‘Le mythe gaullien meets expectations very current “

The Cross : What is the place of the call of 18-June in the mythe gaullien ?

Sudhir Hazareesingh : All the great myths are based on an event that symbolizes the year zero, as the 14 July 1789 for the French Revolution for example. On June 18, is a moment of rupture, where traditional politics is giving way to a political desire new. This is the date founded, and very quickly, moreover, the general De Gaulle commemorates. As soon as the war, he transformed the event into mythology.

On 18 June, in fact, it has been said : those who heard did not understand, and those who have understood it have not heard. In 1940, the general did not invite the whole world to enter the resistance, it simply calls those who wish to join. He maintains the ambiguity on the possibility of staying in the French army, while coming to him, which very quickly becomes impossible.

In 1942, he gives the call a more republican that it did not, it is in fact a call for resistance, deepening the sense and the scope. It is in fact a collective call, as a movement of the French people against the occupation by the Germans. And in 1944, he argues that if the call was successful, is that “the French nation has seen fit to respond “. Thereafter, each year between 1946 and 1968, whether in power or in the middle of crossing the desert, he makes sure to commemorate the appeal of 18 June at the Mont-Valérien.

What is it that remains attached to that date, that is precious for today ?

S. H. : He transformed a military defeat and political collapse of the institutions of the IIIe Republic, so a double failure, in new horizon, and it opens up a new perspective, that of the Fifth Republic. He thus puts forward the willingness, the determination, the courage, the refusal of fatalism. Above all, what is new in the political culture of the French, he calls for the sovereignty of the people and provides at the same time to be the incarnation. There is a tension, almost a break with the republican tradition classic.

Of these virtues, it is the refusal of fatalism, which has emerged through time. In the letters, as in the crowds who go to the Mont Valérien every year, there is the idea that there is no inevitability in politics as at the military level. That there is always a place for the will, the political elites, but especially the general will. For the citizen, it is a call to remain vigilant. This is not a coincidence that the adventures of Asterix are released for the first time at the end of the 1950s, at a time when it returns to power. The scenario takes up the idea of the myth gaullien : the French are Gauls who refuse injustice and oppression.

What is this myth ?

S. H. : This is not exactly a myth, a republican, nor a myth monarchist. All of the republican tradition since the end of the XIXe century opposes to this idea of the incarnation by a single man, attached to the monarchy. In its Memories of warhe writes : “It was necessary that I assume the France. “ But at the same time, each of the ceremonies it organizes is of great sobriety, almost republican. De Gaulle paid tribute to the dead, and does not speak. No speech, triumphalist, nationalist. To his son-in-law, moreover, he would have said that it was a birthday we had to celebrate “but not too much “.

→ DOCUMENTARY. A Republic is made for de Gaulle

Like the other great national myths – the Revolution, the myth napoleonic the IIIe Republic, or communism, plasticity plays a crucial role. The mythe gaullien successfully to reconcile contradictory elements : the order and the movement, power, military and civil, of the Republic and the monarchy, the tradition and the political modernization, is the greatness and the humility. Because in 1958, the general creates a republican monarchy. And the right, essentially backward-looking, and for a large part, attached to the past pre-revolutionary, becomes a movement mobilizing, turned towards the future. The Gaullism does not totally disappear right vichyste, which survives in the OAS and the national Front, but succeeds in the limit.

What changes has he made for the last 80 years ?

S. H. : There are successive layers that mark the enlargement of the seat of the myth. In the 1940s and 1950s, it is celebrated with lot of enthusiasm but mainly by the Gaullists. The communists are going to the Mont Valérien any grudge holding, rightly offended by the appropriation of the resistance by De Gaulle. In his speech as in his memoirs, he denies the role of the internal resistance.

Starting in the 1960s, especially of the 1970s, after his death, Colombey-les-deux-Churches becomes a place of memory, with the construction of the monument of the pharaohs, where go those that is referred to as pilgrims. De Gaulle enters the collective memory as a great national figure, hero of the Resistance, a unifying of the nation. The crucial moment following, it is 1990, with the centenary of the birth. The left as a whole, Mitterrand in the lead, rallied then to the myth gaullien, even if shades remain. When the right to honor the man of order, founder of the Ve Republic, the left prefers the resistant.

At the end of the XXe century, new mutation. This is the man virtuous, incorruptible, we shall convene in order to denounce the frivolity and corruption of the political class today. The myth once again meets expectations very current. It should also be noted the entry into force of the general in the public space : a common one-in-ten in metropolitan France has its street, avenue, or place to his name.

What is the report of the chairman Macron with this myth ?

S. H. : The mythe gaullien, Emmanuel Macron has taken over the verticality and the incarnation of the authority, who had both missed the president Hollande. And the symbolism of silence, trying to stay out of current affairs at the beginning of his five-year term. De Gaulle, himself, could stay weeks, or even months, it’s silent.

And even if the dimension order of mythe gaullien was weakened from the end of the Twentieth century, Emmanuel Macron is also inspired to make the concentration of power at the Elysée palace and the return manifest to the practices of the beginning of the Ve Republic. Soon confronted with the fundamental contradiction of verticality : from the time when everything is brought back to the President, it is the first presentation when things go wrong.

From this point of view, the yellow vests remain a trauma for the president of the Republic who, after having played all the powers after his election, sees his authority challenged by a movement that he has not seen coming and was not able to contain. He concludes that he has an interest in changing the configuration of the political system, especially as his party is not able to support it, as had been the gaullist party in the 1960s, to De Gaulle. This year, Emmanuel Macron has not been completely successful and he is now trying to find other relays.


Peter Beard, beauty and beasts

The helicopter, the hundred policemen and the drones patrolling in their search had returned empty-handed: last seen on March 31, Peter Beard had been missing for two weeks, after having left his house in Montauk, east of Long Island, in the State of New York (United States). But on Sunday, the body of the American photographer was found lifeless in a wood. He was 82 years old and had senile dementia. His photographs of African fauna – elephants, lions, crocodiles, zebras, cheetahs, snakes, giraffes -, his portraits of African girls – happy breasts in the air -, his fashion shots – mannequin posing next to a tied rhino – had helped build his reputation as a hunter of images, wild beasts and sculptural women. Often reworked in Indian ink and adorned with handwritten quotes, his prints conveyed a hackneyed, grandiloquent and neo-romantic myth of Africa. Largely heir to colonialism and white predation on Africa in the eyes of its detractors.

