SARS-CoV-2: Going to a restaurant as an infection risk

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Atlanta – Distance rules are difficult to enforce in restaurants or bars. It is not possible to cover the mouth and nose when eating food. According to the results of a case-control study, the consequence is in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR 2020; 69: 1258-1264) an increased risk of infection.

Since the end of the lockdown, the number of infections has risen again in many countries. There are different ways for the population to become infected. What is important in practice can be determined with case-control studies that compare infected and non-infected people.

Kiva Fisher von den Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from Atlanta and employees interviewed 314 adults who had come to a test for SARS-CoV-2 with possible symptoms of COVID-19: 154 had positive results, the other 160 people were not infected.

Both groups were asked about wearing a mask and about possible risk contacts, for example whether they had been shopping in the last 14 days, whether they were in smaller or larger groups of people or whether they worked in an office with other people. Other questions related to visits to fitness studios, the use of public transport, visits to churches and staying in restaurants and bars / cafes.

There were only significant differences when visiting restaurants and bars. The infected had visited these locations twice as often as the controls. For dining out, Fisher determined an adjusted odds ratio of 2.4, which was significant with a 95% confidence interval of 1.5 to 3.8.

No significant difference was initially found for visits to bars and cafés. This changed when the analysis was limited to people who otherwise had no contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected people. The adjusted odds ratio then increased to 3.9 (1.5 to 10.1). Fisher determined an adjusted odds ratio of 2.8 (1.9 to 4.3) for the visitors to restaurants who could not remember an encounter with the infected.

The infected persons stated significantly more frequently that no or only a few other guests had worn mouth and nose protection when visiting the restaurants (19.0 versus 2.3%). This was the case even more frequently with bar visits (31.8 versus 25.0%). The differences were significant in both cases.

The study thus shows that visiting restaurants and bars is associated with a potential risk of infection. How big it is depends heavily on the mask discipline of the other guests. © rme / aerzteblatt.de

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More than doubling the number of new corona infections in Drenthe

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Coronavirus: infections mostly occur at work and at school

This is the lesson learned by the Flemish Agency for Care and Health.

NWe contract the coronavirus mainly at work and at school, before infecting members of our family, according to an investigation by the Flemish Agency for Care and Health relayed Thursday by the newspaper Het Laatste Nieuws.

There was an average of 509.71 coronavirus contaminations per day in Belgium between August 31 and September 6, an increase (+ 15%) compared to the preceding seven-day period, according to the latest figures published by Sciensano. Hospitalizations are also on the rise (+ 4.6%) to stand at 20.7 per day on average.

Few infections linked to the hospitality industry and sports clubs

According to the Flemish Care and Health Agency, an analysis of contacts and sources of contamination shows that there is a direct link between these rising figures and the start of the school year and the restarting of businesses after the summer holidays. As the virus then circulates within the family nucleus, it is again recommended that sufferers isolate themselves and protect as much as possible other people who live under the same roof. Few outbreaks of contamination linked to the hospitality industry or sports clubs are currently observed.

More and more efficient tracing

The Flemish Agency also stresses that the highly criticized contact tracing of infected people is working better and better. Between August 28 and September 3, 88% of Covid-19 patients in the north of the country could be contacted. On average, they communicated the data of four people with whom they had contact. The arrival of a mobile tracking application is no less eagerly awaited.

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this is the diet you should follow to control your cholesterol levels

Related news

He high cholesterol It is one of the main risk factors for having cardiovascular disease, a problem suffered by more than half of the adult population in Spain. almost 55% of Spaniards. Now, in times of quarantine for coronavirus, controlling and keeping cholesterol levels at bay is essential so that there are no consequences later.

People with heart problems or cardiovascular risk factors should be even more careful, who should never neglect their medication at any time. It is important that they stick to their usual treatment and if you have any questions, it is best to consult your doctor. But how to protect and control, all, cholesterol in these 15 days or more of confinement?

The most important thing in this quarantine is to eat as healthy as possible and low in calories (since we move less) and do all the physical exercise we can inside the house.

