Religious Mission or commitment of the third world ? Clerics between Europe and Latin America in the second half of the Twentieth century, under the direction of Olivier Chatelan, with a text by Michael Löwy, Editions Tree blue, 240 p., 25 €
For more than four decades, Latin America has attracted many priests and religious in europe. For a large part of them, this “expatriation religious” was motivated by the search for a re-enchantment of their vocation to the contact of the Churches in full effervescence. For Rome, it was to counter the flare-ups, real or fantasy of protestantismes and communism on a continent evangelized for a long time.
Converted by the poor
Once on site, the european priests plunge into the great bath of injustice, socio-economic, are facing the violence and brutality of police repression, while the catholics are divided about plans to so-called ”national security’ that were imposed. They have actually been led to question the meaning of their commitment and their apostolic priorities : should they favour the pastoral care of the usual (sacraments and worship) in favour of populations in lack of pastors, or to participate in social change, notably through the training of lay people for leadership responsibilities ? Parties or sent in the name of the fight against communism, some are returning in Europe converted by the poor, and testify of their experience, when others choose to stay in Latin America, continuing to maintain a close relationship with their diocese of origin. One or the other, however, will be expelled due to commitments considered more political than religious by the authorities.
An outstanding intercontinental two-way
It is this history that tell of the contributions of this book, which puts forward a range of courses and group or individual from the missionary priests in Latin America. One of the originalities of this collective book resulting from a collaboration of historians from both sides of the Atlantic, is to be emphasized that the Latin-american priests participated in this movement between the two continents. It begins by sending priests chileans and brazilians in 1946 to support the dioceses of germany devastated. Taking the council, of the links established between bishops and experts from Europe and Latin America. Later, Latin-american priests come to train in Europe. The relationships they establish, the institutions that they create or attend contribute in the years post-conciliar implementation of the agenda of catholic ’question’ in Latin america.
Theologies of liberation
Several contributions highlight how these exchanges between Europe and Latin America were decisive in the birth and development of liberation theologies. Bishops such as Dom Helder Câmara, and theologians have served as a bridge between the two continents. This is notably the case of Vincent Cosmao, (1923-2006), French dominican heir of the Father Lebret, who on the strength of its experience in africa has deployed a theology of development before becoming ” a catalyst and a co-producer of a theology of the transatlantic “. Or of Gustavo Gutiérrez, who supports his doctoral thesis in theology at Lyon in may 1985, even as the liberation theology of which he is a promoters is in the viewfinder of the Congregation for the doctrine of the faith, who was then prefect, cardinal Ratzinger. The theologian from peru, is already internationally known, because of its defense an act in the media to protest his orthodoxy and do take the theology of liberation, a credit academic.
Beyond the routes to collective or individual priests (father Pierre Dubois, missionary in Chile, father Henri Burin des Roziers in Brazil…), these pages discover how the movement of people has contributed to the ideas in between the cultural spaces are very different and that this has not been without effect on the theology and mission of the Church, whether in Latin America, in Europe or in Africa.
The chronicle of April 20 by Guillaume de Fonclare, “To our dead”, put my heart upside down. Referring to the funeral in confinement time with a maximum of twenty people, he writes: “Funeral in a small group, quickly done badly. “ And this is how eight reductive words can, without intending to do so, I’m sure, to sadden the thousands of people in our country who are part of the support teams for bereaved families. The news highlights the magnificent and intense work of our caregivers. All the volunteers, whether guides or companions, are part of it. It is not a virus which comes to make us quit our practices. What has been going on in our churches for six weeks? A few visits by walkers coming to collect a few moments and a few funeral celebrations, about five a week in our parish. Each time more time to welcome everyone, words expressed, exchanged looks, links with those absent, attentive listening to texts and music, accepted silences, shared emotions, while respecting the measures of health and safety. “The rules of the most elementary humanity” are respected, and the numerous expressions of sympathy received after each celebration come to prove it. With these few lines, I wanted to highlight the very beautiful mission of those accompanying bereaved families. For all that you are, for all that you do, be thanked.
responsible for the support team for families in mourning for Dinard
After the end of confinement, the economic crisis will have to be tackled: the organization’s budget …
The unexpected details of the divorce of Pavel Priluchny and Agatha Muceniece became known. Gossips say that problems in the marriage of actors began a long time ago. According to rumors, the star of “Major” allegedly five years ago was looking for a replacement for his wife.