Shaper of his own legend

One of his famous photographs, a naked woman feeding a giraffe at night (Maureen Gallagher and a Late Night Feeder, 1987) is subtitled “Beyound Gauguin”. The media Peter Beard, photographer of the Pirelli calendar, published by Taschen in a collector’s edition, used to the picture rails of the Paris Photo fair, dreamed of being an heir to painting. Above all, he was a skilled craftsman of his own legend and kept a diary of his life. This fable was not to displease Andy Warhol, his neighbor, who described it thus: “One of the most fascinating men in the world … he’s like a modern Tarzan. He jumps in and out of the snake pit he keeps at home. It cuts and paints with blood. He wears sandals and no socks in the middle of winter “ (cited by the American SuburbX site). Lover of artificial paradises and nightclubs, mundane with his hand in his hand, Peter Beard, Tarzan of the steppes with an ultra bright smile, had for him to be a handsome and attractive kid. The anecdotes – sometimes not very bright – of its existence are so numerous that it is difficult to disentangle what is reality or fiction.

As a child, for example, at the age of 10, he killed small alligators in a swamp in South Carolina to cut into their skin and make collages. Born in 1938 in Manhattan, Peter Beard came from a wealthy industrial family with a great grandfather in the railroads, a tobacco tycoon and a broker father. As a kid, he took photos with a Voigtländer bellows camera donated by his grandmother and kept diaries that would make his mark. If his family did not welcome his photographic practice, considered a pure pastime, he ended up imposing his passion.

Hunting for images and the wild beast

It was in 1955, at 17, that Peter Beard made his first trip to Africa, accompanied by Quentin Keynes, great-grandson of Charles Darwin, reports the New York Times. On this trip, he even escapes a hippopotamus attack when he frequents big game hunters and goes hunting for images and the wild beast with them. The myth wants him to read during the boat crossing on the Queen Mary the book Out of Africa by Karen Blixen. The Danish baroness will therefore be a source of inspiration for the photographer who will later settle in Kenya not far from the ex-African farm and his coffee plantation. From the Danish author he met in Copenhagen in 1961, he said in a portrait dedicated to him Release : “The best, a pure genius sharpened by Africa.” “She hardly saw anyone anymore. She had suffered. She rightly said that her literary life was made in blood. “ During their meeting, Peter Beard draws the portrait for him and, later, he sticks the face of the Danish writer next to that of Ramses II and of an African tribal chief in a curious triptych after the shooting . AT Release, he also said: “It has always been said that a territory like Africa is impossible to destroy. But the destruction is happening, and at a speed you can’t imagine! ”

The End of the Game, book first published in 1965, is his best known work. In this book, he sounds the hunting hallali for white men. In fairly banal, frontal animal photos imbued with the melancholy of black and white, he describes the peril of the continent which sees its wild species wasting away. Its series of dried animal carcasses are also very impressive. If Peter Beard liked to carve out a reputation as an adventurer and defender of Africa, he was also a headhunter: it was he who discovered Iman, daughter of diplomats, future star model and wife of David Bowie, in a Kenyan university. As an experienced fashion photographer, he made her a catwalk goddess, while organizing shooting sessions with other models on the continent. A regular at Studio 54, Peter Beard is mostly a friend of the stars, a gold version of the seventies and eighties. The photographer has frequented Andy Warhol, Salvador Dalí, Jackie Kennedy, Aristote Onassis, Grace Jones and Francis Bacon, who painted several portraits of him. He also immortalized Catherine Deneuve and Carole Bouquet. With Truman Capote, in 1972, the photographer followed the Rolling Stones tour by traveling in their plane and saw the writer gradually abandoning his story.

Read alsoThe portrait of Peter Beard by Released in 1996

If his biography is studded with famous and flashy names, the “socialite” Peter Beard also braved some misfortunes. When he was young, he survived a motorcycle accident at 130 kilometers an hour. In 1987, his American home – he also lived in Kenya – went up in smoke, reducing all of his ashes to ashes. “Diaries” (diaries). In 1996, he was seriously injured by an elephant on the Tanzanian border. With its tusks, the animal grinds its thigh, crushes its ribs and smashes its pelvis. The photographer is said to have declared “For the fuck, it’s over” before being transported to Nairobi hospital. From this confrontation with the angry pachyderm, he will have lifelong consequences.

Clementine Mercier


Georges Nivat: “In Russia there is the idea that there is no truth, only opinions”

The memories of Russia are multiple. It is this plurality that the specialist of Russian culture Georges Nivat continues to explore in the monument work Sites of Russian memory, whose second volume – “History and myths of Russian memory” – was recently published by Fayard editions. On several hundred pages are listed the topoi from this memory – from historians who over the centuries have ordered the national narrative to peasant folklore, from mythified figures like Peter the Great and Lenin to the founding myths of “Moscow, third Rome” or of the patriotic war against Napoleon in 1812, passing by saints and martyrs, encyclopedias, the image of the Jew or the question of women…

You are openly referring to Memory places by Pierre Nora. Is your approach the same?

Memorial place, that inspired me, were built little by little. I remain very modest, but I built right away. In France, literature begins earlier, cathedrals too, free cities and the franc-bourgeoisie appear before. In Russia, we realized very late that the “chronicle” had started as early as the XIe and XIIe centuries. The Chronicles Edition, which I called “The invention of chronicles”, starts under Nicolas Ier, in particular with the publication of Chronicles of Novgorod, in 60 volumes, and continues to this day. Russia really liked to build its scientific memory through this.

Amnesia-hypermnesia, eternal tension of Russian memory issues …

Russia has a long memory, if we compare to France, which has a short memory. Take the example of the glory of arms. In France, we no longer have the idea of ​​this glory, the public no longer knows what a war is. Napoleon, we don’t have a cult anymore. Young people no longer know who Clovis is … On the other hand, there is not a Russian who does not know Vladimir the Red Sun, the founder of “Holy Russia”.

And then there is what I call “the school of amnesia”, the one we knew during the French Revolution at certain times – Lyon was renamed into “nameless city” to punish it, it doesn’t only lasted a few months. While the Russian blackout during the Soviet period lasts seventy years, when cities are renamed and history rewritten. Or the hole in the peasant memory, the loss of popular folklore, as the sociologist Boris Firsov, from the working class, who so well started living oral history with peasants, shows so well. arrived in cities in the aftermath of the revolution.