A healthy, low-calorie diet

In these days of confinement that we have to live due to the coronavirus crisis, we do not have the mobility that we had before in our daily routine and this can have consequences on the cardiovascular system and metabolic level. It is important for it follow a more strict diet than usual and practice at home as much physical exercise as possible “, the cardio says to EL ESPAÑOLlogo Josis Luis Palma, vice president of the Spanish Heart Federation (FEC).

Before explaining how our diet should be to try to protect our cholesterol, it is important to take into account two things: on the one hand, avoid consuming saturated fat as much as possible since it increases cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk, and for another to reduce the consumption of carbohydrates from the diet, especially those of slow absorption. According to the recommendations, saturated fat should not exceed 8-10% of total calories that we take daily.

Dietary measures in quarantine should be the same as always, that is, a healthy, varied and balanced diet; but if we are going to do less physical exercise and our activity is being reduced, therefore, much less calories will have to be consumed“recommends the expert. A practical and simple advice: reduce the amounts in each and every meal.

The usual diet that is recommended to control cholesterol levels is a diet based mainly on the pattern of Mediterranean diet which has been shown to be a cardioprotective diet, that is, a diet that protects us against cardiovascular diseases, which are currently the leading cause of death in Spain. In this diet, fruits, vegetables and vegetables, fish (especially blue fish), legumes, nuts (raw or toasted) and olive oil.

In this way and according to this diet, it is necessary to consume more fish weekly (4 times a week) than meat (2-3 times a week, and preferably white meats such as chicken, rabbit and turkey, -red meats, better to leave them for a more occasional consumption-) and a weekly intake of 3 servings of legumes, in the form of stews or salads. On the other hand, a consumption of eggs is also essential, dairy, (better skimmed and without sugar) and whole grains. Equally, it is important the shape in which we prepare meals, it is best to steam, grill and stew and avoid as much as possible fried and battered.

It is also important to reduce the consumption of salt and sugar. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), do not exceed 5 grams a day of salt and the 25 grams of sugar per day, which in Spain we do not comply. In this article from EL ESPAÑOL We told you how we can substitute the salt in dishes with spices.

Practice physical exercise

In addition, it is important to move around and practice some physical exercise every day, “insists Palma. For example, going up and down stairs (if we have at home), taking walks through the corridors, doing weights, sit-ups, stretching, squats, or any exercise board that we know of. We can even carry out activities or housework to try to move even more.

Any physical activity is valid as long as they are adapted to the physical characteristics of each one. Therefore, it is necessary to do and practice the physical exercise that is possible, according to the age and conditions of each person. “Cardiac patients have to take these recommendations even more into account”, concludes the expert.

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Allergy as a protective function against bacterial infections – naturopathy & naturopathic specialist portal

Allergic reactions help to defend against bacteria

Allergies are becoming more common. The Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology predicts that by 2025 every second person in Europe will suffer from an allergy. Why so many people develop allergies is still largely unclear. A research team has now shown that allergies are an attempt by the body to defend itself against bacterial infections.

Researchers from the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Medical University of Vienna and the Stanford University School of Medicine have discovered a possible cause why the body develops an allergy. Apparently an allergy has a certain protective function against bacteria. The research shows for the first time that allergies could also have a health-promoting side. The study was recently published in the renowned specialist journal “Immunity” presented.

The positive side of allergies

Allergies also seem to have a positive side. According to the current research, this could explain why the concept of allergy is so prevalent in our immune system. Because allergies seem to increase the resistance to bacterial infections. With the study, the researchers are making a major contribution to the general understanding of allergies.

How does an allergic reaction arise?

Around 150 million people in Europe currently suffer from recurring allergies – and the number is rising. An allergy begins with a process of sensitization to foreign substances, the allergens. The immune system recognizes the substances and develops antibodies against them. These so-called IgE antibodies mainly bind to mast cells (to the FcεR1 receptor). Mast cells circulate in the bloodstream as well as in the tissue and, if necessary, release messenger substances such as heparin and histamine in order to strengthen immune reactions.

