Tired of the fruitless reforms, Minneapolis dismantled its police

► What are the intentions of the city of Minneapolis ?

Two weeks after the death of George Floyd, nine of the thirteen members of the city council of Minneapolis have taken, Sunday, June 7, a radical commitment : dismantling the near future, the police of the city. “Decades of effort have proven that the police in Minneapolis (MPD) could not be reformed and will never account for its actions, they said in a joint press release. We will begin the dismantling of the police and the creation of a new model of security for our city. “

→ ANALYSIS. The impossible reform of the american police

Before the death of George Floyd, the city had already experienced many dramas of this type – Christopher Burns in 2002, David Smith in 2010, Jamar Clark in 2015, Philando Castile, in 2016… efforts had been made to train, to educate… But are often undermined by the internal police unions. For the majority of the elected representatives of the municipal council, the death of George Floyd, who did not resist his arrest nor represented a threat, is the failure of this strategy.

► What to replace the police ?

The consequences of this announcement remain highly uncertain. First, because it seems that a vote of the inhabitants of Minneapolis is required to amend the articles of association of the city, which provides for the existence of a font.

On the other hand because, for the time being, the city council does not propose any other option. Its decision is part of a movement that was once radical has become the force whereas american police continue to kill about 1,000 people per year – a statistic unchanged since twenty years, according to the Washington Postwho keeps count of police violence. This movement, whose slogan is “Defund the police “ (” No money for the police “), considers that, since the safe drifting started under Nixon’s presidency, the police is perceived as the only answer to many problems (drug, mental health, school violence, etc), that would be much better supported by social services. He cut off the supplies would therefore be the best method to restrict its power.

► What is the point of view of the democratic Party ?

For democrats, the issue of public safety is a delicate issue. They must regularly face the charges of laxity. Donald Trump and his allies are not private to widely disseminate the decision of the city council of Minneapolis, a city democrat. Joe Biden, therefore, has not been slow to make it known that he was opposed to the dismantling of the MPD. It considers, however, “urgent “ an ambitious reform. It supports, in particular, the draft bill tabled Monday, June 8, by the democrats in the House of representatives for “put an end to police brutality, hold the police to account, improve transparency and create profound changes and structural “.

→ ANALYSIS. Against Donald Trump, Joe Biden proposes unity and empathy

This text includes the creation of a national registry for police officers committing burrs, and is intended to facilitate the prosecution of the agents. Some dangerous techniques of “taken effect” would be prohibited. This project should, however, be blocked by the republicans, the majority in the Senate.


the 7 secrets that forged the invincible Roman legions



There are names that it is impossible not to associate with the success of the mythical legions. Gaius Julius Caesar or August they are only some of those who, at the head of the best military machinery of antiquity, were elevated to Olympus by the generals of the Eternal City. Unfortunately, the same has not happened with Cayo Mario (157 – 86 BC). More remembered for his political activity (he was consul up to seven times) than for his military successes, this curious personage was the true architect of the armies that, centuries later, would dominate a good part of Europe. And all, thanks to a series of reforms established since 107 B.C. (in full republican era) such as reformulating the structure of the contingents or recruiting the lower classes of society.

1-Popularize the army

The first of Cayo Mario’s great reforms was to popularize access to the army. Between 107 and 104 BC, the military recruited new soldiers among the «capit censi», The lowest social class in Rome. That was a revolution since, until then (and as the historian explains Carlos Díaz Sánchez in his work “Illustrious personages of history”), the State had always called up citizens with a certain purchasing power. The logic was simple. On the one hand, they considered that the wealthiest had more to lose and would fight more effusively on the battlefield. On the other, they could afford a better armament thanks.

All in all, as true as Mario used the «capit censi»(Literally,« census by heads »-and not by property-) is also that there is a lively debate among historians about this reform. The first controversy is whether, prior to this measure, Rome had resorted to recruiting soldiers from the lower classes. The 1st century historian Plutarch He is in favor of the fact that the generals had never “accepted such people.” Nevertheless, Titus Livio if he made reference in his writings to the fact that, in the past, he had already opted to call up volunteers «I did not advertise»(« Non-taxpayers ») or slaves. Currently, most experts point to the latter.

