmare. Music, his dream and his
outlet to work through the trauma of what lived in Nevada
“It’s like the blood inside
my veins. It takes away all my other thoughts, “he says
Bolden is finally
he receives compensation from the government and is now using it to help make his dream come true.
He returned to school, studying jazz performances at Hartt University of Hartford
“They are like the relic
here with all these kids, you know, “he chuckles.
Professor Javon Jackson
says that the 82-year-old is leaving a unique mark on the prestigious program.
“He has a lot of emotion,” says Jackson. “He is a very bluesy, very full of feeling, a natural player. His life, wisdom and the things he has acquired allow him to play the way it sounds.”
The vast majority of
Today, the American atomic veterans of the atmospheric test era are gone. About
400,000 veterans were present during these tests, according to the veterans
Administration. Survivors’ numbers vary, from around 10,000 to 80,000
Bolden believes he is one of only two surviving African American atomic veterans who are recognized and receive compensation from the government. He is on a mission to reach as many survivors as possible and help them request the long-awaited recognition and compensation.
And he’s sharing his story, he says, to make sure the plight of American atomic veterans is no longer ignored.
“When people like me pass by, this won’t be part of the story unless someone makes sure it’s kept alive.”