The first 10 days after the onset of symptoms of the disease, the 38-year-old American was feeling quite well. He was not at risk; he had no chronic diseases.
– The man was examined, the disease was mild. The patient had a slight cough. Therefore, he was sent home for treatment, ”says the head of the Department of Vascular Surgery at Westchester Medical Center Sean Wengerter.
And then the incredible happened.
One morning, a man woke up with icy and numb legs. The body was constrained by terrible weakness; there was not even the strength to get out of bed.
The examination showed that the patient had aortic occlusion – a large blood clot formed in the main artery at the place where the artery diverged in two directions – to the right and left leg. Because of this clot, blood enriched with oxygen did not enter the iliac arteries.
“This is extremely dangerous.” From this can die from 20% to 50% of patients, – notes Vangerter. – But such things are not typical for 38-year-olds.
An emergency operation to remove a blood clot could save the patient’s life. But doctors working with patients with COVID-19 are everywhere faced with rather strange and frightening phenomena in infected patients. For example, the formation of blood clots (actually blood clots) of various sizes throughout the body, renal failure, inflammation of the heart muscle and malfunctions of the immune system.
“Coronavirus occurs in each patient in its own way,” notes Scott Brackenridge, associate professor of emergency surgery at the College of Medicine at the University of Florida. – In some cases, the patient has a problem with breathing, in others, the internal organs begin to fail. In children, the immune system as a whole begins to rebel.
Coronavirus is not just a respiratory diseasePhoto: Ivan MAKEEV
A new type of coronavirus is considered to be a respiratory virus, although it is already becoming obvious – the infection affects the entire human body. The most common symptoms are fever, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
In this case, the virus attacks some organs directly. First of all, the mucous membrane of blood vessels, which entails unnatural coagulation of blood.
– COVID-19 provokes a local inflammatory reaction that leads to the formation of blood clots, – explains Wengerter. – This is due to the direct effect of the virus on the arteries.
A number of doctors recorded strokes in young patients with coronavirus, as well as the formation of blood clots in the lungs. Blood clots were found even in the smallest vessels.
“Since each organ feeds on blood vessels, and the virus attacks them first and foremost, we end up with damage to internal organs,” adds Dr. Scott Brackenridge.
Another serious symptom that is observed in some patients who become ill with the new coronavirus is the “co-fingers.” The infected toes swell, becoming red or purple. It is possible that the reason for this is blockage of blood vessels. But doctors say that usually this does not have serious consequences.
One of the most alarming reactions to COVID-19 is observed in children. It has already been named as a children’s multisystem inflammatory syndrome. In newYork Doctors have identified more than 100 cases.
This syndrome is characterized by a rather long fever, inflammatory process, malfunction of one or more internal organs, as well as the general condition, which is usually observed with shock. Pediatricians also compare these symptoms with the syndrome. Kawasaki.
Kawasaki syndrome is a rare disease that affects children aged 3 to 10 years. It is characterized by damage to the medium and small arteries, thrombosis, the formation of aneurysms and rupture of the vascular wall. Cases of infection are rare. However, recently, doctors have noted an increase in the number of patients with this syndrome.
Both childhood multisystem inflammatory syndrome and Kawasaki syndrome lead to an overly aggressive immune system response to coronavirus. This may be accompanied by inflammation of the blood vessels and heart muscle.
However, scientists note that coronavirus is not able to cause a strong immune response, but, on the contrary, suppress the entire immune system. And this can allow the infection to freely attack the internal organs.
Partly this theory was confirmed by Chinese experts, led by Dr. Zhang Zhang. Scientists analyzed samples of immune cells taken from the lungs of 9 patients infected with coronavirus. The results of the study showed an abnormally high level of leukocytes – macrophages and neutrophils responsible for the destruction of harmful pathogen – in severe patients. At the same time, these patients had a rather low level of CD8 T cells, which are called killer cells. They are responsible for killing virus-infected cells.
But doctors are reassuring, noting that they have drugs that can thin the blood, and also help the work of white blood cells that resist infection.
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