Cost of student life: Paris remains the most expensive city in France

This was already the case in previous years, it is still relevant this year: unsurprisingly, Paris remains the most expensive city for students, according to the annual ranking of the National Union of Students of France ( Unef), published this Monday. According to the barometer, studying in the capital costs an average of 1,318.31 euros per month, an amount up by around 30 euros compared to 2019. The cheapest student city remains Limoges, with monthly expenses s’ amounting to 790.75 euros.

Nationally, the average cost of student living increases by 3.69%. Lyon is the city experiencing the most significant increase: according to data collected by UNEF in partnership with Loc-Service, a specialist in rental and shared accommodation between individuals, a student must pay an average of 1,019 there, 33 euros per month, which represents an increase of 57.21 euros, or nearly 6%, per additional month compared to the previous year. Rent remains the most important expense item for students. In Lyon, its average cost stands at 564 euros per month, up 5.42% compared to previous years, when that of Paris is 885 euros per month.

A burden that puts a strain on students’ budgets and that their associations and unions are campaigning to alleviate: “Every year, we see that rents are increasing, and that for small surfaces increases more than for large surfaces”, explains Mélanie Luce, president of the UNEF, contacted by Release. “The State must put pressure on local authorities to take charge of student precariousness, pleads the young woman. This involves controlling rents, but also sanitation plans to avoid tragedies like the one in Marseille rue d’Aubagne, where a student lost her life. “

Territorial disparities are also significant in terms of transport. Here again, it is in the Ile-de-France region that students must put more money in their pockets, with an annual cost of 342 euros. Limoges retains its title of the cheapest city for this expense item, with an annual amount of 90 euros, a subscription nearly four times cheaper than in the Paris region. Gaps that highlight “Territorial inequalities” deep, not necessarily justified by the size of the municipalities: “In a large city like Toulouse, the annual cost in transport for a student is 103 euros, while for a medium-sized city like Rennes, it is 300 euros per year”, explains Mélanie Luce.

«There are big disparities depending on where you study ”, often due to the fact that some cities do not set up preferential rates for young people, regrets the president of the UNEF. While these initiatives help reduce student budgets, they are not sufficient for the union, which is calling for the establishment of total free transport in all student towns.


Samira Chabi

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Good kisses from Guyana (with a mask)

At the age of 27, in order to get a change of scenery and to leave the hospitals of the metropolis for a while, Arthur (1) had chosen a medical internship in Guyana for the summer of 2020. It was just before the pandemic:

“I chose my period well, you will tell me: after the first deluge of patients in metropolitan France, the Guyanese wave. Without being a journalist myself, I will try to follow this quote from Albert Londres: “Our job is not to please, nor to do harm, it is to carry the feather in the wound.” This testimony will therefore necessarily be unique to me, with my vision as a caregiver, my bias as a metropolitan and the inherent bias in preserving anonymity while trying to remain faithful to what is happening away from cameras and institutional social networks. I will mainly talk about hospital and territorial management but will not address the issue of city medicine due to ignorance of the subject.

Read alsoIn Guyana, caregivers “keep their fingers crossed so that nothing goes wrong”

“Before talking about Covid, I would like to paint a quick picture of the health situation here: Guyana is currently suffering from a dengue epidemic, and for a long time that of HIV. And that’s without counting the problems that are much more frequent than cardiovascular disease or cancer. Take Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni for example, for a population pool of several tens of thousands of people, the number of hospital beds in acute medicine outside the Covid-19 period is … 30. It is not to sink into the miserable but it is certain that 30, that calms down … In total, there are three hospitals on the coast distributed in the big cities (Cayenne, Kourou and Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni) and centers of health dispersed in land and along waterways. We all know that the investment and skills of caregivers are very heterogeneous in the hospital… but here we can say that it is pushed to its climax. Before detailing the dysfunctions in the management of this crisis, I would like to greet some incredible caregivers: those who have been pillars of care in this department for several years, those who have set up services, those who allow the hospital to stand up. But alongside these staff, we find jumbled mercenaries who don’t care, those who don’t have the skills but don’t realize it, and those who feed their ego. In such a difficult environment, the contrast is striking.