Russian society is still sick of these mutilations of memory, of amnesia imposed at the state level …

From the point of view of memory, the truth does not make sense. One can very well keep the memory of a lie by being convinced that it is the truth, and all the efforts of authentic historians to demonstrate for example that the Katyn massacre is not due to the Germans, but well to the Soviets, will be in vain. Even when the government admitted it, Yeltsin first, Putin second, opinion did not change its mind. I also wanted to show another aspect of these extraordinary memory lapses: 95% of the churches and monasteries were destroyed, but at the same time there was a first-rate restoration school for the remaining 5%.

Today, is Russian history taught in a less mythical way?

Textbooks, from the first under Nicolas Ier until today, have always been and remain to the glory of the regime. Today’s textbook is inspired by President Putin, who demanded that nothing be excluded, neither the White Army, the Red Army, nor the Autocracy. A kind of consensus.

But this unique manual is rightly criticized for minimizing the terror, the gulag, and more generally the dark aspects of the communist regime …

Yes, but the Gulag Archipelago, in the abridged version by the widow of Solzhenitsyn, is on the school program. As long as Putin does not ban this book, he defends a certain idea of ​​the terror debate.

State violence, the fear it inspires are among the topoi that you describe …

Fear of the State was established by the great reformer Pierre the Great, in the XVIIIe century. He imports both science and technology, corresponds with Leibniz, and at the same time he creates the Third Section, a secret police which instills mad fear. Pierre is a despot, enlightened but despot. Another great figure in Russian history is Ivan the Terrible. Was he a madman, a madman, or a progressive man who understood that without terror you cannot hold a gigantic territory? It was he who gave Russia its present form …

Are the debates on historical memory fruitful in Russia?

There are very old debates, fundamental for the memory, but almost without exit. Like these series of collections entitled “Pro and Contra”, which present different points of view on the work of writers, poets, philosophers. It’s interesting but it creates the idea that there is no truth, only opinions. These debates give no key to find your way around. Take for example the character of Boris Godounov, at the end of the XVIe century: did he really order the murder of Tsarevich Dimitri to steal the throne from him? No, he did not sponsor it. Historians have confirmed this as early as 1920-1930. But the historian Nicolas Karamzine had found that this alliance of virtue and crime, it sounded good, this stain on the conscience of the virtuous man. The poet Alexander Pushkin took up the story [dans une célèbre tragédie, qui a par la suite inspiré, entre autres, un opéra de Moussorgski et une musique de scène de Prokofiev, ndlr]. From that moment on, it became the truth, the accepted version. Russian culture debates what its historical memory is, but it debates badly because it does not listen to the historical inquiry.

Veronika Dorman Photo Rémy Artiges for Liberation

Georges Nivat (under the direction of) Sites of Russian memory tome 2 Fayard, 880 pp., € 49.90 (ebook: € 39.99).


The repaired oversight of the fantastic Bob Leman

This book appears as an incredible resurgence: the author, American, is almost completely forgotten, and he has written only fifteen short stories. After having read the texts of this collection, populated by ghosts and persistent creatures, this rediscovery by Scylla editions seems almost to go without saying. As if the themes of Bob Leman’s stories (1922-2006) were one with the work itself. That she was waiting in the shadows to reappear at an opportune time. That she was waiting for a ferryman, this famous Thierry B. of whom the preface speaks who, one day in July 2014, suggested to bring it out of the void, in particular Loob, a new one republished here, which was among his best memories. He must have read it in the magazine Fiction. Because between 1977 and 1988, Alain Dorémieux’s magazine translated eleven short stories by Bob Leman. Of the six of Welcome to Sturkeyville, two remained unpublished, The Quest for Clifford M. and Come where my love rests and dreams.

The first sentence of the first short story sets the tone. “In Sturkeyville, a decade ago, lived a certain Harvey Lawson, whose wife was a worm. It is not a metaphor. ” Leman’s texts, which take place in this strange mining town of Sturkeyville, a sleepy little town in the Northern Appalachians, love evil creatures that were once human like this worm that took control of Lawson’s wife, as the chief of an degenerate Ashmole Selkirk clan that has been swelling beyond measure for centuries, like pale and boneless things with shapeless mouths full of teeth from the new Creatures of the lake. These were once the four daughters of a couple struck by a curse. Because in Leman, the abominable often arises from childbirth. It is this breed that perpetuates the supernatural and the terrifying. These texts also like the large abandoned houses, haunted by who knows what drama that infects humans, those who persist in living in them.

Bob Leman, who first published at 45 in Fantasy and science fiction, likes good fantastic, horrifying stories, but not that, it also deals with science fiction themes like the temporal paradox. He has a predilection for apart beings, the marginalized, who are the heralders of the disorder to come, but whose outcome also rests on them. The story, written in a relatively descriptive style, however, contains a certain dose of somewhat manipulative irony. The ultimate being without a doubt The Quest for Clifford M. who revisits the vampire myth upside down. The famous Clifford M., captured small in a cave and raised in a cage, will become a model of a civilized human being, except of course his particular mode of food. He will put his fortune in looking for congeners, before committing suicide in some way in a smart outfit in Dracula, leaving a farewell letter. “To our knowledge, this is the only confession ever written by a vampire, which gives it invaluable value. Admittedly, Clifford M. was a special case, so we regret not having an equivalent document from the hand of an ordinary vampire. ” This providential edition benefited from crowdfunding. Bob Leman was a special case, which we would have been wrong to forget.

Welcome to Sturkeyville by Bob Leman, Translated from English by Nathalie Serval, illustrations by Stéphane Perger and Arnaud S. Maniak, Scylla, 184 pp., 20 €.

Frédérique Roussel


Detection of ‘organized action’ in the investigation of the disclosure of the MIT martyr

In the investigation of deciphering the MIT personnel who were martyred by the Istanbul Chief Public Prosecutor’s Office, it was learned that a study was carried out to identify the person or people who secretly viewed the funeral from a distance. The Chief Public Prosecutor’s Office made an assessment that the photograph of the MIT martyr was not possible to obtain from any open source, but was seized from an institutional and official platform. The photograph of the martyr, the secret viewing of the funeral and the identification of his family in this way, were determined to be organized action within a plan.


In the investigation, it was determined that the photograph of the MIT martyr who was taken in a formal style of clothing, and the first letter of the name and surname, and the date of birth and martyr could not be obtained from any open source. It was recorded that the photographs were illegally seized by suspects who tried to identify them from a corporate or official platform. Examining the image quality of the photo, the Attorney General’s conclusion was not copied.