Pavel Priluchny is a popular and very popular actor. Endless shooting exhausted the artist. Returning home, he, tired of the cameras at work, dreamed of only one thing – just being yourselfwrite “7 Days”.
However, Agatha Muceniece, as you know, led her vlog about family life. And, according to rumors, Paul was annoyed by the fact that he had no peace at home either. Like, his wife followed him on the heels and took off.
Surrounded by couples also say that Major star was not shy about flirting on set. “Priluchny on the set made me feel welcome. I was pushed from him. I knew very well that Agatha and Pasha had a serious crisis for a long time,” says costume designer Gela Migulova.
Be that as it may, now Agatha and Paul are preparing divorce papers. Spouses peacefully settled all financial issues. Muceniece does not interfere with the husband’s communication with children: son Timothy and daughter Mia. The actress two weeks ago moved out of a country house and settled in a luxurious apartment.
Recall that in February 2020, artists simultaneously in their blogs reported that they filed for divorce. After the announcement of the separation, the couple continued to live under one roof in Moscow region. On April 10, a sobbing actress dazzled the public with recognition – her husband raised her hand and brought the children to tears. She also stated that Paul “does not dry out for ten days.” Muceniece’s recognition that her husband is mocking her and the children was a shock to many fans of the actress.
The beautiful unfinished novel of Priluchny and Muceniece.Pavel Priluchny and Agatha Muceniece are getting divorced. She still loves him. But, probably, there is no strength to be near …
NASA will carry out a mission to generate oxygen on Mars based on the planet’s atmospheric conditions, as part of the shipment of the Perseverance Rover vehicle.
The experiment is part of the mission “Mars 2020” and could be an important step for the arrival of man on the “red planet”. Gold it is a key element in the process.
From the official US space agency they explained that the experiment is based on a gold box called MOXIE, which can generate oxygen “like a tree” and that would go inside the vehicles sent on missions.
Thus, the device “inhales” carbon dioxide and exhales the breathable air. The machine would produce it from that carbon dioxide that is in the Martian atmosphere.
Moxie (in yellow), part of the planned vehicles to Mars.
The box is gold to ensure that impact with a nearby electronic box inside the vehicle does not cause damage. It is also because the element radiates very little heat, so it would not affect the rest of the equipment.
Currently, the MOXIE development weighs 17 kilos and generates about 10 grams of oxygen per hour. It is the size of a car battery. From the North American entity they clarified that the future oxygen generators on Mars to support human missions must be “about 100 times larger”.
“When we send humans to Mars we are going to want them to return safe (…) A liquid oxygen generator is something that we can do there and we will not have to carry with us. One idea is to send an empty oxygen tank and fill it on Mars, ”said Michael Hecht, the project’s principal investigator.
Mars’ atmosphere is made up of 96% carbon dioxide and only 0.13% oxygen, compared to 21% in Earth’s atmosphere, according to NASA.
The crisis due to the coronavirus pandemic already exceeds even our atmospheric barrier: space will also suffer the consequences of the new virus imported from China. The European Space Agency (ESA) together with the Russian space agency Roscosmos have announced this Thursday that they are delaying the ExoMars mission for two years, which will search for remains of past life on Mars and that since today has between August and October 2022 as a new launch date . “Taking into account the recommendations given by the inspectors general of Europe and Russia, ExoMars experts have concluded that more time is required to carry out the necessary tests and ensure that all the components of the spacecraft are ready for their adventure on Mars, ”they explained in a release.
The main objective of the mission is to determine if there ever was life on Mars and to better understand the history of water on the planet. The ExoMars rover, baptized Rosalind Franklin, includes a drill to access the Martian subsoil and a miniaturized life search laboratory within an ultra-clean zone.
“Difficult but thoughtful decision”
In the framework of an exclusive meeting on the subject, the CEOs of ESA and Roscosmos, Jan Wörner Y Dmitry Rogozin, they concluded that more tests of the ship are needed with the definitive hardware and software. Furthermore, both partners recognized that the final phase of ExoMars activities has been compromised by the general worsening of the epidemiological situation in European countries.