Staggering lack of communication

“You have to adapt in Guyana all the time. We have to adapt to patients: to a sometimes exacerbated precariousness, to the different language barriers, to their paperwork problems, to their life outside the big cities of the coast. We have to adapt to the means: digestive endoscopies are Cayenne, urology is Kourou, ophthalmology is Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni. Certain biological examinations… it is the metropolis. So I can understand that we cannot work as I am used to in metropolitan France, that we have to juggle and make compromises. But some situations are just indecent. Not in France, not in 2020: we do not refuse to take a patient in his thirties in intensive care under the pretext that he is HIV and Brazilian. We do not die after having an epidural for childbirth. We are not saying that we do not care if we made a mistake because the patient speaks poor French and will not file a complaint. You cannot be unreachable when you are on call… I think that in metropolitan France, no one would accept some of the things that I have seen here. And that can be brushed aside with the back of the hand since “It’s that or nothing, there is no one else”. It is not acceptable, it is indecent. And still I’m lucky in my medical practice, I’m a guy, people listen to me. It sucks, but that’s how it is. This is clearly not specific to Guyanese hospitals: more than once when I was a student I was spoken to instead of my boss. But here it is exacerbated, I am ashamed to have to repeat what my female colleagues say so that less competent men listen to them. It is blatant, it is shameful.

Also read, the previous episodes of the Epidemic JournalEpidemic Journal, by Christian Lehmann

“The patients, at least as far as I have come across, have illnesses made worse by many social problems. Two like that in your room in metropolitan France, it burns you out for the day. Here it is everyday. Illnesses as in the books and patients who do not fit into the administrative framework. I don’t want you to imagine the Wild West by reading this, but there are so many great projects to strengthen or create, I think our fellow citizens deserve to be done better. So inevitably, when a pandemic emerges, we are not serene. We had two major advantages: a young population and a few weeks ahead of the mainland. We quickly forget the weeks in advance, they were squandered by internal quarrels between hospital management, crisis management and the ARS. It was almost as if we were discovering the problems day to day, with a beautiful ball of hypocrites constantly parading in the media and on social networks. I am very happy to see the director of ARS Guyane, Clara de Bort, pose on the tarmac of the airport with her staff and congratulate herself on carrying out Evasan (medical evacuations) in a beautiful cooperation with hospitals. Unfortunately, it has happened several times that some of these evacuations were announced on television or on the Internet… before warning the doctors who directly took care of the patients concerned. The first time it was a family who came to ask us at what time their loved one would be evacuated when we had not been informed …

Read alsoIn Guyana, endless confinement

“Finally, I would have had the right to the same speech here as at the start of the wave in metropolitan France:” No, but France is different, it will not be like Italy “,” No, but Guyana, that will be fine, it won’t be like in the metropolis. ” One day you will explain to me which part of “pandemic” you did not understand. I don’t know, honestly, how we could confidently say that everything was ready, that we didn’t need help and that everything was going to be fine. I feel like I heard Macron say that we never ran out of masks. Nobody one day could assume to say “It’s shit, but we will adapt as quickly as possible, everyone is on the front”? Must always put everything under the carpet? Fortunately, we had help, a lot of help, a lot of people who came to give a helping hand whether it was on their leave, on an agreement between hospitals, via the army or the health reserve. However, I would still like to underline the astounding lack of communication between hospitals, ARS and health reserve. You try to round up your friends to fill in the holes, put on the patches to keep it going and you finally discover that a whole team is arriving but no one has seen fit to warn the staff. You may even hear the phrase “There are too many reinforcements” while services are still understaffed. I know that in the end the whole technostructure will congratulate itself on the excellent management and will go with its little comment, but it is the caregivers who make it possible to hold on.