The funeral was secretly displayed to expose the martyr

In the photo of the funeral of the MIT martyr, it was determined that the attendees were secretly viewed from a distance. It was determined that the suspects who took the images of the investigation were watching the funeral from a distance and recorded the funeral in line with their goals. In the investigation, it was concluded that the actions of seizing the photograph of the martyr who considered an organized act and secretly recording the funeral were carried out in order to reveal and spread it after the ceremony.


The myth that puts us in the mirror: would you become a criminal if you were invisible? | ICON

Almost a century has passed since the premiere of the first adaptation of The invisible man (James Whale, 1933) and neither the limitations of its special effects nor a conception of terror that today many would consider naive – with an operetta villain and evil laugh included – have threatened their status as a classic or made it into oblivion. Quite the opposite. Universal Pictures, in fact, would surely love to be able to use some of the crazy scientists in his cinematic imaginary to bring back director James Whale, a great visual architect of the studio’s classic horror cosmos (in addition to The invisible manyours are Dr. Frankenstein, The Shady House or Frankenstein’s girlfriend) that managers have been trying to reinvent without much success for years: the last attempt, The Mummy (2017), with Tom Cruise in front, it was a failure that ruined the studio’s plans to create a joint universe of Marvel-style movies.

“In Western culture we are saturated with visual stimuli and we ignore listening, which is a vital and very important aspect for the development of the human being. It is important to be able to feel heard rather than looked”

Miguel Marino, psychologist at the Ínsula Center in Madrid

Now, instead, the corporation has decided to bet on creating a series of remakes which, in principle, will not be connected. The first film after the change of course is the new version of The invisible man, an update of the Whale classic and H.G. Wells published in 1897. At the controls is the Australian director Leigh Whannell – one of the minds behind the sagas of Saw and Insidious-, along with the current king Midas of the genre, producer Jason Blum (who, through his studio Blumhouse Entertainment, has illuminated films such as the Oscar-winning Let me out and has led to the commercial rebirth of M. Night Shyamalan).

But it is not an adaptation of the same story. On this occasion, the evil scientist is not a man sick of ambition and power who aspires to use his new condition to dominate the world, but a divorced abuser. And the viewer moves to reflect on the notion of invisibility itself: it is lawful to doubt who is most ignored, the monster of the title or the former victim of violence that everyone takes for crazy?

Wells’ fantasy has had many more incarnations in the cinema. Another of the most popular, The man Without a shadow (Paul Verhoeven, 2000), already played even with the idea of ​​the scientist who uses his power to torment and dominate his previous partner, as well as to spy, torture, rape and kill. Beyond as a promising archetype, the invisible man, in his most successful incarnations, has endured over time with characteristics closely linked to the most negative drives of human beings. Perhaps, precisely, the source of public interest in his figure.

Elizabeth Moss, television icon of the new television thanks to her starring role in 'The Maid's Tale', revises here the myth of the invisible man adding, precisely, a reading about the genre.

Elizabeth Moss, television icon of the new television thanks to her starring role in ‘The Maid’s Tale’, revises here the myth of the invisible man adding, precisely, a reading about the genre.

The addiction psychologist Ildefonso Gómez-Uribarri, consulted by ICON, considers that the desire to be invisible, in its most clinical aspect, “is usually found more associated with cases of severe social anxiety, to people who have a very intense discomfort in a public context or who have suffered harassment or abuse ”. Although he sees a relationship with the fantasy of power described in both literature and film: “It can be conceived as a liberation, the person is excluded from social norms and can do whatever he wants. That fantasy is seen in teenagers, who do not have to experience such harmful social anxiety. It is at that stage of life where we accept and assimilate the barriers, and from that frustration of not being able to do what we want, fantasy appears. ”

“It can be conceived as a liberation, the person is excluded from social norms and can do what he wants. That fantasy is seen in teenagers, who don’t have to experience such harmful social anxiety. “

Ildefonso Gómez-Uribarri, addiction psychologist

Although, at the beginning of The man Without a shadow, the doctor who manages to become invisible (played by Kevin Bacon) is presented as a voyeur frustrated when his neighbor lowers the blind, Gómez-Uribarri rules out that the desire for invisibility can be connected directly to this paraphilia: “At first glance it may seem so, but in cases that have studied the fantasy of invisibility It is usually imperfect, the subjects are not sure if they are being observed or not. Sometimes they imagine themselves as a shadow, or as a cloud, something to which the victim can look back at a given time. ” That is, the fear of being discovered is part of the excitement of the voyeur.

The psychologist, who highlights the wide presence of the figure of the invisible man in contemporary popular culture, does not believe that the themes developed in these stories are banal or superficial, and refers to Plato’s Republic to illustrate how even classical philosophy has treaty. The Greek thinker, in the second book of his work, mentioned the myth of the Ring of Giges, the story of a shepherd who finds an invisibility ring and uses it to seize the kingdom of Lydia. Plato introduces him as a dialogue between his brother Glaucón, Socrates and himself, where the former defends that Giges acted selfishly because people are just just for fear of the law, but unfair by nature. Socrates, however, argues the opposite: that those who do wrong end up being ashamed of themselves.

According to specialists, the relationship between invisibility and voyeurism is not as direct as it seems: the fear of being discovered is part of the excitement of the voyeur.

According to specialists, the relationship between invisibility and voyeurism is not as direct as it seems: the fear of being discovered is part of the excitement of the voyeur. Getty Images

Another key to dialogue with the idea of ​​invisibility is in the story of the director of the original film, James Whale. The British filmmaker was homosexual, in an era where he still perceived himself as a stigma; although he did not publicly hide his orientation and was often seen at events with his partner, producer David Lewis, with whom he also lived. In a movie scene Gods and monsters (1998), about the last days of James Whale, the director’s character declared to a journalist: “In Hollywood nobody cared about a cumin with whom you would sleep, as long as it did not appear in the press.”