“We have made the difficult but thoughtful decision to postpone the launch to 2022. This is primarily due to the need to maximize the robustness of all ExoMars systems, as well as force majeure circumstances related to the worsening of the epidemiological situation in Europe, which has hardly left practical options for our experts to travel to the headquarters of the participating industries. I am confident that the steps that we and our European colleagues are taking to guarantee the success of the mission will be justified and will have strictly positive results for the implementation of the mission, “said Rogozin.
For his part, Wörner has pointed out: «We want to ensure that we are 100% ready for the success of the mission. We cannot afford any margin for error. Continuing with the verification activities will ensure safe travel and the best scientific results once on Mars. ”
Current mission status
To date, all of the flight hardware required for the ExoMars launch has been integrated into the spacecraft. The Kazachok landing pad is fully equipped with thirteen scientific instruments and the Rosalind Franklin rover, with its nine instruments, recently passed the latest vacuum and thermal tests in France.
ExoMars’ latest dynamic parachute pull-out tests have been successfully completed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the main parachutes are now ready for the last two high-altitude drop tests, which will have place in March in Oregon (United States).
The descent module underwent qualification testing of the powertrain last month. Subsequently, environmental tests of this module and the landing platform have taken place in Cannes (France) to confirm that the spacecraft is ready to withstand the harsh conditions of space during its journey to Mars.
The new calendar provides for launch between August and October 2022. Celestial mechanics only supports relatively short (ten-day) launch windows every two years in order to reach Mars from Earth.
ExoMars will be the first mission to look for signs of life at depths of up to two meters below the Martian surface, where the biosignatures could be especially well preserved.
For months Laurie Giordano had been telling her son’s story to anyone who wanted to hear – about how his self-styled 16-year-old Zach, should never have collapsed in the scorching heat of Florida nearly three years ago. He died days later.
For weeks Giordano drove six hours each to meet the legislators of the Capitol to push them to act, to understand the unbearable pain of a parent who was trying to make sense of the death of a child.
At Florida’s Capitol in Tallahassee, Giordano crossed paths on Thursday with Lori Alhadeff, who lost 14-year-old daughter Alyssa while filming the Parkland school. Both talked about how the tragedy and loss are motivating them to put pressure on legislation to save other children and parents from suffering.
Giordano and Alhadeff are connected for their grief over the loss of children and work to convince lawmakers to make schools safer, albeit in different ways.
Alhadeff has returned to urge lawmakers to request panic buttons in schools for faster help. This was one of the many school security measures generated by the shootings of February 14, 2018, at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School which killed 17. The bill, known as “Alyssa’s Law”, requires that every school campus elementary, middle and high schools both public, including charter schools, to establish a mobile system to alert authorities of emergencies.
And Giordano was back on Capitol Hill sitting in the public gallery that overlooked the floor of the Senate, where lawmakers unanimously approved a bill renamed “Zachary Martin Act”. The legislation would require public schools across Florida to do more to prevent heat-related injuries and deaths.
For a few minutes, they talked about their children and their shared mission. Giordano admired the pendant hanging on Alhadeff’s neck that bears Alyssa’s smiling face.
“I don’t know how it all happened in your tragedy, but I kept thinking that help was coming,” Alhadeff told Jordan on that fateful day in February 2018.
“And help wasn’t coming,” Giordano interrupted, finishing Alhadeff’s thought.
Another distressed Florida mother, Denise Williams, wandered the Capitol on Thursday to begin lobbying for a new law on behalf of her daughter Terissa Gautney, who died on a school bus in 2018.
Ever since they lost their daughter, Williams and her husband have pushed school boards and sought the help of lawmakers to request lifesaving training for school bus drivers and better communication equipment on school buses.
He drove 250 miles (400 kilometers) from his home in Clearwater to the Capitol, describing the trip as a decision sprinkles of the moment. She sat down to watch the Senate and the Chamber conduct business, and did everything she could to plan her next steps towards making change.
“I came here to see what I could have done,” said Williams.