Infernal mixture of care, public opinion and political interests

“The health reserve I still have a few complaints. Throwing in the room retired general practitioners who have not done hospitality since their start of their careers and putting hospital workers in town, doesn’t that sound like a bad idea? I have no desire to be ungrateful to my colleagues, more than courageous, who volunteered to come, but maybe estimating the needs and positioning the reinforcements accordingly would be a good start. So inevitably when by ego we say that all is well in the services, we find ourselves hearing that a pulmonologist or infectious disease specialist is not necessary in Guyana. Anyway, we are no longer close. Ah and I greet you dear resuscitator colleague who did not want to see respiratory distress because you were eating. I do not forget you. Same for the reinforcements who complained about not being able to tour, I do not forget you either.

Read alsoIn Cayenne, unwelcome hunger: insufficient humanitarian aid

The climax of this infernal mixture between care, public opinion and political interests was the trial planned for plasma therapy (with plasma from patients who had developed antibodies). If we summarize the situation, a trial concerning the interest of plasma therapy in Sars-CoV-2 infection had started in metropolitan France and was to continue in Guyana. There are two advantages to this: to provide patients with a potentially useful treatment and to succeed in including enough patients to reach a robust conclusion. In a context of mistrust of health authorities, media hubbub and the habit of this department being left behind, announcing this news from Paris was very clumsy. Let us add to this that this was done not by a PUPH (university professor-hospital practitioner) but by a PUPH, Karine Lacombe, and it was gone. Everyone has gone there from their affiliations to promote themselves, deputy, local collectives, close to Didier Raoult’s IHU. And in this mess, in the end, people were therefore pushed to demonstrate to refuse the help of an infectious disease specialist and her team in a territory that badly needed it. Admittedly, the announcement was awkward, but we saw people chanting loud and clear that they refused therapeutic help. I thus saw a good number of messages passing to say that the Guyanese patients were not guinea pigs. It’s such a no-brainer: no one is ever forcibly included in an essay if they don’t want to. This is the very basis of our ethical principles. But obviously to say it would do a disservice to the conspiracy discourse. On the other hand, promoting the use of hydroxychloroquine without any proof of its effectiveness in Covid, that was to use patients as guinea pigs. Associations have been calling for the creation of a university hospital in Guyana for years… and when a university team comes to do research, the door is vehemently slammed in its face.

“All this reflects a profound ignorance of clinical research and its functioning. So I hope that some people’s political agenda was worth it. In all of these ego bickering, whenever politics take precedence over caregivers and scientists for the wrong reasons, it is the patients who drink. While the Guyanese are worth it that we are interested in their territory, that we invest in improving access to healthcare here and that it be worthy of France. ”

(1) The first name has been changed.


Christian Lehmann doctor and writer

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Why does California have low COVID-19 numbers in the US drama? – Telemundo 52

LOS ANGELES – Early confinement and other prevention measures promoted by the state government have allowed California, with more than 40 million inhabitants and some 300 deaths from COVID-19, to become an example of how to deal with the coronavirus pandemic in United States.

So far, the nation’s largest metropolis, Los Angeles, with more than 10 million citizens, has recorded fewer than 6,000 cases and 132 deaths, far from New York City, which has 8 and a half million inhabitants. and it has confirmed some 130,000 infections and more than 4,000 deaths.

“California has been doing quite well in the COVID-19 pandemic, with a relatively low number of infected per 100,000 people and a low death rate,” said Professor Karin Michels, head of the Department of Epidemiology at the School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA).

PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

California Governor Gavin Newsom was one of the first in the country to enact relatively strict confinement, allowing only “essential” activities such as going to the grocery store and pharmacy, and exercising respect for safety distances between people.

In contrast, eight states – Arkansas, Iowa, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, South Carolina, Utah, and Wyoming – have not mandated their residents to stay home.

“The governor issued ‘home security’ and ‘shelter’ orders relatively quickly. Universities like UCLA and other large employers closed even earlier and sent people to work, teach and study from home,” said Michels, who has extensive experience in disease prevention, public health and statistical methods.

Due to the COVID-19 crisis, California schools may continue to be closed until the end of August.

Newsom also took the initiative to decree the closure of schools, which will remain closed until next year, as a preventive measure; in asking President Donald Trump to send a hospital ship to Los Angeles to support local hospitals before it reached a hypothetical peak in the number of cases, which has not yet occurred; and in closing the state’s beaches and parks.

