These signs point to Covid-19

Covid-19 and flu have similar symptoms

Do I have Corona? Or did I already have it without really realizing it? These questions can only be answered with one Corona test or antibody test be answered clearly. Because recognizing Covid-19 based on the symptoms alone is often not that easy. Many typical symptoms are similar to those of a classic flu or cold. But what are the differences? And can I tell for myself whether I just have the flu or more? We have summarized the most important features in the video.

Coronavirus can also cause conjunctivitis

Do patients only have one Conjunctivitis and no other symptoms, this indicates a corona infection in the rarest of cases. If there were also other corona symptoms such as fever, cough and shortness of breath, the suspicion of an infection would be reinforced – especially if the patient concerned or theirs The contact person have recently been traveling or have been in contact with people who have already been infected with the coronavirus.

American ophthalmologists have so far assumed that the virus can also get into the eyes through the air and cause an infection there. At the virtual annual meeting of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), however, ophthalmologists came to the conclusion that a Sars-CoV-2 infection via the surface of the eye is rather unlikely is. The reports the “Ärztezeitung”. But you should still protect them, because there is no complete all-clear.

Signs of flu vs. Coronavirus: what symptoms do I have and when?

An overview of possible coronavirus symptoms

According to the current state of knowledge, the following symptoms can be a sign of Covid-19:

How can I protect myself from the coronavirus?

You can get masks everywhere – both in supermarkets and in online shops and pharmacies. When shopping, make sure you keep your distance from others. And: wash yourself several times a day thoroughly hands – with soap and water!

We have clear instructions for you that you can hang up so that they are clearly visible for you and your children.

In the video: Everything you need to know about the coronavirus

New TVNOW documentary: Finally vacation again! Traveling in the corona crisis

.

What are the signs of Covid-19?

Covid-19 and flu have similar symptoms

Do I have Corona? Or did I already have it without really realizing it? These questions can only be answered with one Corona test or antibody test be answered clearly. Because recognizing Covid-19 based on the symptoms alone is often not that easy. Many typical symptoms are similar to those of a classic flu or cold. But what are the differences? And can I tell for myself whether I just have the flu or more? We have summarized the most important features in the video.

Coronavirus can also cause conjunctivitis

Do patients only have one Conjunctivitis and no other symptoms, this indicates a corona infection in the rarest of cases. If there were also other corona symptoms such as fever, cough and shortness of breath, the suspicion of an infection would be reinforced – especially if the patient concerned or theirs The contact person have recently been traveling or have been in contact with people who have already been infected with the coronavirus.

American ophthalmologists have so far assumed that the virus can also get into the eyes through the air and cause an infection there. At the virtual annual meeting of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), however, ophthalmologists came to the conclusion that a Sars-CoV-2 infection via the surface of the eye is rather unlikely is. The reports the “Ärztezeitung”. But you should still protect them, because there is no complete all-clear.

Signs of flu vs. Coronavirus: what symptoms do I have and when?

An overview of possible coronavirus symptoms

According to the current state of knowledge, the following symptoms can be a sign of Covid-19:

How can I protect myself from the coronavirus?

You can get masks everywhere – both in supermarkets and in online shops and pharmacies. When shopping, make sure you keep your distance from others. And: wash yourself several times a day thoroughly hands – with soap and water!

We have clear instructions for you that you can hang up so that they are clearly visible for you and your children.

In the video: Everything you need to know about the coronavirus

New TVNOW documentary: Finally vacation again! Traveling in the corona crisis

.

Neuro-symptoms in corona are much more common than expected

US researchers rank the most common neurological symptoms

Many Covid-19 patients also suffer from neurological symptoms. However, until now it was not clear exactly how many people are affected. Researchers at the University of Chicago are now providing a series of numbers and a ranking of these neurological symptoms.

Symptoms range from loss of smell to severe brain damage

The neurological symptoms of Covid 19 disease can range from headaches to loss of smell to severe brain damage. Eric Liotta’s research team wanted to find out how common these are and who they affect. To do this, the researchers evaluated the disease progression of a total of 509 patients from ten clinics in Chicago. There were 281 men and 228 women between the ages of 16 and 58 years. All patients had to be hospitalized for Covid-19 in spring 2020. A total of 134 patients received mechanical ventilation during treatment.