If the mast cell, to which IgE antibodies have bound, encounters an allergen, the stored messenger substances such as histamines, proteases or various cytokines are released, causing an immediate allergic reaction, which is manifested by symptoms such as sneezing, to cough, Shortness of breath, Itching or Reddening of the skin up to diarrhea such as stomach pain can express. Systemic contact with allergens, for example if they get into the bloodstream, threatens allergic shock (anaphylaxis), which can be life-threatening.

Why do we develop allergies?

Despite the increasing prevalence of allergies, it has not yet been clarified why the body develops allergies. In 1991 the researcher Margie Profet presented her “toxin hypothesis”, which for the first time describes a positive function of allergic reactions. The hypothesis is that allergic reactions help ward off toxins. However, there was not enough evidence at the time.

The current study provides for the first time deeper insights into the function of allergies. Building on the toxin hypothesis, the researchers show that allergic reactions are also involved in the defense against other toxin-producing organisms, in particular pathogenic bacteria.

Allergy protected mice from serious infections

In mice, the scientists were able to understand how a mild skin infection with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus caused an allergy in the mice and how this allergy protected the mice from re-infections with this pathogen in the further course of the study.

S. aureus is a pathogen that is often resistant to antibiotics. The bacterium often causes skin infections, but it can also infect the bloodstream or bone marrow, or cause pneumonia. In addition, the pathogen is associated with allergic diseases such as Asthma and atopic dermatitis.

The researchers observed how mice with a mild S. aureus skin infection developed specific IgE antibodies against bacterial components. This immune response increased the resistance of the mice to severe infections of the lungs, skin and other tissues. Mice that did not develop these IgE antibodies also had no protective function against S. aureus.

Do allergies protect us from dangerous bacteria?

The study provides important new findings that suggest that allergic immune responses are not only harmful to the body, but also have a certain protective function. The researchers come to the conclusion that allergies could contribute to the defense against toxin-producing pathogenic bacteria. (vb)

Author and source information

This text complies with the requirements of specialist medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical professionals.

Author:

Diploma-Editor (FH) Volker Blasek

Swell:

  • Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences: Allergic immune responses help fight off bacterial infections (published: 09.09.2020), cemm.at
  • Philipp Starkl, Martin L. Watzenboeck, Lauren M. Popov, u.a.: IgE Effector Mechanisms, in Concert with Mast Cells, Contribute to Acquired Host Defense against Staphylococcus aureus; in: Immunity, 2020, cell.com

Important NOTE:
This article is for general guidance only and should not be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. He can not substitute a visit at the doctor.

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The number of corona infections in Tilburg is increasing sharply: 114 cases in a week

The number of corona infections in Tilburg has risen sharply in the last week. This Friday, twenty infections were added. In a week’s time there are 114 new infections, according to the corona dashboard of the national government.

Forty infections are registered of a group of students who became infected at private parties during the introduction week. Some students were also infected while on vacation.

Even without including those students, there are more cases of infection than in other cities. By way of comparison: seven infections were diagnosed in Eindhoven on Friday and 48 in a week. In Breda, there are 35 infections since 29 August.

No explanation
The GGD Hart voor Brabant was unable to provide a clear explanation for the rapid rise in Tilburg on Friday afternoon. “Tilburg is a large city and the increase is not surprising in that sense. The students play a major role in the increase, and our research has not revealed any further worrying situations. The GGD continues to monitor the situation. there is no reason to declare an alert phase. “

The organization does see an increase in the number of corona tests in Tilburg, she reported on Thursday. “The number of tests is increasing, but the percentage of positives is decreasing. We see that there are many positives in the age category 19-29. throughout the Netherlands. These are not just students. “

A spokesperson for the municipality thinks that the cases are probably scattered throughout the municipality.

No new seat of the fire
“We have agreed with the GGD that they will alert us if there is a fire in one place. That was the case with the students, for example. But we did not receive any special alarm on Friday.”