Another point that seems to have helped so far in the exceptional case of California against COVID-19, according to experts, is the low population density of the state, which reduces the possibility of contagion and allows better compliance with the rules of social distancing.

“TO
 Despite having a large population, Californians do not live in
as dense as New Yorkers. Cities spread with
Few skyscrapers: Relative to other states, many more people in
 California lives in houses, not in apartment buildings or buildings
high, “summarizes Michels, who is based on data from a study of his
college.

YOUNG PEOPLE, LESS DEATHS PER CAPITA

California has had a much lower per capita death rate than most of the nation’s largest states, with the exception of Texas.

“The state has a low average age and a high
density of healthcare facilities, which may have contributed to
 the low mortality rate, “explained Michels.

According to a recent study published in The Lancet, the mortality rate among those infected with 20 years of age is 0.03%, while for those 70 years of age it is 8.6%.

Cautious tone

The
 Californian authorities have projected alarming numbers in the
recent weeks, although so far those estimates have not been
compliment.

Newsom himself foresaw two weeks ago that more than half the state’s population, or about 25 million people, would become infected, so he begged its residents to follow the guidelines to the letter.

For his part, the mayor of Los Angeles, Eric Garcetti, did not hesitate to forecast that the city “would follow in the footsteps of New York” in number of cases, a catastrophic scenario that is still far away.

COVID-19 affects children differently than adults. This is what the doctors say in the following video.

The United States on Monday exceeded 10,000 deaths from coronavirus, with 10,335 and almost 350,000 infected, making it the third country with the most deaths after Italy and Spain, according to the count of the Center for Systems, Science and Engineering (CSSE) from Johns Hopkins University (Maryland).

The new data is known after this Sunday
President Donald Trump, during his usual daily press conference,
make sure “this will probably be the hardest week, between this
week and next, and there will be a lot of death. ”

The state of New York, the great epicenter of the pandemic in the United States, accumulates with these latest figures a total of 4,758 deaths and 130,689 confirmed cases of COVID-19, compared to just over 122,000 that it had a day earlier.

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Amateur football: “A club like AS Saint-Priest, you can’t shoot it like that!”

Stade Jacques Joly of AS Saint-Priest, March 7. The pennant team (in N2, fourth echelon of French football) narrowly bowed at home against RC Grasse (2-3), and fell to 14e place (out of 16) in the ranking. At this moment, the players do not know it yet, but they have just disputed their last meeting of the season. Worse: this precise defeat condemns them to relegation to national 3, while there are still nine games to play on the calendar. Consequence of the decision made by the French Football Federation (FFF) last Thursday to stop net the amateur championships due to the epidemic of Covid-19, by freezing the classification on the day of the interruption while maintaining the system of three ascent-descent… only for passages from N2 to N3 and vice versa For all other championships, there will only be one ascent, one descent. “I’m scared, it’s an aberration. We add woe to woe ”, fulminates Patrick Gonzalez, president of this popular club in the Lyon suburbs.

Already hard to swallow, the defeat turns to undrinkable. During the first 21 days, Saint-Priest was almost never relegated and had just faced the formations at the top of the table. “The calendar was much more favorable for us then. The following weekend, we played Marignane, one point ahead of us, and we recovered six injured », rages the leader, for whom a white season – the championships purely and simply canceled, with no rise or fall between divisions – would have been more logical. Definitely poissard, AS Saint-Priest: its team B, in regional 2 (7e division), first at the truce, third at the time of the glaciation, will not be promoted.

Sad irony of fate: the leader san-priod had co-written two successive letters at the beginning of the month with Eric Thomas, president of the French Association of Amateur Football (Affa), for the attention of Noël Le Graët, so that several measures are taken in order to best manage the end of the 2019-2020 fiscal year. Approved in the meantime by some 3,000 amateur clubs, the letters went unanswered. “The instances [districts, ligues, fédération, ndlr] never consulted us, castigates Patrick Gonzalez, for five years at the helm of the club. Now we’re going to open the cages, let go of the lions. ”

Three-quarters less employees next season

Such an unexpected descent would be catastrophic for the club. From 1.050 million euros, the budget would drop to around 500,000 euros. A drop of half to be linked with those of the town hall grants (300,000 euros today) and the withdrawal of many sponsors. Without forgetting the aid from the Federation, divided by 4 in the event of demotion (from 35,000 to 8,000 euros, allocated to team travel every weekend).