Williams would later cross paths with Alhadeff on Capitol Hill. He said he wanted to learn from Alhadeff, who is now a member of the Broward County school board.
“Our children have been lost in a traumatic situation and my heart breaks for any other mother. And I can feel the pain they feel, “said Alhadeff of Williams and Jordan.” Even if it involved different types of tragedies, it is still the pain of losing a child. “
Giordano’s son died in the summer of 2017 after collapsing in the Florida heat during rehearsals.
After the death of his son, Giordano founded the Zach Martin Memorial Foundation, which worked to raise awareness of the dangers of heat-related stress. As part of its work, the foundation donated 40 cooling tanks to schools across Florida.
His son, he said, would still be alive if life-saving equipment were on the sidelines during rehearsals – perhaps a tub full of water – to immediately cool his body.
“I’m exhausted, but it’s okay. Once this is over, I’m going to collapse for a week, “said Giordano waiting for lawmakers to take action on his bill.
“A six-hour trip is a long time to be alone with your thoughts,” he said, “that’s when emotions are really difficult. That’s when tears flow.”
If approved by the legislature and signed by Governor Ron DeSantis, public schools should have a tub or other large container filled with cold water on the sidelines during all games and practices. Schools should also have defibrillators to revive affected athletes. The proposed law would also require schools to train staff on how to recognize signs of heat-related ailments, including potentially fatal heatstrokes, and to take life-saving actions.
But even on the verge of success, Giordano said there is little comfort.
“I still cry every day,” he said. “There is no consolation. No, it doesn’t improve. “
The name is idea of Alexander Mather, a student whose proposal was chosen among another 28,000 ideas collected among young people from all over the United States: “Alex’s idea captures the spirit of exploration,” Zurbuchen said. “Like any previous exploration mission, our rover will face challenges and make impressive discoveries.”
«Perserverance» is the latest in a saga of robotic explorers also named by students, such as «Sojourner» (1997), «Spirit», «Opportunity» and «Curiosity». His appointment has guaranteed Mather a visit to Cape Canaveral on the day of the robot’s launch and to be forever linked to this mission.
“We’re always curious and seek opportunity… but if rovers are to be the qualities as us as a race, we missed the most important thing: Perseverance.”
«Perseverance» is a 1,043 kilogram robot and the size of a small car, which looks very similar to the “Curiosity” rover but carries different instruments.
The mission of this robot is to take samples of the Martian soil with a small drill and analyze them for understand the climate, the geology of the planet and its habitability, both present and past. It will also help estimate the probability of finding possible life traces near the surface.
Apart from that, it will fill at least 43 sample tubes that will be collected by the future «Mars Sample Return Mission», Which will be launched in 2026, to bring rocks and dust from Mars to Earth.
In addition, it carries a drone and an oxygen generator that will test some of the technology that is expected to be used in upcoming manned missions to Mars.
The seven instruments of «Perseverance»
The machine has seven main instruments. These include a camera for panoramic and stereoscopic images (MASTCAM-Z) to study minerals and help operate the rover; a sophisticated Spanish-made meteorological station «Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer» (MEDA); a tool to produce oxygen (MOXIE); an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to study the composition of surface materials (PIXL); a radar capable of penetrating the subsoil (RIMXFAX); a Raman ultraviolet ray spectrometer (SHERLOC), to detect organic molecules and make fine mineral analyzes; and the SuperCam, an instrument for imaging, chemical composition analysis and mineralogy.
At this time, the rover «Perseverance» is facing the last stage of assembly and testing at the Kennedy Space Center, in Florida, and its release date is scheduled for July 17 this year. It will arrive on Mars on February 18, 2021, if all goes well.
The enemy Hank Bolden
faced did not come from a distant front line.
It came from the skies.
It’s a battle that’s still going on 65 years later. Bolden, who is now 82 years old, is an atomic veteran – one of hundreds of thousands of American service members used in human testing by the United States government during post-WWII nuclear tests and sworn to a secret life.
