The dissimulation of the Vatican archives will finally reveal the truth about “Hitler’s pope” | World news

A new light will be cast on one of the most controversial periods in Vatican history on Monday when the archives on Pope Pius XII – accused by critics of being a Nazi sympathizer – will not be sealed.

A year after Pope Francis announced the move, saying that “the church is not afraid of history”, the documents of the papacy of Pius XII, which began in 1939 on the brink of World War II and ended in 1958, will be opened, initially in a small number of scholars.

Pius XII’s critics accused him of keeping silent during the Holocaust, without ever publicly condemning the persecution and genocide of Jews and others. His defenders claim to have quietly encouraged convents and other Catholic institutions to hide thousands of Jews and that public criticism of the Nazis would have risked the lives of priests and nuns.

“The opening of the archives is decisive for the contemporary history of the church and the world,” said Cardinal José Tolentino Calaça de Mendonça, archivist and librarian of the Vatican last week.

Bishop Sergio Pagano, prefect of the Vatican Apostolic Archive, said that scholars should express a “historical judgment”. He added: “The good [that Pius did] it was so great that it will make the few shadows pale. “Evaluating the millions of pages in the archives would take several years, he said.

Over 150 people have applied to access the archives, although only 60 can be hosted in offices simultaneously. Among the first to view the documents will be representatives of the Jewish community of Rome and scholars of Yad Vashem, the Israeli Holocaust museum and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

David Kertzer, an American expert on the relationship between the Catholic church and fascism, who will begin reviewing the newspapers this week, said there were “signs of nervousness” in the Vatican about what would emerge from the archives. The Vatican archives allegedly provided an “immense amount of fresh material from millions of pages,” he said Observer.

“On the big question, it’s clear: Pius XII never publicly criticized the Nazis for the mass murder they were committing against the Jews of Europe – and knew from the outset that a mass murder was taking place. Various clerics and others urged him to speak, and refused to do so.

“Although there are many testimonials showing that the church protected the Jews in Rome, when more than 1,000 were gathered on October 16, 1943 and kept for two days adjacent to the Vatican [before deportation to the death camps]Pio decided not to publicly protest or even to send an appeal to Hitler privately not to send them to death in Auschwitz. Hopefully what we will find from these archives is why he did what he did and what discussions took place behind the Vatican walls. “

Mary Vincent, professor of modern European history at Sheffield University, said that many criticisms of Pius Xll lacked nuance. “He was an attentive, austere and unpleasant man who tried to guide a path through almost impossible circumstances. He had a clear vision of what he considered the threat of Soviet communism and his vision of Italian fascism was somewhat softer. But classifying it as good or bad isn’t useful: it’s about the decisions he made and the space he had to make those decisions. “

Pope Pius XII in 1951.

Pius XII in 1951.

Pius – whose birth name was Eugenio Pacelli – was Vatican secretary of state under his predecessor, Pope Pius XI, and a former papal nuncio, or envoy, to Germany. In 1933, he negotiated a concordat between the Catholic church and Germany. After being elected pope, six months before the outbreak of the war, the Vatican maintained diplomatic relations with the Third Reich and the new pontiff refused to condemn the Nazi invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939.

In December 1942, Pius XII spoke in general terms of the suffering of the Jews, although he had known for several months about the Nazi extermination plans. In 1943 he wrote to the bishop of Berlin, claiming that the church could not publicly condemn the Holocaust for fear of causing “greater evils”.

Hitler Pope, a controversial biography of Pius XII by British author John Cornwell, published in 1999, stated that the pope was an anti-Semite who “was not taken out of moral outrage at the plight of the Jews.” He was also narcissistic and determined to protect and advance the power of the papacy, the book claimed. Pius XII was “the ideal pope for Hitler’s unspeakable plan. He was Hitler’s pledge. He was Hitler’s pope”.

Cornwell’s claims have been contested by some scholars and authors. He later admitted that Pius XII had “a field of action so small that it is impossible to judge the reasons for his silence during the war”, although the pontiff never explained his position.

In 2012, Yad Vashem changed the text of an exhibition on the papacy of Pius XII, from “did not intervene” to “did not publicly protest”. The new text acknowledged several assessments of the pope’s position and Yad Vashem said he “looks[ed] waiting for the day when the Vatican archives will be open to researchers so that we can arrive at a clearer understanding of the events “.

Pope Benedict, Francis’ predecessor, in 2009 declared that Pius XII had lived a life of “heroic” Christian virtue, a step towards possible holiness. But in 2014 Francis said that no miracle – a prerequisite for beatification, the last step towards canonization – had been identified. “If there are no miracles, he cannot go on. He is stuck there,” said Francis after visiting Yad Vashem. Last year, Francis said that Pius XII had led the church during one of the “saddest and darkest periods of the 20th century”. He added that he is confident that “serious and objective historical research will allow for evaluation [of Pius] in the correct light “, including” appropriate criticism “.


Today in history, 11 February: Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin sign the Yalta agreement in 1945 | news

Today is Tuesday 11 February, the 42nd day of 2020. There are 324 days in the year.

Today’s highlight in history: on February 11, 1979, the followers of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (hoh-MAY’-nee) seized power in Iran.