Although the director and screenwriter Bill Condon chooses Frankenstein’s monster as a metaphor for the loneliness of that older and sick Whale he portrays in the film, the psychologist Gómez-Uribarri also sees “plausible” to connect his condition, within a society like the American the thirties with The invisible man: “It is possible, whether conscious or unconscious. If we assume that most of the things we do are motivated by our vital experiences, it would really be difficult if I had no relationship. ”

The new movie of The invisible man it arrives at the historical moment when, without a doubt, less invisible is the whole world. Never has personal life been as exposed as after the arrival of the internet and the explosion of social networks

The new movie of The invisible man it arrives at the historical moment when, without a doubt, less invisible is the whole world. Never has personal life been so exposed as after the arrival of the internet and the explosion of social networks. Miguel Marino, psychologist at the Ínsula Center in Madrid, in statements to ICON, believes that this situation may lead to a greater fascination with the fantasy of invisibility: “This culture of overexposure produces an opposite situation in some people, which can lead them to be inhibited and placed in the opposite pole, just in the desire to be invisible ”. Alfonso Gómez-Uribarri, on the other hand, believes that the internet has given many people the possibility of “creating a new character”, an alter ego. “The kids don’t try to be invisible, what they are looking for is to satisfy their ends. But it has to do with fantasy, while using the tool to do things that are not allowed. ”

In this sense, the two psychologists agree that an evolution of the invisible man can be the troll which is hidden behind anonymity to hurt. For Gómez-Uribarri, “the troll drinks directly from the desire to be invisible in the most childish plane, from which he wants to give one colleja to another without knowing it. It is a figure that is causing many disorders, cyberbullying leads to isolation situations that can leave serious consequences, and the worst is that it grows more and more. ” “It’s a certain realization of the invisibility fantasy, motivated by the simple objective of harming,” Marino agrees.

In the stories of invisible men, paradoxical as it may be, there is never a pure desire to go unnoticed or be imperceptible, unlike in the real cases of people who fantasize about it because, Marino explains, “fears and insecurities.” For the professional, in the end it may not be so much an issue that concerns the sense of sight, but that of the ear: “It is very important to understand the cultural context in which we move. In Western culture we are saturated with visual stimuli and we ignore listening, which is a vital and very important aspect for the development of human beings. It is important to be able to feel heard rather than looked. ”

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Guardiola, from hatred of the ‘master class’ | sports

Duel at a distance. As football is excited by the myth of the return (even if it is per person interposed), Messi at the altar of Maradona fired literature. We expected the party to give us scientific references of who was better. Seeing it as a duel was a somewhat ridiculous fantasy, because Maradona was sanctified in Naples over 25 years ago. The passage of time is the perfect escape: each one was the best of its time and something else butterfly. But football is not conciliatory and, already in the warm-up, Messi was greeted with the shout of “Diego, Diego, Diego”. One vote in triplicate. The game did not change the perception because Barça played wide, Gattuso locked him in a cage and Messi is allergic to exhibitionism. Since the temporary alibi does not work, you have to go to the territorial one. In Argentina and Naples, competing against Maradona is impossible. The rematch, at the Camp Nou.

Let’s do justice with hate. Emotions have a good memory and Guardiola at the Bernabéu is no small thing to recreate the myth of the return. In this case, you just had to know the size of the antipathy. And also which was imposed on the three possible proposals. A quick examination leaves the following conclusions: that of being Mourinho’s counterpart went into oblivion, his condition of Barcelona myth does not prescribe, but it is his declarations in favor of independence that have renewed irritation. It is a very current misunderstanding. Guardiola does not hold any public office and fame does not give anyone more wisdom, so that their opinion is worth one. It is those who give political significance to the words of a coach who amplify them and turn them into a manifesto. There is only one reason to hate him, the master class football that give their teams when they step on the Bernabéu.

Communicating wounds. Is it easier to fall defeated when there are internal problems, or is it easier to have internal problems when you fall defeated? The question is indifferent to Barça because both things happen to him. Drag wounds and suppurate when bad results arrive. Also when they get a good result after a bad game, as happened in Naples. There are strictly soccer wounds, because hundreds of millions in signings failed to adapt to a club that suffers from acute nostalgia. Disease that will only be cured by dancing to rivals and winning a sextet, as if Barça de Guardiola was replicable. And then there are institutional problems, where a bad communication is perceived, which does not convince the fans, who rediscovered the scarves, or the players, who do not hide their discomfort in the statements. The curious thing is that, due to the theory of communicating vessels, it has been Real Madrid that seems to have stayed with the problems. The classic is left to give them back.

Tell the football. Commentators are afraid to stay out of our time and make efforts to look modern. In the effort to find new features of the game, we discover insignificant details that have the defect of covering essential issues. Or we count old things with new words. What used to be low, medium or high pressure is now a high, medium or low block. Everything is block, as if a team were a lot of cement. Thus, we end up talking to coaches, forgetting that the audience is made up of more casual people. Our mission is to find the knot in the party, talk about the range of talents that decide much more than tactical drawings, or repair the telluric movements that produce moods. Find the epic that attracts emotion. Humanize football, in short, and accept its contradictions. Do not turn it into a scientific issue to get on the trend.

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Atomic Veterans of America – NBC Connecticut

The enemy Hank Bolden
faced did not come from a distant front line.

It came from the skies.

It’s a battle that’s still going on 65 years later. Bolden, who is now 82 years old, is an atomic veteran – one of hundreds of thousands of American service members used in human testing by the United States government during post-WWII nuclear tests and sworn to a secret life.

“They wanted to see how the living soldiers would resist the exposure
to radiation, ”recalls Bolden. “Before using live soldiers they were using
mannequins. But you don’t get real results using mannequins as you would
live bodies. “


While accompanying a friend to a New Haven recruiting station in 1953, Bolden was invited to join the army. At just 16 years old then and already out of high school, he admits that he “pulled down” his birth certificate to move to the age of 18, joining the approximately 200,000 underage soldiers who would have served during the Second World War and the eras of the Korean War.

After basic training in
Fort Dix was assigned to work as a tank mechanic in Texas before moving to Texas
California and becoming a surface-to-air missile mechanic.

Despite an executive order issued in July
26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman to desegregate the armed forces, the last one
the all black units of the army were not abolished until 1954. And in 1955, Bolden
he says, racist attitudes persist even after the units have been racially integrated.

“The residual thoughts of people were firm
linger, “he says.” My outfit was 800 people strong. Thirteen of us were
black. Ten were from the South, who were more tolerant of treatment
they got racially. But the three of us from the North couldn’t tolerate it,
so I have had many fights over this. So I was the guy they wanted
get rid of.”

It would not be the only race
discrimination Bolden would witness as a soldier.


In 1955, the seventeen year old
he was suddenly ordered to the Nevada desert without explanation.