“They wanted to see how the living soldiers would resist the exposure
to radiation, ”recalls Bolden. “Before using live soldiers they were using
mannequins. But you don’t get real results using mannequins as you would
live bodies. “
A DIFFERENT TIME
While accompanying a friend to a New Haven recruiting station in 1953, Bolden was invited to join the army. At just 16 years old then and already out of high school, he admits that he “pulled down” his birth certificate to move to the age of 18, joining the approximately 200,000 underage soldiers who would have served during the Second World War and the eras of the Korean War.
After basic training in
Fort Dix was assigned to work as a tank mechanic in Texas before moving to Texas
California and becoming a surface-to-air missile mechanic.
Despite an executive order issued in July
26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman to desegregate the armed forces, the last one
the all black units of the army were not abolished until 1954. And in 1955, Bolden
he says, racist attitudes persist even after the units have been racially integrated.
“The residual thoughts of people were firm
linger, “he says.” My outfit was 800 people strong. Thirteen of us were
black. Ten were from the South, who were more tolerant of treatment
they got racially. But the three of us from the North couldn’t tolerate it,
so I have had many fights over this. So I was the guy they wanted
get rid of.”
It would not be the only race
discrimination Bolden would witness as a soldier.
In 1955, the seventeen year old
he was suddenly ordered to the Nevada desert without explanation.
“They don’t tell you what you’re going to face,” he said. “Nobody
they knew what they were going to face. ”
What he would eventually face was a classified operation known as Operation Teapot at the Nevada Test Site. In a series of 14 bomb throws, or “hits”, military officials tried to test the effects of nuclear bombs on structures and strategies, animals and people.
All races of military personnel
participated in the Teapot operation. But upon arrival in Nevada, Bolden was
astounded to accomplish all the other soldiers in his new specially selected unit
for a mysterious assignment they were also black.
“There was this myth about black people
be able to resist, tolerate certain things more than any other race “, he
He says. “So it was a test on that too.”
AN ATOMIC NIGHT
One morning in February, Bolden
the unit was ordered in a desert trench. Unbeknownst to them, it was excavated
the expected route of the fallout, only 2.8 miles away from what it would have become
ground zero for the launch of an atomic bomb.
Even though a countdown sounded on the speakers, Bolden says, the soldiers still had no idea what they were about to face. Without protective gear in addition to the normal fabrics and helmets, they waited and looked.
“They tell you to cover your eyes”
On February 18, 1955, Shot Wasp, the first nuclear test of Operation Teapot, detonated a Mark 6 nuclear bomb dropped by a B-36 exactly at noon. A monstrous cloud of mushrooms filled the sky, reaching 21,500 feet in height.
“With radiation, when you put your arms over your eyes or hands, you actually see the bones, you see the bones in your body from the exposure. You can see your skeleton. “
After the relapse the warning came.
“You swore not to speak
“said Bolden. The soldiers were threatened with imprisonment and fines for violation
For 60 years, Bolden didn’t tell anyone. No this
family, not his wife, not his children. Not even her doctors when she spies on her
tumors have started to show. He developed bladder and posterior subcapsular cancer
cataract and in 1990 multiple myeloma was diagnosed.
“They actually gave me three and a half years
four years to live, ”recalls Bolden. So in 1995 I should have been a statistic. “
But in 1995, Bolden was in remission. He is a citizen
the secret was coming to light.
Government figures estimate between 400,000 and 550,000 US military personnel who participated in a series of nuclear tests between 1946 and 1992. According to the Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency, this includes post occupation forces -Second World War of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, prisoners of war in Japan at the end of the Second World War, participants in the atmospheric nuclear tests in Nevada and the Pacific from 1945 to 1962 and participants in the underground nuclear tests in Nevada from 1951 to 1992.
Many of these “atomic veterans” have succumbed before their own
the stories have become public, their bodies are full of tumors. In
1990, the veil of secrecy began to lift.
After setting up the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments to investigate 10-year experiments, President Clinton made a formal apology to American atomic veterans on October 3, 1995. By order of the president, Congress would repeal the nuclear radiation agreement law. and secrecy, allowing atomic veterans to talk about their experiences without fear of fines or treason charges. And financial compensation has been opened to all qualified atomic veterans.