On the other hand, and as the historian points out Arthur Keauveney in “The Army in the Roman Revolution”, it seems that Mario used this revolution only sporadically to obtain more men in times of scarcity (for example, the war against the Numidian Yugurta). Beyond that, in principle, the measure was only applied occasionally, the reality is that the idea was not long in generalizing because it solved several of the problems that bled ancient Rome: the lack of fighters during the years in those with the most wars; the decline in the economy that was generated when those who had land to cultivate went to the front and the general discontent among the middle classes.

Cayo Mario
Cayo Mario

2-The professional soldier

This first reform forced Cayo Mario to promote as many changes to convince the proletarians to enlist in the legions. Although the promise to receive a living wage and food in exchange for their work was already, for many, enough reward, he also offered them improve your status in the military through a 25-year service (time that was eventually reduced), receiving land and a pension at retire and, finally, to obtain an infinity of riches thanks to the loot that they stole on the battlefield.

Without knowing it, he had created the professional army; a force that longed to dedicate its life to battle and whose experience in the use of weapons grew month by month and combat to combat.

3-Standardization of armament

The problem with calling up the lower classes is that a good part of the new recruits could not afford their weapons. As a solution, Mario used the «lex militaris»Established by Cayo Graco two decades earlier. A series of norms that, among many other things, established that soldiers must be equipped at the expense of the State. Although it is true that these guidelines were already approved (and it was not the first time they were used) it is also true that our protagonist was one of the first to promote them and make them generals.

The result could not be better, as Díaz Sánchez explains in his work “Great Generals of Antiquity”: «Thus, the new consul standardized the Montefortino bronze helmet or the Coolus type helmet, the lorica hamata, the oval shield and, as offensive weaponry, two spears, a sword and a dagger. Mario had managed to create a new army financed by the State, which promised to be with him in campaign ».

4-Veterans and auxiliaries

It is often forgotten that Cayo Mario also resorted to other types of fighters when there was a shortage of citizens to recruit. These were the «evocati», Veterans already retired from so many other wars that, as specified Stephen Dando-Collins in his magna “Legions of Rome”, began with this general the curious tradition of putting his experience in combat at the service of Rome.

The historian Carlos Díaz Sánchez, for his part, reveals in “Great Generals of Antiquity” that the military revolutionary first resorted to them when the Senate handed him a single legion to confront his enemies in Africa.

Mario also structured and used the «auxilia», A non-italic population that fought in the manner of each people. “These” auxiliaries “were distributed among the Roman infantry or cavalry according to specialization,” adds Díaz Sánchez in his work. To lure them into the army, the general promised them that upon graduation they would obtain citizenship.

Mario, in the ruins of Carthage
Mario, in the ruins of Carthage

5-The eagle is born

According Pliny the ElderMario wanted to promote the spirit of unity of the Roman legions through a single symbol. In the armies prior to the Consul’s arrival there were five animals on the banners: the Eagle, he wild pig, he Minotaur, he horse and the Wolf. Apparently (and although the experts do not agree on the cause) to differentiate the types of fighters according to their purchasing power. Our protagonist implanted the mythical «Aquila»As a common image for all of them, which favored the feelings of team Y camaraderie among the soldiers.

6-Novel structure

One of the most complex reforms implemented (not created, as it had already been used previously) by Mario was the reformulation of the classical structure of the legions. Until then, armies had «maniples»: Units divided into two« centuries »of 80 combatants each. The way of fighting of these groups consisted of rushing against the enemy until obtaining victory thanks to the numerical superiority.

The Consul understood that this system cost the Eternal City a large number of lives and that the “manipules” were too small to cope with the huge number of barbarians they were fighting in different parts of Europe. So he devised a new structure with several advantages.

First, it established that the basic unit of armies was the «contubernium», Formed by nine soldiers (two of them auxiliaries) led by a«decanus». This officer was chosen from among his peers, which ended the traditional finger ascents so common for decades. Ten “contubernium»Gave rise to a«century»(Led by a« centurion »); six “centuries»Were a«cohort»And ten of these resulted in the mythical«legion».

Although at first glance it seems cumbersome, the truth is that the novelty was very effective. The “cohort», The most common unit from then on in the battlefields, had the capacity to face enemies that tried to flank or surround it thanks to its high number of legionaries. As if that were not enough, from the arrival of Mario combat was encouraged in three lines and the relay between them to avoid exhaustion.