In this date:

In 1531, the Church of England reluctantly accepted King Henry VIII as supreme head.

In 1861, President-elect Abraham Lincoln said goodbye to his adopted hometown of Springfield, Illinois as he headed to Washington for his inauguration.

A six-week strike against General Motors ended in 1937, with the company agreeing to recognize the United Automobile Workers Union.

In 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin signed the Yalta agreement, in which Stalin agreed to declare war on imperial Japan following the capitulation of Nazi Germany.

In 1968, the fourth and current Madison Square Garden of New York City, located on the West Side of Manhattan on the site of what was once the Pennsylvania Station building, opened with a “Health for Use” hosted by Bob Hope and Bing Crosby . (The same evening, the New York Rangers played their last game in third Garden, tying the Detroit Red Wings 3-3.)

In 1975 Margaret Thatcher was elected leader of the British opposition conservative party.

In 1990, South African black activist Nelson Mandela was released after 27 years in captivity.

In 2008, the Pentagon accused Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (HAH’s shayk moh-HAH’-med) and five other inmates in Guantanamo Bay of murders and war crimes in connection with the September 11 attacks.

In 2011, Egypt exploded with joy after democratic demonstrators shot down President Hosni Mubarak, whose resignation ended three decades of authoritarian rule.

In 2012, pop singer Whitney Houston, 48, was found dead in the tub of a hotel room in Beverly Hills, California.

In 2013, with a few words in Latin, Pope Benedict XVI did what no pope had done in more than half a millennium: he announced his resignation. The bomb arrived during a routine morning meeting of the Vatican cardinals. (The 85-year-old pontiff was replaced by Pope Francis.)

In 2009, the All-Star short film Miguel Tejada pleaded guilty to lying to Congress on steroids in baseball. (He was sentenced to one year on probation.) Rep. John Dingell, D-Mich., Who first went to Congress in 1955, became the longest serving member of the United States House of Representatives.

Ten years ago: former President Bill Clinton had inserted two stents into one of his heart arteries after being hospitalized in New York with chest pain. Iranian security forces unleashed an overwhelming blow against opposition protesters while President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (ah-muh-DEE’-neh-zhahd) used the 31st anniversary of the Islamic revolution to challenge the West. British designer Alexander McQueen, 40, was found dead in his London home.

Five years ago: swearing that Islamic State forces “were about to lose”, President Barack Obama urged Congress to authorize military action, excluding large-scale combat operations in the United States reminiscent of Iraq and Iraq. Afghanistan. Little League International deprived Jackie Robinson West of the national title after an investigation revealed that it had falsified the boundaries to field unsuitable players; Mountain Ridge Little League was awarded the title. Longtime CBS News correspondent Bob Simon, 73, was killed in a car accident in New York. Hall of Fame basketball coach Jerry Tarkanian, 84, died in Las Vegas.

A year ago: Congress negotiators reached an agreement to prevent a government shutdown and finance the construction of new barriers along the border between the United States and Mexico. Freshman Democratic Rep. Ilhan Omar of Minnesota apologized for tweets suggesting that members of Congress support Israel because they get paid to do so; the tweets had brought bipartisan criticism. Robert Bowers, accused of killing 11 people in a Pittsburgh synagogue, has pleaded not guilty to hating crimes and dozens of other counts. The Denver teachers began to strike for the first time in 25 years following failed negotiations with the school district on basic pay; schools remained open with administrators and substitute teachers in the classrooms. As baseball’s Oakland Athletics began spring training, the choice of first-round Kyler Murray announced that he would pursue a career in the NFL rather than in baseball; Murray had won the college football Heisman Trophy in Oklahoma.

Today’s birthdays: actor Conrad Janis is 92 years old. Gospel singer Jimmy Carter is 88 years old. Stylist Mary Quant is 86 years old. Actress Tina Louise is 82 years old. Band leader Sergio Mendes is 79 years old. Philip Anglim is 68 years old. Former Florida governor Jeb Bush is 67 years old. Actress Catherine Hickland is 64 years old. Rock musician David Uosikkinen (aw-SIK’-ken-ihn) (The Hooters) is 64 years old. Actress Carey Lowell is 59 years old. Singer Sheryl Crow is 58 years old. Former Alaskan governor Sarah Palin is 56 years old. Actress Jennifer Aniston is 51 years old. Damian Lewis is 49. The actress Marisa Petroro is 48 years old. The singer D’Angelo is 46 years old. Actor Brice Beckham is 44 years old. Mike Shinoda (rock singer / rock singer) is 43 years old. Singer-actress Brandy is 41 years old. musician Jon Jones (The Eli Young Band) is 40 years old. Actor Matthew Lawrence is 40 years old. Rhythmic and blues singer Kelly Rowland is 39 years old. Actress Natalie Dormer is 38 years old. Aubrey O’Day is 36. Actress Q’orianka (kohr- ee-AHN’-kuh) Kilcher is 30 years old. Actor Taylor Lautner is 28 years old.

Designed for today: “We would do better to live as we think, otherwise we will end up thinking how we lived”. – Paul Bourget, French author (1852-1935).