“They don’t tell you what you’re going to face,” he said. “Nobody
they knew what they were going to face. ”

What he would eventually face was a classified operation known as Operation Teapot at the Nevada Test Site. In a series of 14 bomb throws, or “hits”, military officials tried to test the effects of nuclear bombs on structures and strategies, animals and people.

All races of military personnel
participated in the Teapot operation. But upon arrival in Nevada, Bolden was
astounded to accomplish all the other soldiers in his new specially selected unit
for a mysterious assignment they were also black.

“There was this myth about black people
be able to resist, tolerate certain things more than any other race “, he
He says. “So it was a test on that too.”


One morning in February, Bolden
the unit was ordered in a desert trench. Unbeknownst to them, it was excavated
the expected route of the fallout, only 2.8 miles away from what it would have become
ground zero for the launch of an atomic bomb.

Even though a countdown sounded on the speakers, Bolden says, the soldiers still had no idea what they were about to face. Without protective gear in addition to the normal fabrics and helmets, they waited and looked.

“They tell you to cover your eyes”
he says.

On February 18, 1955, Shot Wasp, the first nuclear test of Operation Teapot, detonated a Mark 6 nuclear bomb dropped by a B-36 exactly at noon. A monstrous cloud of mushrooms filled the sky, reaching 21,500 feet in height.

“With radiation, when you put your arms over your eyes or hands, you actually see the bones, you see the bones in your body from the exposure. You can see your skeleton. “

After the relapse the warning came.

“You swore not to speak
“said Bolden. The soldiers were threatened with imprisonment and fines for violation
The oath.

For 60 years, Bolden didn’t tell anyone. No this
family, not his wife, not his children. Not even her doctors when she spies on her
tumors have started to show. He developed bladder and posterior subcapsular cancer
cataract and in 1990 multiple myeloma was diagnosed.

“They actually gave me three and a half years
four years to live, ”recalls Bolden.
So in 1995 I should have been a statistic. “

But in 1995, Bolden was in remission. He is a citizen
the secret was coming to light.


Government figures estimate between 400,000 and 550,000 US military personnel who participated in a series of nuclear tests between 1946 and 1992. According to the Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency, this includes post occupation forces -Second World War of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, prisoners of war in Japan at the end of the Second World War, participants in the atmospheric nuclear tests in Nevada and the Pacific from 1945 to 1962 and participants in the underground nuclear tests in Nevada from 1951 to 1992.

Many of these “atomic veterans” have succumbed before their own
the stories have become public, their bodies are full of tumors. In
1990, the veil of secrecy began to lift.

After setting up the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments to investigate 10-year experiments, President Clinton made a formal apology to American atomic veterans on October 3, 1995. By order of the president, Congress would repeal the nuclear radiation agreement law. and secrecy, allowing atomic veterans to talk about their experiences without fear of fines or treason charges. And financial compensation has been opened to all qualified atomic veterans.

“Those who led the government when these decisions were made are no longer here to take responsibility for what they have done. They are not here to apologize to survivors, family members or their communities whose lives have been overshadowed by shadow of these choices So today, on behalf of another generation of American leaders and another generation of American citizens, the United States of America offers sincere apologies to those of our citizens who have undergone these experiments. the government is wrong, we have a moral responsibility to admit it, “said President Bill Clinton on October 3, 1995

But the television address has been obscured. The same happened
day when OJ Simpson’s verdict was issued in a live classroom feed, taking
on televisions and news cycles across America.

As a result, many skilled veterans had no idea of ​​the ban
the secrecy had been lifted, nor that they could claim benefits. Bolden no
find out until he researched the Internet, he says, in 2015.

“I was once so angry and so aggravating with the government that I thought I would be murdered to keep me from talking,” he says.

When Bolden attempted to apply for subsidies, he found that the burden of proof was placed on his fellow atomic veterans. The government would give compensation from the date a complaint was filed, but not retroactively, and only if the veteran could prove that he had participated in the tests – which proved to be an almost impossible task after millions of military documents were destroyed in a 1973 fire against the National Staff Registration Center. As many as 18 million documents were burned, including 80% of all army personnel discharged between 1912 and 1960.

“They hoped for it
would have died sooner or would have been one of those guys who surrendered ”
says Anthony Bolden, Hank’s son. “No thanks. Hank doesn’t have it.”

After paying her
own pocket for a polygraph lie detector pouch, Hank eventually claimed
approved, setting a precedent for other atomic veterans whose records were

Photo: Hidden story: the atomic veterans of America

Hit a high note

“The love of music has
I’ve always been there. “

After his honorable discharge
from the army, Bolden went to work as an engineer before deciding to pursue a
career as a jazz musician who works while his family grows. Tell the story
while cradling the tenor saxophone that has been at his side since 1967. The “Rolls
Royce “of tools, he says.

The brand is Selmer. IS
in a strange coincidence, the model is a 6 sign. It is the same name as the shot
Wasp atomic bomb design.

But this is where the
the similarities end. The bomb was his nightmare. Music, his dream and his
outlet to work through the trauma of what lived in Nevada

“It’s like the blood inside
my veins. It takes away all my other thoughts, “he says

Bolden is finally
he receives compensation from the government and is now using it to help make his dream come true.
He returned to school, studying jazz performances at Hartt University of Hartford

“They are like the relic
here with all these kids, you know, “he chuckles.

Professor Javon Jackson
says that the 82-year-old is leaving a unique mark on the prestigious program.

“He has a lot of emotion,” says Jackson. “He is a very bluesy, very full of feeling, a natural player. His life, wisdom and the things he has acquired allow him to play the way it sounds.”


The vast majority of
Today, the American atomic veterans of the atmospheric test era are gone. About
400,000 veterans were present during these tests, according to the veterans
Administration. Survivors’ numbers vary, from around 10,000 to 80,000
still alive.

Bolden believes he is one of only two surviving African American atomic veterans who are recognized and receive compensation from the government. He is on a mission to reach as many survivors as possible and help them request the long-awaited recognition and compensation.

And he’s sharing his story, he says, to make sure the plight of American atomic veterans is no longer ignored.

“When people like me pass by, this won’t be part of the story unless someone makes sure it’s kept alive.”