The municipality of Tilburg does not yet intend to take additional measures. “It is characteristic of the virus that the number of infections is constantly changing. One day more than the next. We are not trivializing it, but there is no reason to tighten the rules.”

Coronapiek
In August, the municipality of Bergen op Zoom had to deal with a corona peak. In one week, 104 Bergen residents were infected. Mayor Frank Petter then took measures. For example, the municipality started checking more strictly on the number of people present in the catering industry and supermarket managers were asked to monitor the number of people in their store more strictly.

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“Will the infections get stronger with harmful consequences?”

The average number of coronavirus infections rose to 477.1 per day between August 18 and 24, said the Sciensano Public Health Institute on Friday in the data update of its dashboard. This represents a decrease of 7% from the previous week. The number of contaminations in Belgium now stands at 83,500, against 83,030 previously.

The incidence, or the number of cases recorded per 100,000 inhabitants, is 60.3 in two weeks, down 17%. The number of hospital admissions increased from 18,928 to 18,945.

Figures that were commented on and deciphered by the Crisis Center and the SPF Public Health this Friday morning. But not only…

In fact, frédérique Jacobs took advantage of the conference to take stock of the flu virus vaccination: “Autumn is upon us, several viruses will circulate”, she explained. “Including the flu virus”, which will therefore be added to the coronavirus. “It is possible that the arrival of the flu coincides with an outbreak of covid 19. It is possible that the measures imposed to counter the coronavirus have an impact on the spread of the virus, but it is difficult to predict”, a- he added, adding that “the two viruses cause severe infections and complications in the same groups of weakened patients and that the clinical signs can only be distinguished by a test”.

Frédérique Jacobs also explained that we obviously did not know the effect of a double infection (flu and coronavirus), neither on transmission, nor on the severity of the virus. “Are infections going to increase with harmful consequences?” We do not know “

In any case, the flu vaccination is therefore recommended by the authorities. Belgium has 2.9 million influenza vaccines, and this will be available in two phases:

– The first, from September 15 to November 15, for priority target groups: people at risk, such as pregnant women, anyone over 65, any patient with an underlying chronic infection, people staying in institutions and children on aspirin therapy. People living in the same household as these target groups and families with children under six months of age may also be vaccinated.

– From November 15, the issue will be extended to the rest of the population, depending on availability.

It is advisable to be vaccinated between mid-October and mid-December.

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Oxford: Honey is better than antibiotics for treating these diseases

"Oxford university" Doctors can recommend honey as a suitable alternative to use Antibiotics, Which is often prescribed for such problems and infections, although antibiotics "not effective".

And upper respiratory infections usually affect Nose and throat And the large airways (bronchi) that lead to The lungs.

There is already evidence of the benefits of using honey in children, and it has long been used as a home remedy for treatment Coughs and colds, But the evidence for its effectiveness in a group of upper respiratory symptoms in adults has not been systematically reviewed.

To address this issue, scientists recently studied research data from related studies comparing the use of honey and the foods that contained it with usual medical care materials, most of which are antihistamines, cough suppressants and pain relievers, and they found 14 clinical trials suitable for those studies, in which 1761 participants of different ages participated. .

Data analysis indicated studies, according to what was transferred site "The Guardian", Indicated that honey was more effective than the usual treatments in view of improving symptoms, especially the frequency and severity of the cough, and two studies also showed that symptoms lasted one to two days less among those who were treated with honey.

However, the researchers, Heba Allah Abul-Qasim from Oxford University School of Medicine, and Charlotte Albury and Joseph Lee from the Nuffield Department of Primary Health Care Sciences, indicated that honey is a complex substance rather than a standardized product.

They also indicated that only two studies included the use of a placebo, saying that more of these studies must be done before final conclusions can be reached.

The authors have published in a journal " BMJ Evidence Based Medicine " that "Inflammations Respiratory system The upper ones are the most common reason for prescribing antibiotics, and researchers suggest honey may provide an alternative when doctors want to prescribe something to safely treat upper respiratory symptoms.