Neuro-symptoms appear at the beginning of the disease

According to the data, 42.2 percent of patients suffered from neurological symptoms at the onset of the disease. At the time of hospitalization, the proportion of those affected was already 62.7 percent. In the course of the disease, this proportion rose again to 82.3 percent. A total of 419 of the 509 patients had neurological symptoms. But the proportion could be even higher, write the researchers on the results, which were published in the journal “Annals of Clinical and Translation Neurology”. It could be that the doctors’ focus when treating older Covid-19 patients was possibly on other health problems and therefore mild neurological symptoms were not documented.

Neurological care is central

According to the information, the largest proportion of patients (44.8 percent) suffered from muscle pain, 37.7 percent had headaches and the researchers saw a pathological one in 31.8 percent Damage to the brainwhich is summarized in technical terms under the term encephalopathy. The researchers saw this brain damage mainly in patients who had a severe course of Covid-19. Dizziness occurred in 29.7 percent, impaired taste in 15.9 percent and odor in 11.4 percent. In addition, fatigue has been reported frequently. In 79.4 percent, this lasted through the entire illness, 42.9 percent of the patients reported it especially at the beginning of Covid-19.

It is of central importance that Covid 19 patients also receive neurological care, Peter Berlit, Secretary General of the German Society for Neurology eV is quoted by the German Stroke Aid on the subject. Berlit, who was not involved in the study, but was involved in the development of treatment guidelines for patients with Sars-CoV-2 infection and neurological symptoms, adds: “Covid-19 patients with neurological symptoms are emergency patients; if they are not treated in time, threaten poor treatment results and long-term consequences. “

Video Playlist: Everything You Need To Know About Coronavirus Now

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Doctors probe whether COVID-19 is causing diabetes

(Reuters) – Mario Buelna, a healthy 28-year-old father, caught a fever and started having trouble breathing in June. He soon tested positive for COVID-19.

The Simis family, Atticus, Sarah, Arthur and Ophelia, pose for a photo in Gardnerville, Nevada, September 24, 2020. Simis family/Handout via REUTERS

Weeks later, after what had seemed like a recovery, he felt weak and started vomiting. At 3 a.m. on Aug. 1, he passed out on the floor of his home in Mesa, Arizona.

Paramedics rushed him to a nearby hospital, where doctors put him in intensive care after saving him from a coma. They told him he could have died. Their diagnosis – type 1 diabetes – stunned and frightened him. He had no history of the disease.

“COVID triggered it,” Buelna said the doctors told him.

Buelna’s ordeal and similar cases reflect a new worry about the dangerous relationship between diabetes and COVID-19 that’s being urgently studied by doctors and scientists around the world. Many experts are convinced that COVID-19 can trigger the onset of diabetes – even in some adults and children who do not have the traditional risk factors.

It’s already been well-documented that people with diabetes face much higher risks of severe illness or death if they contract COVID-19. In July, U.S. health officials found that nearly 40% of people who have died with COVID-19 had diabetes. Now, cases like Buelna’s suggest the connection between the diseases runs both ways.

“COVID could be causing diabetes from scratch,” said Dr. Francesco Rubino, a diabetes researcher and chair of metabolic and bariatric surgery at King’s College London.

Rubino is leading an international team that is collecting patient cases globally to unravel one of the biggest mysteries of the pandemic. Initially, he said, more than 300 doctors have applied to share cases for review, a number he expects to grow as infections flare up again.

“These cases are coming from every corner of the world and every continent,” Rubino told Reuters.

In addition to the global registry, the U.S. National Institutes of Health is financing research into how the coronavirus may cause high blood sugars and diabetes.

In these situations, symptoms can escalate quickly and become life threatening. These cases may take months to surface after exposure to COVID-19, so the full extent of the problem and the long-term ramifications may not be known until well into next year. More intensive research is needed to definitively prove, beyond the mounting anecdotal evidence, that COVID-19 is triggering diabetes on a wide scale.

“We have more questions than answers right now,” said Dr. Robert Eckel, president of medicine and science at the American Diabetes Association. “We could be dealing with an entirely new form of diabetes.”

‘ABSOLUTELY TERRIFYING’ DIAGNOSIS

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, preventing the regulation of blood sugar levels. About 1.6 million Americans have the disease.

Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent, afflicting about 30 million Americans. Those patients still produce insulin, but over time their cells become insulin-resistant, allowing blood sugar to rise.

Type 1 diabetes cases have previously been associated with other viral infections, including influenza and previous coronaviruses. It is known that infections can stress the body and increase blood sugar levels. But this tends to happen in people predisposed to the disease. Only some of them eventually develop diabetes, and scientists still don’t fully understand why.