At the same time, an amateur club like Saint-Priest pays a subscription of 70 euros for each of its 650 licensees, or around 45,000 euros which are found each year in the coffers of the FFF. To this must be added the costs of arbitration (20,000 euros), training, but also fines (around 10,000 per year) … “A large amateur club pays between 80,000 and 100,000 euros a year [à la FFF]”, summarizes Patrick Gonzalez.

If the demotion is activated, the manager will only be able to keep a quarter of the twenty employees currently employed by the association. “We risk stopping training, but also closing sections, teams.” The female structure, strong with 80 people and growing, will also have to review its ambitions. He will no longer be able to pay all of his educators “Who also have training courses which are excessively expensive”, explains Robert Mouangué, sports director since the position was created in 2017.

Up to now, Saint-Priest is one of the only two structures in the eastern part of Lyon to be labeled Eite (the highest level for youth training). The reputation of “blood and gold” as a nursery in the Lyon suburbs is no longer to be proven (Luis Fernandez, Youri Djorkaeff or more recently Nabil Fékir have shaped their game there as a junior). Over the decade, an average of fifteen players signed up each year in professional clubs (18 in 2019). “Many L3 players sometimes have as many as five of our former players, adds Robert Mouangué. So a club like AS Saint-Priest, you can’t shoot him like that. “

A pledge of support that extends beyond the lawns. Visits to museums, cleaning of neighborhoods, awareness of waste treatment in collaboration with local missions: several socio-educational activities allow young people to also become “Good citizens of tomorrow, underlines Robert Mouangué. Without forgetting the internships and training that we find for older children. All this is threatened. Some kids will have to go back to neighborhood clubs with even lower means

It was heartbreaking for Franck Valente, member of the recruitment unit for under-19s for seniors and assistant coach for under-20s. For three years in the staff, this former san-priod player from the 90s is aware of the difficulties that could be those of the club. His included, from next season. “If I am kept in my post, I will not have the same means. And it’s not as easy to attract players in N3 as in N2 “, assures this territorial agent at Lyon-Métropole, which until then pocketed 350 euros per month for its activity within the club. A little more “who [m’]help for the end of the month, like many “.

Close the budget “at all costs”

Despite everything, clubs like Saint-Priest must find the financial resources necessary to be on track for the two deadlines in June. The first, the payment of contributions to the FFF on June 11. For Saint-Priest, the invoice amounts to 500 euros. A reasonable amount, “Because we paid everything in advance”, crop Patrick Gonzalez. “But a lot of small clubs are not in this case and can no longer make money by then. How are they going to do it? ” More worrying, the closure of the budget before the 30th of the same month, date on which the club must go to Paris to present its annual balance sheet to the National Directorate of Management Control (DNCG), the financial police of football. The balance sheet must be balanced, under penalty of sanctions (demotion, for example).

Problem: “Many partners who were supposed to give us money between March and June are at the bottom of the hole. Their employees are on partial unemployment, how do you want them to help us? ” wonders Patrick Gonzalez, who estimates that to be afloat today, he would have to recover between 150,000 and 200,000 euros. A sum that was to be provided in part by raffles and other end-of-year youth or inter-company tournaments, all canceled since. Impossible to count on the traditional recipes of the refreshment bar, after the redevelopment of the sports complex by the town hall this year (it also includes two new synthetic fields, but also a natural lawn, changing rooms and grandstands redone).