“Invisible Man”, the electrical grip – Culture / Next

A film would it venture to go back to the reverse of our myths and legends, all folklore, to offer in a renewed way the impregnable point of view, no longer of the hero, but of the woman in the background, in large part retracted – mother, bride, sister or wife – what would such a new equipment add to the founding stories and thereby perhaps to our lives? Much of the cinephilia responds: “nothing”, and leave the millennial works of men to their established heroes and fables. It would be enough, however, to imagine, for example, the myth of Oedipus reconsidered from the point of view of Jocasta, Odyssey on the spot from Penelope to Ithaca rather than by the side of Ulysses wandering in the Mediterranean, the stay in hell of Eurydice preceding Orpheus, Marguerite disputing her damnation to Faust, a girl her adventures to James Bond 007, Minnie to Mickey and so on more – what would it change, deeply?

Emprise. The answer ofInvisible Man, with an Elisabeth Moss from every angle, surrounded by this invisible materialized by the brief condensation of a breath very close to her face in the night, is frightening: the famous “woman’s madness” would not be this horrible dream whose world persuades, this friendly and empathetic entourage, little concerned and incredulous; no, this madness is not in his mind, but the threat of the true entity, its domestic executioner and the exercise of control. Madness is in the real, that’s the answer. There is no “female hysteria” or whatever that is not the stigma of a perverse, concrete and effective ascendant, fathers, brothers, husbands.

As formidable as it is, and current in its implications, it is not the most original of the responses either, since it is here again a derivative of the Gothic novel, of the wife terrified by her husband and who seeks to flee the inhuman and closed place – Invisible Man, production film from the production house Blumhouse (where did the last Shyamalans come from or Get out by Jordan Peel), offers a few weeks away a non-arty repetition of success Swallow released on January 15th. But the response is ingenious: take up the modern myth of the invisible Man as HG Wells had conceived it, and twisted it completely, so as to draw from it a new story, another tragedy, not then of the “invisible woman”, but of the “woman of the invisible man”, more exciting than a simple “feminized” conversion of the novel. In Leigh Whannell’s film, the world of the “invisible” ultimately comes to the fore, it is “the seer”, in this case, the seer who concentrates all the interest, in tension in turn skeptical and extra-clear.

What changes this side step? That the mythological being has become this narcissistic monster which pursues the woman of her tyranny, herself become the heroine destined to break down the myth which gnaws at her, pursues her, and to free herself from it. This is the strength of this Invisible Man, her imagination hybridized between conformism (cinephile) and non-conformity (feminist), which allows her fairly classic form to take charge of a baroque subject (Hitchcockian or Palmaian). The film is broken, at times unbalanced, all the time thrilling in its way of shooting long and exploding by successive detonations, of which the great bloody scene of the corridor of the hospital is the summum B, gore, jubilant what it is necessary.

Invisible Man thus, we weigh the word, the spirit of a stool. Everything is played between the floor (of slippery wood where the assaulted bodies bump and drag) and the need to hoist oneself, towards the roof, until the resolution of the mystery that creeps in, moist and freezing like rain, the surf. Spirit of stepladder to reach the surveillance camera to hijack, a birthday letter or the pen stuck to the door jamb as a last resort towards death. The character of the heroine, in this sense, and from this gloomy island that keeps her recluse, also takes a Robinson Crusoe woman, updated. Only in the world to believe his word – this word that the film puts in scene in its impossibility (any conversation being literally each time “cut”) and its very current terror, the fear of being found “word for word”, destitute in front of the aggressor, at the risk of passing for mere mad. Day after day, Cecilia tries to survive the invisible and objective threat of a dead executioner. “He’s not dead, I just can’t see him.”

Delirium. From the first to the last second, the originality ofInvisible Man is not to pose as a nightmare film but as a film of insomnia, to grapple with the reality that persecutes rather than with the madness that continues, of which he patiently succeeds in recording the pallid tiredness and the gray exudation on the still phenomenal face of Elisabeth Moss. Invisible Man travels this inept time of the waking delirium of her heroine opening her eyes in the middle of the night, determined, without anyone knowing what, and who will close them again after another night, months later, at the end of the film which in the meantime she will have taken the myth of invisibility and megalomania to her own lured trap.

Camille Nevers

Invisible Man of Leigh Whannell with Elisabeth Moss, Oliver Jackson-Cohen, Aldis Hodge… 2 h 05.


“70% pure chocolate is 50% sugar” | Good Life

Every time Virginia Gomez, aka Enraged Dietitian, Write a tweet, Troy burns. The dietitian-nutritionist does not leave puppet with a head, the same charge against the strategies of the food industry that warns those who complain about it that there are changes in habits that go beyond taking off a couple of kilos to enter the swimsuit. It shows us our shame with a handful of principles of nutrition elementals that he has overturned in his new book Enraged Dietitian: Keys on food so you don’t be fooled (Zenith) No one better than her to deny the most common hoaxes and myths.

If you don’t lose weight it is because you lack will

To those who recriminate the person with obesity that what is lacking is willpower, Gomez responds that the willpower is the parents. Come on, it is not as easy as it seems and you have to put yourself in the skin of the one who has a weight problem. “Let’s go in parts. There is an unquestionable truth: if you force the machine and you completely remove the food, you lose weight. In the death camps there were no obese. But, fortunately, we are not in that situation. Eliminating a good part of the food intake generates unhappiness, without forgetting that it is complex in some special cases.Imagine a small woman with overweight, osteoarthritis and little muscle.As she is so tiny, her basal metabolism is low, she consumes few calories for the mere fact of living. ? Do I put a diet of 500 kilocalories to lose weight? First of all, they are going to lack half of the nutrients. ” Another example he mentions is that of the person who says “I have three children, I work twelve hours, it takes me one hour to go to work and it doesn’t give me life.” They tell him that to suffer for not eating they prefer to be fat. The dietitian-nutritionist points out that you need psychological help, a lot of support in your environment and sometimes even redraw your world.

Fruit gets fat after eating

We live in times of unjustified ‘fruit-phobia’. “An apple can add 80 kilocalories to lunch. Other fruits, just 40 kilocalories. And They are one of the main sources of vitamins, especially C, of ​​minerals, antioxidants and fiber. Its value will depend on the rest of the diet foods. “For the apostles of the ketogenic diet (the famous keto) suggests, at least, to accommodate fruits with few sugars and lots of vitamin C.” Strawberries and strawberries (7 grams of sugars and 60 milligrams of vitamin C per 100 grams) or black currants (4.5 grams of sugars and 40 milligrams of vitamin C in the same amount). As for the order, it doesn’t matter if you take it before or after the meal. “

Spinach is rich in iron and calcium

“It is that they are not rich in iron! It all goes back to a mistake of many years ago in the transcription of the values ​​of nutritional composition in a food table. A huge snowball was created on a fault that united three concepts precious as spinach, iron and Popeye. And still survives today. ” Apart from this myth, you may also have heard that they are a good resource to get calcium if you leave dairy. Yes? Neither. “It is true that 100 grams of spinach contain 175 milligrams of calcium. But they are also rich in oxalates. Both come together in digestion forming Calcium oxalate stones that will prevent calcium absorption and can clog the kidney. Nothing happens if you take a day, but a diet high in spinach (for example, throwing a week based on green smoothies because you are on a ‘detox’ diet) can end up with a painful kidney problem. Another vegetable also high in oxatals is beets, which abounds in ‘red detox’ milkshakes.