This year, doctors also are seeing some people without the risk factors for type 2 diabetes – such as being older or overweight – experience a diabetic emergency after exposure to COVID-19.

In type 1 diabetes, initial symptoms can include extreme thirst, fatigue, frequent urination and weight loss. Arthur Simis had no idea those were signs for the disease.

This summer, he and his wife, Sarah, noticed their 12-year-old son, Atticus, appeared thin and slept a lot. They figured he was stressed out from being trapped at home in the pandemic, or going through a growth spurt.

On July 9, as his symptoms persisted, Arthur Simis took his son to an urgent care center near their home in Gardnerville, Nevada. The medical staff detected dangerously high blood sugar levels and ketones in his urine, both indicators that Atticus was in diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA.

The doctor told Simis that his son needed hospital care immediately to avoid slipping into a coma from his newly diagnosed type 1. An ambulance took them 50 miles to the nearest hospital in Reno.

His father spent three nights sleeping at his side in the pediatric ICU. He sobbed on the phone to his wife, because only one parent was allowed inside, a measure to control coronavirus infections.

“How could he have diabetes?” Simis recalls asking the doctors. “It was absolutely terrifying.”

Simis believes his son had been infected by the coronavirus because the father and his wife experienced symptoms in the spring. The couple went to urgent care but never got tested for the coronavirus because of stricter testing criteria at the time. Atticus tested negative for an active coronavirus infection in the ICU, medical records show. But he was never tested for antibodies that could show whether he was exposed weeks earlier.

Doctors say that’s not unusual in a fast-moving pandemic, as they focus on individual emergencies rather than big-picture research questions. But the lack of testing in many of these cases, they say, may complicate efforts to detect whether and how the coronavirus might be causing diabetes.

CHILDREN IN INTENSIVE CARE

The initial reports of COVID-related diabetes include more children with cases like that of Atticus.

In a study published in August, researchers at Imperial College in London and several hospitals there found that cases of type 1 diabetes among children nearly doubled to 30 during late March to early June – as the pandemic raged – compared to the same period in previous years. Five of the children tested positive for a prior coronavirus infection, but the study’s authors said many of the children were not tested.

In the United States, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles said the percentage of newly diagnosed type 2 patients who arrived in diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal buildup of acid in the blood, has nearly doubled for March through August compared to the same period in 2018 and 2019.

Dr. Lily Chao, director of the type 2 diabetes clinic there, said the hospital is still investigating whether this increase is driven by exposure to COVID-19.

Brandi Edwards, a registered nurse and diabetes educator at Alabama’s Huntsville Hospital, said calls about pediatric cases began to surge in May. Doctors summon her when a child arrives in the emergency room or ICU so she can counsel the family on insulin injections, glucose readings and how daily life will change going forward.

“We’ve seen more type 1 cases this year than I ever remember,” Edwards said. “There were three kids in the pediatric ICU at the same time. That is so rare.”

EVICTION NOTICE

After surviving a diabetic emergency, life for a newly diagnosed patient can be overwhelming. Medication and other supplies to manage diabetes can cost hundreds of dollars every month, and long waits to see an endocrinologist are common in many areas.

Buelna, the patient in Arizona, is still waiting for his Medicaid plan to approve a continuous glucose monitor more than two months after his diagnosis. The disease knocked him out of work for weeks and wrecked his family’s finances. His wife, Erika, is eight months pregnant and they have a 3-year-old daughter, Katalina. The family got an eviction notice on Aug. 2, while Mario was in the ICU, and they rely on a food bank for some meals.

Buelna said he fell into a depression in the hospital, cut off from family visits, and credits his sister with lifting his spirits in phone calls.

“I want to get better so I can see my kids grow up,” he said. “I’m not ready to go yet.”

Reporting by Chad Terhune; Editing by Brian Thevenot

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These are the 100 best doctors in Spain in 22 specialties

Related news

2020 is and will forever be the year of the pandemic Covid-19 and of the doctors who left their skin to save as many patients as possible. For almost two months, these professionals received all the applause that they had never been given, nor had they been given other recognitions.

However, the pandemic has exposed the widespread belief, and even pointed out in 2017 in a study published in The Lancet, that Spain has excellent medical assistance.