“We will all go to war”

“Today, it is not up to us to restructure ourselves. It’s up to Mr. Le Graët to change. If they don’t reverse their decisions,it will be very, very hot. We will all go to war, “threatens the president, who has just addressed a new open letter published this Friday to the Minister of Sports, again supported by Eric Thomas. Among the urgent demands: the cancellation of all the descents, but also the “Implementation of a relief and emergency fund for amateur football”, at least 300 million. As revealed by the Team, this special fund is between 12 and 15 million today. “All 15,000 amateur clubs donate 150 million euros each year to the FFF. It’s an organized racket “, denounces Eric Thomas, who points out that in four years, nearly 4,000 clubs have disappeared. For him, the distrust of amateurs towards the authorities will reach a point of no return. “Football should advance on its two legs. Today he is hopping on his professional leg. “

Roman Métairie

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Discriminatory and illegal, Critical Medicine Resource Allocation Bioethics Guide: CNDH

MEXICO CITY (apro) .- The National Commission on Human Rights (CNDH) described the Bioethical Guide for the Allocation of Critical Medicine Resources, prepared by members of the General Health Council, as discriminatory and illegal. covid-19.

“Although it is a draft document, as far as it has been said, it has many possibilities of being implemented due to the size of the demand that the pandemic will impose on our health services,” the agency stressed.

The text, he added, “justifies that the Mexican State does not guarantee effective access to health goods to all patients with covid-19, in this case to critical medicine resources.”

Bioethics Guide, which prioritizes young people over older adults, “is a project”

In a pronouncement, the CNDH considered that the established criteria are discriminatory towards older people, “and places them at a disadvantage in access to critical medicine resources, which violates their right to health, life and personal integrity “

“It is delicate” that the Guide did not consider the creation of an ethics committee that allows medical teams to “make decisions that involve human lives”, and that the criteria for “the triage team should be applied ‘ideally’, which does not guarantees the appropriate decision in the respect and guarantee of the human rights of the patients with Covid-19 ”, he added.

From a constitutional point of view, the CNDH classified the Guide as “illegal” by invading the jurisdiction of the Judicial Power of the Federation, “by establishing that in the terms of article 128 of the Law of Amparo, Regulatory of Articles 103 and 107 of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, in the event that suspensions are requested by way of amparo regarding the decisions made in accordance with the Guide, they must be denied. ”

In this sense, he insisted that “the autonomy of the judges and magistrates is violated, who are the ones who have to study the matter, and decide on the granting of amparo, based on the constitutional block of human rights.”

However, the agency recognized that the Guide “is not binding, as it is a series of recommendations for workers in the health sector, and until now it has not been endorsed by all members of the General Health Council, so we are still in time to avoid its obligation and, therefore, its effects. ”

Likewise, he reiterated his concern “for the respect of the right to health of older people, which may be violated by following the proposal contained in the Bioethical Guide to Allocation of Critical Medicine Resources”, for which he urged the Council of General Health to attend to your observations.

In case of saturation, hospitals will give priority to young people over older adults

“The CNDH emphasizes the need for attention to the rights of older people in Mexico, who enjoy the same human rights and fundamental freedoms as other people, and that these rights, including the right not to be subjected to discrimination based on age or to any type of violence, they demand the dignity and equality, inherent to every human being ”, he pointed out.

Finally, he took advantage of the context to ask President Andrés Manuel López Obrador to sign and ratify the Inter-American Convention on the Protection of Human Rights of Older Persons, adopted on June 15, 2015 by the General Assembly of the Organization of American States (OAS ), which seeks to “promote, protect and ensure the recognition and full enjoyment and exercise under equal conditions of all human rights and fundamental freedoms of the elderly, in order to contribute to their full inclusion, integration and participation in society “

Comments

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Coronavirus: caregivers “head in hand”

For three days now, around 8 p.m., the confined French have been applauding them from their windows. These thanks and encouragement, to say the least welcome, undoubtedly put a balm on the hearts of hospital staff. The fact remains that at a time when the Covid-19 is deploying in France and mobilizing more and more beds in the intensive care units, it is the certainty of the time to come which is particularly tense and difficult which imposes itself on all these caregivers.