“Those who led the government when these decisions were made are no longer here to take responsibility for what they have done. They are not here to apologize to survivors, family members or their communities whose lives have been overshadowed by shadow of these choices So today, on behalf of another generation of American leaders and another generation of American citizens, the United States of America offers sincere apologies to those of our citizens who have undergone these experiments. the government is wrong, we have a moral responsibility to admit it, “said President Bill Clinton on October 3, 1995
But the television address has been obscured. The same happened
day when OJ Simpson’s verdict was issued in a live classroom feed, taking
on televisions and news cycles across America.
As a result, many skilled veterans had no idea of the ban
the secrecy had been lifted, nor that they could claim benefits. Bolden no
find out until he researched the Internet, he says, in 2015.
“I was once so angry and so aggravating with the government that I thought I would be murdered to keep me from talking,” he says.
When Bolden attempted to apply for subsidies, he found that the burden of proof was placed on his fellow atomic veterans. The government would give compensation from the date a complaint was filed, but not retroactively, and only if the veteran could prove that he had participated in the tests – which proved to be an almost impossible task after millions of military documents were destroyed in a 1973 fire against the National Staff Registration Center. As many as 18 million documents were burned, including 80% of all army personnel discharged between 1912 and 1960.
“They hoped for it
would have died sooner or would have been one of those guys who surrendered ”
says Anthony Bolden, Hank’s son. “No thanks. Hank doesn’t have it.”
After paying her
own pocket for a polygraph lie detector pouch, Hank eventually claimed
approved, setting a precedent for other atomic veterans whose records were
Photo: Hidden story: the atomic veterans of America
Hit a high note
“The love of music has
I’ve always been there. “
After his honorable discharge
from the army, Bolden went to work as an engineer before deciding to pursue a
career as a jazz musician who works while his family grows. Tell the story
while cradling the tenor saxophone that has been at his side since 1967. The “Rolls
Royce “of tools, he says.
The brand is Selmer. IS
in a strange coincidence, the model is a 6 sign. It is the same name as the shot
Wasp atomic bomb design.
But this is where the
the similarities end. The bomb was his nightmare. Music, his dream and his
outlet to work through the trauma of what lived in Nevada
“It’s like the blood inside
my veins. It takes away all my other thoughts, “he says
Bolden is finally
he receives compensation from the government and is now using it to help make his dream come true.
He returned to school, studying jazz performances at Hartt University of Hartford
“They are like the relic
here with all these kids, you know, “he chuckles.
Professor Javon Jackson
says that the 82-year-old is leaving a unique mark on the prestigious program.
“He has a lot of emotion,” says Jackson. “He is a very bluesy, very full of feeling, a natural player. His life, wisdom and the things he has acquired allow him to play the way it sounds.”
The vast majority of
Today, the American atomic veterans of the atmospheric test era are gone. About
400,000 veterans were present during these tests, according to the veterans
Administration. Survivors’ numbers vary, from around 10,000 to 80,000
Bolden believes he is one of only two surviving African American atomic veterans who are recognized and receive compensation from the government. He is on a mission to reach as many survivors as possible and help them request the long-awaited recognition and compensation.
And he’s sharing his story, he says, to make sure the plight of American atomic veterans is no longer ignored.
“When people like me pass by, this won’t be part of the story unless someone makes sure it’s kept alive.”
There is a new one
restaurant in San Diego that aims to do more than just serve great food, but
to help even needy children.
The founder of the famous restaurants Buona Forchetta is opening a new restaurant in South Park called Matteo. The owner Matteo Cattaneo has opened his latest restaurant with the mission of donating all his profits to charitable causes in order to help schools and students in underprivileged areas.
idea to open Matteo after making a previous donation to the artistic program of
McKinley primary school.
“I remember this parent who came and said ‘thank you
for what you are doing for my children. ‘This is what got me started thinking
what can I do, and how can I do it, and I know how to make restaurants ”, Cattaneo
Since then, Cattaneo has donated nearly $ 19,000 to McKinley to purchase audio equipment for his theatrical arts program.
“We are all in this together,” he said. “We all
I hope for a better future. If you want a better future, we have to start from
Matteo serves breakfast and lunch, but Cattaneo hopes to expand the menu to
include dinner services in summer. The restaurant recently held a soft opening,
but the official inauguration is scheduled for March 7.