In this 2020 it has been seen that there is a lack of resources, both material and human, and it has even revealed an organizational chaos thatwhich has led to the collapse of primary and hospital care.

But one of the pillars that explained the past perception is that of the quality of human resources. With all that has been criticized for health during and after the pandemic, no one in their right mind has been able to say anything against doctors.

Spanish doctors are good, and they are good both in terms of patient care and in another equally important pillar, research. This is what explains the broad participation of our country in international clinical trials, as one of the most promising vaccine prototypes for Covid-19.

Despite the fact that the general level is very good, many citizens find themselves in the position of choosing a specific professional when facing the treatment of a specific disease. It is undoubtedly done by users of private medicine – a sector that corresponds the 28.5% of healthcare spending in our country, where there are 439 health centers with this type of ownership – but also those of the public, since in many communities the free choice of doctor is allowed.

According to him Study on Medical Demography published by the Collegiate Medical Organization (WTO) in 2018, in Spain there are 221,470 active doctors and our country exceeds the western average by 12%, but with some drawbacks, such as a very uneven distribution of professionals at a geographical level and a decompensation between the offer of MIR places and the number clausus in the Faculties of Medicine.

Although in Spain there is no no ranking prepared by an independent body that allows consulting the performance of physicians in different specialties, EL ESPAÑOL has drawn up for the third consecutive year a list of the 100 most prominent doctors in our country, which adds to the ranking of hospitals public Y private which has also been published since 2018.

To choose the specialists their charges in different hospitals have been taken into account, its inclusion in other rankings -such as the Forbes list or the Top Doctors medical directory, which collects user opinions- or the recognitions they have received during their career both nationally and internationally.

They have been divided into 22 categories, specialties included in the MIR -the most demanded- and others not named as such despite the claims of those who belong to them, such as specialists in diseases infectious, with special relevance this year due to the pandemic.

For the first time, and due to the exceptional circumstances of this year, Intensive Medicine and Public Health specialties have been included, very relevant in the management of the pandemic.

In some cases, doctors in certain categories for their professional experience rather than for the specialty studiedHence, the names of the categories sometimes correspond to the bodies they deal with and not to their official name.

These are the 22 categories collected:

The best allergy experts

The best anesthesia and pain doctors

The best doctors in heart and cardiac surgery

The best digestive system and liver doctors

The best surgeons

Best Traumatology Doctors

The best doctors of plastic, aesthetic and restorative surgery

The best dermatologist doctors

The best endocrine doctors

The best doctors in hematology

The best general practitioners and internists

Best Infectious Disease Doctors

The best lung doctors

The best brain doctors

The best gynecologists

The best ophthalmologists

The best cancer doctors

The best ear doctors

The best children’s doctors

The best urologists

Intensive Medical Doctors

The best public health doctors

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Neuro-symptoms like loss of smell much more common than expected

US researchers rank the most common neurological symptoms

Many Covid-19 patients also suffer from neurological symptoms. However, until now it was not clear exactly how many people are affected. Researchers at the University of Chicago are now providing a series of numbers and a ranking of these neurological symptoms.

Symptoms range from loss of smell to severe brain damage

The neurological symptoms of Covid 19 disease can range from headaches to loss of smell to severe brain damage. Eric Liotta’s research team wanted to find out how common these are and who they affect. To do this, the researchers evaluated the disease progression of a total of 509 patients from ten clinics in Chicago. There were 281 men and 228 women between the ages of 16 and 58 years. All patients had to be hospitalized for Covid-19 in spring 2020. A total of 134 patients received mechanical ventilation during treatment.

Neuro-symptoms appear at the beginning of the disease

According to the data, 42.2 percent of patients suffered from neurological symptoms at the onset of the disease. At the time of hospitalization, the proportion of those affected was already 62.7 percent. In the course of the disease, this proportion rose again to 82.3 percent. A total of 419 of the 509 patients had neurological symptoms. But the proportion could be even higher, write the researchers on the results, which were published in the journal “Annals of Clinical and Translation Neurology”. It could be that the doctors’ focus when treating older Covid-19 patients was possibly on other health problems and therefore mild neurological symptoms were not documented.

Neurological care is central

According to the information, the largest proportion of patients (44.8 percent) suffered from muscle pain, 37.7 percent had a headache and the researchers saw a pathological one in 31.8 percent Damage to the brain, which is summarized in technical terms under the term encephalopathy. The researchers saw this brain damage mainly in patients who had a severe course of Covid-19. Dizziness occurred in 29.7 percent, impaired taste in 15.9 percent and odor in 11.4 percent. In addition, fatigue has been reported frequently. In 79.4 percent, this persisted throughout the disease, 42.9 percent of patients reported about it, especially at the beginning of Covid-19.