This apprehension stems from the unprecedented nature of the current epidemic and is increased by the lack of protective means (masks, gloves, hydroalcoholic gel) and equipment (artificial respirators). This maximum stress is added to the fatigue that preexisted Covid-19, in personnel already in tense flow because of budgetary savings. This is what the caregivers of the hospitals say: Release collected testimonies, across France.

Some are already hard, confro

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Nathalie Raulin

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Arnaud Vaulerin

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Catherine Mallaval

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Fabrice Drouzy

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Clementine Mercier

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Sarah Finger

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Coralie Schaub

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Kim Hullot-Guiot

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Eva Fonteneau

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Gotham in trouble, Batman on track

When Nordic pioneers approached this shore of America in the 17th centurye century, with their picks, their dreams and their families, they planted standards in the soft ground, erected tents, lit fires. The stories warmed up when morale went down. The mud complicated everything. The community was fragile, but with sweat and hope, it had to get out of it. On this land which will later be called the United States, it was necessary to build a city. Houses have grown, lopsided houses, stalls, churches. Rivalries and brawls have grown as fast. The ground was cursed, some said. The spilled blood was buried under the stones. The foundations of Gotham City were laid.

Crime Carnival. Centuries later, despite its chaotic genesis, the city is still standing. A hero named Batman plugs the gaps. He watches over a city with insane cadastre, modeled after New York, Chicago and Babylon. The danger is permanent. Death awaits you outside the cinemas of Park Row, in banks ready to be robbed, in toxic factories, in poisoned sewers… Gotham is the paradise of crime and nothing seems to be able to bring peace, neither the mayor nor the money of billionaire Bruce Wayne and especially not the police, overwhelmed, corrupt, reduced to turning a spotlight to the sky to summon a man disguised as a bat.

The nights are long in Gotham City – twenty-four hours of black gangue, a veil of sticky nightmare like a latex suit. Batman blends effortlessly into the background, with the grace of a bramble in the evil flower garden. You may come across him at the bottom of your building, at the crime carnival. The artists are known: Joker, Penguin, Double-Face, Catwoman… Ask for the program! Don’t miss Arkham Asylum either. All criminals end up entering this Gothic building whose name recalls the novels of Lovecraft. Tirelessly, all criminals also end up getting out.

Masked convict. The city of Batman is the materialization of a fear, that of a city plagued by crime to the marrow. “Gotham City is the product of American history, explains the artistic director of the Angoulême International Comics Festival, Stéphane Beaujean. At the beginning of the XXe century, the United States is experiencing rapid urbanization. The population increases in big cities, it is the birth of buildings. Poverty is increasing, so is delinquency. Metropolitan crime then becomes the subject of all stories, from detective stories to comics. When Batman appeared in 1939, he joined this trend, that of the vigilante in the fight against crime, taking up the thriller codes. It’s no coincidence that his debut is published in Detective Comics. “

Gotham City seems to be carved out of blocks of shadow, dead ends, its buildings like bars. Batman is a prisoner, a man locked in a world, kept on a leash by his thirst for justice. Only the poets of crime, whimsical, unpredictable, are free. The masked convict will be the last to leave Gotham. No need to turn off the light. It has been for a long time.

Guillaume Pajot

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Coronavirus from A to Z – Release

like animal

The World Health Organization (WHO) reminded him as early as January 12: “The data seem to clearly indicate that the outbreak is associated with exposures at a fish market in Wuhan” (see: Hubei). The hypothesis of a zoonosis, a disease transmitted by animals, is therefore preferred. February 7, the scientific journal Nature asks: “Has the pangolin spread the coronavirus to humans”? But nothing yet formally attests to this. Since there is nothing to certify that Sars-CoV-2, another name for Covid-19, very close to a virus detected in bats, comes from animals. The SARS coronavirus was transmitted from the civet to humans in China in 2002 and that of the Dromedary Sea to humans in Saudi Arabia in 2012.

as a balance sheet

As of Wednesday, almost two months after the virus appeared, 81,191 cases have been confirmed, including 78,064 in China. 39 countries have known or are experiencing cases. 2,728 people died, 30,310 were treated

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                  games


Christian Losson

,


Catherine Mallaval

.