Chocolate has antioxidants, it is good if it is black

How many times have you heard what, if you are on a diet and it gives you an uncontrollable craving for chocolate, Do you turn to the blackest you have on hand? You would do well to read the label before, you can find surprises. “The law only requires that they contain at least 35% cocoa. But you can run into that up to 50% of that tablet are sugars. Put it in your head: pure chocolate means no milk, not without everything else. So which, first, is to look at what ingredients it carries. If sugar goes ahead of cocoa, bad. ” The ingredients are ordered from greater to less presence in the composition of all products. Be careful if you have any type of sweetener. “If you put ‘honey-based’, you suspect. Because if there was only honey I would put ‘with honey’. Most likely, it also has fructose and glucose syrup.”

You can eat fat without stress (thank you, fat pills!)

“We have been selling weight loss pills for 100 years and it seems that no one realizes that they do not work. The last miracle pill is chitosan, a shell-based shellfish supplement that advertising sells as if it were a sponge that sucks fat from your eaters. Come on, you get up to the eyebrows of bacon sandwiches, you take a chitosan pill and you run out of a catwalk model. “It is false. The chitosan is useless. It does not eliminate or block fat. FDA [la autoridad farmacéutica de Estados Unidos] has launched alerts against its use. And the European Food Health Agency agrees that it does not serve to regulate cholesterol or lose weight. The only one that works is the orlisat (marketed as Xenical). But we are already talking about a drug that must be prescribed and controlled by the endocrine. What they don’t tell you is that fat you don’t absorb, you have to excrete it and One of the side effects of this medicine are diarrhea. Let’s be sensible: obesity is a problem that is not solved by eating without a head and then getting crammed with pills. “

We are not able to process milk well

Is a half-truth. It is often said that we are the only animal that drinks milk after weaning, and that does not seem natural. But the Caucasian population has a mutation of a gene that makes it capable of producing lactase, the enzyme that assimilates these dairy products. Although, it is true that with age some are losing that capacity, it does not happen to everyone. That is why completely eliminating lactose in milk that is bought for the whole family is a big mistake. “When you stop taking lactose for a certain time, let’s say two years, you generate lactose intolerance. So, if lactose is eliminated in the family, in the end, the whole family ends up feeling bad because they have lost the ability to generate lactase. It happens with strict vegetarians when they decide to consume milk again. “Watch here because you can condemn your descendants to not be able to taste a sip of milk in their entire lives.

Enriched foods help growth

In other words: the classic cookies, cereals or cold meats enriched with minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, omega 3 or whatever you put in between. If it is with the seal of a health association, better than better. “The food industry plays with the trick that there is very little nutritional education. If the father knew that it is not necessary to give the child iron-rich pate to fill the tanks because that mineral can be obtained in many other foods, he would not buy it. Neither that nor the buns enriched with 5 vitamins and iron. In which head it is necessary to eat industrial pastries in mansalva to get iron? “ Gómez warns of the difficulty of choosing the healthiest products when even the associations that have their activity in scientific fields stamp their stamps on those that are not. The enraged dietitian says that the Spanish Association of Pediatrics “endorses cookies with 20% sugar and made with refined flours, and the Spanish Heart Foundation does the same with cookies with phytosterols and 14 grams of sugar per 100 grams.”

Do not give your child soda with bubbles, give drinks for athletes

A birthday or a family meal arrives and the child is planted to drink a Nestea. Or an Aquarius. And parents so fresh because the bad thing is cola and carbonated soda, although there are no caffeine and no sugar. “It is a goal that has cast us marketing. Nestea is tea and it is supposed to have properties such as slimming or that elevate the Zen spirit. And the Aquarius sounds like peace, ‘hippism’ and healthy athlete’s life, although it’s not even any of this and it carries a lot of sugar. In the end, all are soft drinks. And from the nutritional point of view they are as little recommended as others. Nothing happens if it is a special day, as if you drink Coca-Cola. The bad thing is that it is of habitual consumption. “From the web Sinazucar.org They remind us that a can of Nestea has 25.4 grams of sugars, equivalent to 6.3 lumps. One of Aquarius, of 26 grams of sugar, equivalent to 6.5 lumps. The Zero Zero Coca-Cola (without caffeine and without sugar) carries sweeteners, no sugar and no caffeine.

If you do sports, eat protein in the two hours after exercise

It is the period of time that is known as metabolic window, and the raison d’être of the image of athletes leaving the gym with a protein shake under the arm. “The proteins have a slow digestion. They are complex molecules and it takes a long time until they are dismembered in smaller units that the body can assimilate. So, even if you suck the protein shake right out of the gym, it will take a few hours Let it take effect. The important thing is that during the day you consume the optimal protein for your daily activity. “

Dairy ‘anticolesterol’ are the best allies

“We demonize cholesterol without really knowing that it is nothing more than the carrier of blood fats, because fats, although they are also necessary, are not soluble in water. We differentiate between LDL (the ‘bad’) which is the in charge of bringing the fats to the tissues, and the HDL (the ‘good’), which is the one that removes the ones they don’t use. And then people become obsessed with having it at levels higher than 200 mg / dl. ” This fear starts, in his opinion, that many of the most widespread scientific studies are financed by the food industry to place products for lowering cholesterol. Like those bottles of milk preparation with phytosterols. “They are the vegetable counterpart of cholesterol. When taken, these phytosterols bind to the bile salts to be absorbed.” The cholesterol is hung without a partner for the dance and ends up excreted in the feces. “As cholesterol levels go down, the conclusion is that the problems for cardiovascular health have disappeared, right? Well, not at all. What is the use of a morbidly obese person having normal cholesterol If you obviously have an increased cardiovascular risk?

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