It is of central importance that Covid 19 patients are also cared for neurologically, Peter Berlit, Secretary General of the German Society for Neurology eV is quoted by the German Stroke Aid on the subject. Berlit, who was not involved in the study but was involved in drawing up treatment guidelines for patients with Sars-CoV-2 infection and neurological symptoms, adds: “Covid-19 patients with neurological symptoms are emergency patients; if they are not treated on time, there is a threat of poor treatment results and long-term consequences. “

Video Playlist: Everything You Need To Know About Coronavirus Now

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Cold, flu or Corona? These symptoms suggest Covid-19

Covid-19 and flu have similar symptoms

Do I have Corona? Or did I already have it without really realizing it? These questions can only be answered with one Corona test or antibody test be answered clearly. Because recognizing Covid-19 based on the symptoms alone is often not that easy. Many typical symptoms are similar to those of a classic flu or cold. But what are the differences? And can I tell for myself whether I just have the flu or more? We have summarized the most important features in the video.

Coronavirus can also cause conjunctivitis

Do patients only have one Conjunctivitis and no other symptoms whatsoever, this indicates a corona infection in the rarest of cases. If there were also other corona symptoms such as fever, cough and shortness of breath, the suspicion of an infection would be reinforced – especially if the patients concerned or theirs The contact person have recently been traveling or have been in contact with people who have already been infected with the coronavirus.

American ophthalmologists have so far assumed that the virus can also get into the eyes through the air and cause an infection there. At the virtual annual meeting of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), however, ophthalmologists came to the conclusion that a Sars-CoV-2 infection via the surface of the eye is rather unlikely is. That reports the “Ärztezeitung”. But you should protect them anyway, because there is no complete all-clear.

Signs of flu vs. Coronavirus: what symptoms do I have and when?

An overview of possible coronavirus symptoms

According to the current state of knowledge, the following symptoms can be a sign of Covid-19:

How can I protect myself from the coronavirus?

You can get masks everywhere – in supermarkets as well as in online shops and pharmacies. When shopping, make sure you keep your distance from others. And: wash yourself several times a day thoroughly hands – with soap and water!

We have clear instructions for you that you can hang up so that they are clearly visible for you and your children.

In the video: Everything you need to know about the coronavirus

New TVNOW documentary: Finally vacation again! Traveling in the corona crisis

.

What are the typical symptoms of corona, flu and cold?

Covid-19 and flu have similar symptoms

Do I have Corona? Or did I already have it without really realizing it? These questions can only be answered with one Corona test or antibody test be answered clearly. Because recognizing Covid-19 based on the symptoms alone is often not that easy. Many typical symptoms are similar to those of a classic flu or cold. But what are the differences? And can I tell for myself whether I just have the flu or more? We have summarized the most important features in the video.

Coronavirus can also cause conjunctivitis

Do patients only have one Conjunctivitis and no other symptoms whatsoever, this indicates a corona infection in the rarest of cases. If there were also other corona symptoms such as fever, cough and shortness of breath, the suspicion of an infection would be reinforced – especially if the patients concerned or theirs The contact person have recently been traveling or have been in contact with people who have already been infected with the coronavirus.

American ophthalmologists have so far assumed that the virus can also get into the eyes through the air and cause an infection there. At the virtual annual meeting of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), however, ophthalmologists came to the conclusion that a Sars-CoV-2 infection via the surface of the eye is rather unlikely is. That reports the “Ärztezeitung”. But you should protect them anyway, because there is no complete all-clear.

Signs of flu vs. Coronavirus: what symptoms do I have and when?

An overview of possible coronavirus symptoms

According to the current state of knowledge, the following symptoms can be a sign of Covid-19:

How can I protect myself from the coronavirus?

You can get masks everywhere – in supermarkets as well as in online shops and pharmacies. When shopping, make sure you keep your distance from others. And: wash yourself several times a day thoroughly hands – with soap and water!

We have clear instructions for you that you can hang up so that they are clearly visible for you and your children.

In the video: Everything you need to know about the coronavirus

New TVNOW documentary: Finally vacation again! Traveling in the corona crisis

.