They concluded that "Honey is a regular remedy that is used frequently and is well known to patients. It is also Cheap It is readily available and its harm is limited, and when doctors want to prescribe a treatment for upper respiratory infections, we recommend honey as an alternative to antibiotics.".

They confirmed that ""Honey is more effective and less harmful than the usual treatment alternatives, and avoids causing harm through antimicrobial resistance".

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Prominent scholars “Oxford university” Doctors can recommend honey as a suitable alternative to use Antibiotics, Which is often prescribed for such problems and infections, although antibiotics are “ineffective”.

And upper respiratory infections usually affect Nose and throat And the large airways (bronchi) that lead to The lungs.

There is already evidence of the benefits of using honey in children, and it has long been used as a home remedy for treatment Coughs and colds, But the evidence for its effectiveness in a group of upper respiratory symptoms in adults has not been systematically reviewed.

To address this issue, scientists recently studied research data from related studies comparing the use of honey and the foods that contained it with usual medical care materials, most of which are antihistamines, cough suppressants and pain relievers, and they found 14 clinical trials suitable for those studies, in which 1761 participants of different ages participated. .

The analysis of the studies’ data indicated, according to what was reported by the “Guardian” website, that honey was more effective than the usual treatments in view of improving symptoms, especially the frequency and severity of the cough, and two studies showed that symptoms lasted one to two days less among those who were treated with honey.

However, the researchers, Heba Allah Abul-Qasim from Oxford University School of Medicine, and Charlotte Albury and Joseph Lee from the Nuffield Department of Primary Health Care Sciences, indicated that honey is a complex substance rather than a standardized product.

They also indicated that only two studies included the use of a placebo, saying that more of these studies must be done before final conclusions can be reached.

The authors published in the journal “BMJ Evidence Based Medicine” that “infections Respiratory system The upper ones are the most common reason for prescribing antibiotics, and researchers suggest honey may provide an alternative when doctors want to prescribe something to safely treat upper respiratory symptoms.

They concluded, “Honey is a regular remedy that is used frequently and is well known to patients Cheap It is readily available and its harm is limited. When doctors want to prescribe a treatment for upper respiratory infections, we recommend honey as an alternative to antibiotics. “

They emphasized that “honey is more effective and less harmful than the usual treatment alternatives and avoids causing harm through antimicrobial resistance.”

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Government clarifies Bloomberg figures on Covid

The controversy was ignited this Thursday with an article published by the magazine ‘Bloomberg’, which shows that Colombia currently has the fourth highest number of cases in Latin America and that on a per capita basis the death figures of the country in recent weeks they are the worst in the world, with 43.1 deaths per million people.

The note, based on data from Johns Hopkins University and calculations by Bloomberg, is published as the escalation of cases and deaths in recent weeks has led the country’s two main cities, Bogotá and Medellín, to reimpose targeted quarantines.

The magazine quotes the epidemiologist Carlos Trillos, a professor at the Universidad del Rosario, who points out that contributing to the increase is “the dynamics of virus transmission, given the growing number of people on the streets” and adds that also “there is fatigue after the long periods of restrictive measures ”.

It also notes that more cases are being diagnosed, and the tests amount to about 30,000 tests per day.

In Bogotá, the isolation by locality is scheduled to end this week, although some measures of social distancing will be maintained for the rest of the month. Mayor Claudia López said that the capital will not return to quarantines by zones and that she is analyzing a package of measures that will be adopted between September and December. Restrictions will be imposed on companies, but they will be more stable so that different sectors of the economy know what to expect, she told ‘Noticias Caracol’ last Monday.

Meanwhile, the second largest city in the country, Medellín, is on a “plateau” and will likely remain there for three more weeks before the number of infections begins to decline, Mayor Daniel Quintero told ‘Blu Radio’.

To date, Colombia has registered 433,805 infected, 14,145 deaths and 250,494 recovered, according to figures from the Ministry of Health.

In response, the Minister of Health, Fernando Ruiz, said this Thursday in a debate in the Seventh Committee of the House of Representatives that it was “disinformation.”