Recognize corona symptoms and differentiate them from flu and cold

Covid-19 and flu have similar symptoms

Do I have Corona? Or did I already have it without really realizing it? These questions can only be answered with one Corona test or antibody test be answered clearly. Because recognizing Covid-19 based on the symptoms alone is often not that easy. Many typical symptoms are similar to those of a classic flu or cold. But what are the differences? And can I tell for myself whether I just have the flu or more? We have summarized the most important features in the video.

Coronavirus can also cause conjunctivitis

Do patients only have one Conjunctivitis and no other symptoms whatsoever, this indicates a corona infection in the rarest of cases. If there were also other corona symptoms such as fever, cough and shortness of breath, the suspicion of an infection would be reinforced – especially if the patients concerned or theirs The contact person have recently been traveling or have been in contact with people who have already been infected with the coronavirus.

American ophthalmologists have so far assumed that the virus can also get into the eyes through the air and cause an infection there. At the virtual annual meeting of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), however, ophthalmologists came to the conclusion that a Sars-CoV-2 infection via the surface of the eye is rather unlikely is. That reports the “Ärztezeitung”. But you should protect them anyway, because there is no complete all-clear.

Signs of flu vs. Coronavirus: what symptoms do I have and when?

An overview of possible coronavirus symptoms

According to the current state of knowledge, the following symptoms can be a sign of Covid-19:

How can I protect myself from the coronavirus?

You can get masks everywhere – in supermarkets as well as in online shops and pharmacies. When shopping, make sure you keep your distance from others. And: wash yourself several times a day thoroughly hands – with soap and water!

We have clear instructions for you that you can hang up so that they are clearly visible for you and your children.

In the video: Everything you need to know about the coronavirus

New TVNOW documentary: Finally vacation again! Traveling in the corona crisis

.

COVID-19 again? Reinfection cases raise concerns over immunity

LONDON (Reuters) – The case of a man in the United States infected twice with COVID-19 shows there is much yet to learn about immune responses and also raises questions over vaccination, scientists said on Tuesday.

FILE PHOTO: Protective face masks with flags design are seen on display in a shop in Paris, as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak continues in France, October 13, 2020. REUTERS/Charles Platiau

The 25-year-old from Reno, Nevada, tested positive in April after showing mild symptoms, then got sick again in late May with a more serious bout, according to a case report in the Lancet Infectious Diseases medical journal.

The report was published just hours after U.S. President Donald Trump, who was infected with COVID-19 and hospitalised earlier this month, said he believes he now has immunity and felt “so powerful”.

Scientists said that while known incidences of reinfection appear rare – and the Nevada man has now recovered – cases like his were worrying. Other isolated cases of reinfection have been reported around the world, including in Asia and Europe.

In the Netherlands, the National Institute for Public Health confirmed on Tuesday that an 89-year-old Dutch woman, also sick with a rare form of bone marrow cancer, had recently died after contracting COVID-19 for a second time.

Dutch media said this was the first known case worldwide of a death after SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus reinfection.

‘IMPLICATIONS FOR VACCINATION’

“It is becoming increasingly clear that reinfections are possible, but we can’t yet know how common this will be,” said Simon Clarke, a microbiology expert at Britain’s Reading University.

“If people can be reinfected easily, it could also have implications for vaccination programmes as well as our understanding of when and how the pandemic will end.”

The Nevada patient’s doctors, who first reported the case in a non peer-reviewed paper in August, said sophisticated testing showed that the virus strains associated with each bout of infection were genetically different.

“These findings reinforce the point that we still do not know enough about the immune response to this infection,” said Paul Hunter, a professor in medicine at Britain’s University of East Anglia.

Brendan Wren, a professor of vaccinology at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, said the Nevada case was the fifth confirmed example of reinfection worldwide.

“The demonstration that it is possible to be reinfected by SARS-CoV-2 may suggest that a COVID-19 vaccine may not be totally protective,” he said. “However, given the (more than) 40 million cases worldwide, these small examples of reinfection are tiny and should not deter efforts to develop vaccines.”

World Health Organization spokesman Tarik Jasarevic concurred that the U.S. case underlined what was unknown about immunity. “And this also really is an argument against what some have been advocating, and that’s building naturally what is called herd immunity. Because we don’t know,” he told a briefing.

Reporting by Kate Kelland; Additional reporting by Anthony Deutsch in Amsterdam, Stephanie Nebehay in Geneva; Editing by Andrew Cawthorne

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