“Here we are facing both the pandemic and misinformation, in the face of even false news that speak that Colombia’s level is one of the highest in the world but without considering the size of the Colombian population or those news that the RT (number of effective reproduction) of Colombia is the highest in the world, it is news that does not really contribute ”, criticized the official.

In turn, the infectologist Carlos Álvarez, advisor to the Executive, told EL HERALDO that the magazine’s report is not real.

“It seems to me that the ‘Bloomberg’ statement is not given in the light of reality, because one cannot evaluate mortality in a week and compare it with other countries depending on the historical moment. In other words, the moment of the peak of the pandemic is different from what is happening at this moment in Colombia, in Peru, in Mexico or Brazil itself, to what is happening in other parts of the world or what happened, such as the The deadliest week in Italy could have been the first of April or the last of March ”, explained the expert.

In summary, Álvarez added, “to be able to compare or make this approximation, the epidemic would have to be present at the same time throughout the world and that does not happen that way.”

In this sense, he concludes that to evaluate how the epidemic has been in the different countries “the best way is to evaluate the accumulated number of deaths per million inhabitants, because that is how it really shows how this behavior has been, and that, because some countries have not yet started the epidemic peak ”.

In other parts of Latin America, for example, after Brazil surpassed 3 million coronavirus infections last Friday, President Jair Bolsonaro took to social media to criticize how the crisis is covered in the media, while arguing against social distancing measures.

The president wrote on Twitter that “there is no shortage of resources, equipment and medicines for the states and municipalities.” And Argentina is considering postponing its population census by more than a year due to the coronavirus pandemic, according to a person with direct knowledge of the matter.

Likewise, in Bolivia, anti-government protesters have built barricades to counter the delay in general elections and the response to the pandemic.

Finally, Mexico will release industrial production figures for June on Tuesday, which should add evidence that activity is recovering after a sharp drop in the previous months, but remains well below its pre-outbreak level.

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Fridman’s plan ends them in the villages

Related news

The arrival of Mikhail Fridman to Dia has caused many changes in the chain, especially regarding the franchise business model that has put many of its oldest franchisees on the warpath. Many of them have been converted, others have closed and even one banner will disappear this year: Every Day.

During the first half of this year, 40 Dia stores were closed in Spain (25 franchises and 15 of their own) and as part of the strategic closure announced for this type of franchise, a total of 78 Every Dia stores closed. In addition, 85 franchises have become their own in Spain, including 18 Clarel stores.

Last September, Dia decided to close one of its franchised brands, Cada Dia. The closure of the 201 stores is being carried out according to the agreement with each of the establishments. The company estimates that throughout 2020 the banner will disappear permanently, after the end of the longest contracts.

This format was focused on smaller populations, especially rural ones, so that the franchisee, without having the need to transform the establishment into a Dia store, can offer brand products. In fact, in some towns it was the only supermarket that existed.

The cessation of the activity of Cada Dia is part of the simplification and unification of the formats and lines of activity of the group, as part of its business strategy and the new transformation plan of the company, which will take more force during the second semester of the year after registering losses of 187 million until June.

Transformation plan

“In the second semester we will continue with the transformation plan that is based on the pillars of improvement of the commercial proposal and the franchise model supported by a continuous improvement of operational efficiencies”, explained the president of Dia, Stephan DuCharme, during the presentation of results.

Actually, Dia has 4,041 stores in Spain, of which 1,477 are franchises, almost 300 less than a year ago. As of June 30, 2019, the company had 4,369 stores in Spain, of which 1,863 are franchisees.

From Dia they remember that the news of the new franchise model they have already been implemented in 470 locations in Spain during the first half of 2020, with the goal of reaching 350 locations in the second half of 2020. According to Dia, it is an “improved model based on incentives and focused on the consumer, with key benefits for the business, including the “payment after sale”.

However, assortment changes, price increases or product shortages in certain stores are some of the issues that have put the franchisees on the warpath of the school during the last year.

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