7-Mario’s mules

The last of these curious reforms was logistics. The consul reduced the gigantic animal caravans that carried the supplies and equipment for the men and forced his legionaries to carry their equipment during long marches. This simple modification improved the physical form of the combatants and prevented the armies from losing their food and weapons when the enemy managed to seize the cargo convoys.

This was attested to by Plutarch himself in his texts:

“On the march he made the troops work on the way, exercising them in all kinds of raids and long hours, and specifying the soldiers to carry and prepare for themselves what was to serve them daily: from where they say the one who since then comes The amateurs at work, and those who promptly execute what is commanded, are called Marian mules, although others give this expression a different origin. Because when Scipio wanted to besiege Numancia, to review not only weapons and horses, but also mules and chariots, to see in what state each one had these things, it is said that Mario presented a horse perfectly cared for and maintained by him. himself, and also a mule, standing out among all in fatness, meekness and strength; reason why not only was Scipio happy with this kind of care of Mario, but he frequently made mention of it, and from this was born the one that those who wanted to praise someone punctual, suffering and hard-working, called him Mario’s mule ».

Between politics and military command

Little is known of the origin of Cayo Mario, the military man who -in addition to standing out on the battlefield as a correct general- became the great reformer of the Roman legions. But let’s go by parts. Neither her mother nor her father were influential figures among the magistrates; on the contrary, they were rather complete strangers. That is to say, it had to be earned, since it was lit in the year 157 a. C., its place in the elite of the Eternal City. Convinced of being someone, he overcame not having a Greek slave to educate him from his childhood (his parents could not afford it) and he strove to stand out among his contemporaries.

He succeeded and the tutor of his family, Cecilio Metelo, rewarded him by introducing him to the military world, where his exploits could provide him with votes, money and fame. There is no denying that he was lucky, as he was sent to Hispania under the orders of the great Scipio Emiliano, the general who managed to break the padlock in the city of Numancia. In the Peninsula, and with just 23 springs behind him, Mario drank from the military wisdom of the man who had destroyed Carthage and witnessed clashes between two of the most fearsome contingents of the time. In turn, he learned that discipline and training were vital for the troops to be in optimal physical and metal form.

After achieving an epic military victory on the Mutul River, and already popular with the population, Mario made the leap to politics and managed to become a consul in 106 BC. However, the envy of his former (and influential) defender, Metellus, caused the Senate to offer him only the province of Africa and hardly a legion to defend it. In need of men capable of fighting the local general Yugurta, our still young officer revolutionized the recruitment system in his favor and introduced several modifications that, in the long run, would lay the foundations for the mythical Roman legions who led such figures as the great Julius Caesar.


Buenos Aires: reforms to Real Estate, Automotive and Seals for the year 2020

The Law maintains the values ​​per square meter of covered area and the tables of impossible base, fixed quota and aliquot on the surplus that it already had in 2019. But it introduces an update of the fiscal valuations within the framework of art. 79 of Law No. 10,707, in this way for the Urban Plant and for the buildings of the Rural Plant a coefficient of 1.2 will be applied; while for the land free of improvements of the Rural Plant a coefficient of 1.3 (Art. 4 °) will be applied. Likewise, to determine the taxable base in what makes the Urban Plant Built a coefficient should be applied of 1,125 on the updated tax valuation. While for the land free of improvements of the Urban Plant, a coefficient of 1.25 must be applied on the basis determined by the Habitat Law (tax valuation updated according to Law 10.707 and coefficient of 1.25 of art. 68 Law of Habitat) (Art. 5) .With regard to the Rural Plant in order to determine the tax base, a coefficient of 0.9 must be applied on the updated tax valuation of land free of improvements and a coefficient of 1,125 on the updated tax valuation of buildings and / or improvements (Art. 9 °). To mitigate the effect of the update and in order to make it more progressive, there is a structure of caps for the increase of the 2020 tax Regarding the 2019 tax in ascending form by tax valuation, as follows:

  • in the urban built the ceilings are 15% up to the fiscal value 2019 of $ 303,705; 35% among fiscal 2019 values ​​of $ 303,705 to $ 498,021; from 55% among fiscal 2019 values ​​from $ 498,021 to $ 1,712,754; 75% if the fiscal value 2019 is higher than $ 1,712,754 (Art. 6 °).
  • in the urban wasteland, the increase ceilings range from 15% to 90% according to the tax valuation of the property corresponding to the year 2019 (Art. 6).
  • in the case of rural land, it will be 15% up to the fiscal value 2019 of land free of improvements of $ 260,870; 35% of the 2019 fiscal values ​​from $ 260,870 to $ 816,075; from 55% among fiscal 2019 values ​​from $ 816,075 to $ 3,000,000; 55% when the 2019 fiscal value is greater than $ 3,000,000 and the land area free of improvements is less than or equal to 2,000 hectares; 75% when the fiscal value 2019 exceeds $ 3,000,000 and the land area free of improvements exceeds 2,000 hectares (Art. 10).
  • With regard to improvements on rural land, the ceilings are 15% to 50% according to the tax valuation of the property corresponding to the year 2019 (Art. 10).

The increase with benefits to the most vulnerable sectors and small producers is accompanied: all retirees who had the exemption from this tax in 2019, will keep it provided they retain the same property and meet the other conditions required to access said benefit (Art. 17). The exemption of the Real Estate tax provided for in section m) of art. 177 of the Fiscal Code for real estate destined for the exploitation of up to 100 hectares, establishing that the benefit will be reduced by 50% for properties of up to 150 hectares (Art. 101). In the Tax Law 2019 the benefit applied only to properties of up to 50 hectares. An exemption from the Real Estate tax is added to which the Fiscal Code contemplates in its Article 177, in this case to the owners who are beneficiaries of the AUH in the As long as they own that one property (Art. 102), the exemption in the Rural Real Estate tax is maintained up to 50 hectares for agricultural producers, who invoice up to $ 10,420,000 (before $ 4.2 million) of crops in general, cattle, poultry, beekeeping and cuniculture, among others (Art. 106). Finally, an exemption is added in the Rural Real Estate tax to real estate of up to 20 hectares destined for the activities of citrus fruits, pepita and carozo, when the total of income obtained in the previous fiscal period does not exceed the amount of $ 10,420,000 (Art. 107).

2 | Automotive Tax

A cap of 55% increase is established with respect to the automobile tax calculated in the year 2019 (Art. 111) and for the calculation of it the Tables of aliquots scales that had been used in the fiscal year 2019 are continued, except the tables by weight (Kg) that fixed amounts were updated by $ 50%. As for new cars, a coefficient of 0.80 on the tax valuation assigned by the National Directorate of the Registry of Automotive Property (Art. 110). It is included in the exemption of the automobile tax provided by the Tax Code for motor vehicles belonging to companies with majority municipal state participation destined for passenger transport (Art. 103) Likewise, we appreciate that the Municipalities have been decentralized in 2009.

3 | Stamp tax and ITGB0

The tax valuation amounts of the properties are updated to access the exemption benefits provided by the Tax Code and the minimum non-taxable amounts of the ITGB are updated (by applying a coefficient of 1.2). They are not detailed so as not to unnecessarily extend the note.

4 | Main changes to the tax code

The exemption of the Real Estate tax on rural buildings dedicated to exploitation was also extended to 100 hectares, which was only up to 50 hectares and it was innovated that this benefit will be applied by 50% when the property has up to 150 hectares (subparagraph m) of article 177 of the Fiscal Code – Law No. 10,397 (Ordered text 2011) and amendments -) The cooperatives of medicines (subsection f) of Article 207 of the Fiscal Code – Law 10397 (Ordered text 2011) and amendments-) are excluded from the exemption. It is added to the General Directorate of Culture and Education as a feasible institution to receive confiscated assets (Article 90 of the Fiscal Code – Law No. 10,397 (Ordered text 2011) and amendments). Civil associations belonging to categories 1 and 2 are added according to Provision No. 53/16 of the Provincial Directorate of Legal Persons of the Province of Buenos Aires as exempt in the Remuneration Fees of Administrative and Judicial Services.

5 | Other provisions

The laws of the southwest of Buenos Aires and their respective benefits, which expired on December 31, 2019 (laws No. 12,322 – extended by laws 14,014 and 14,610 – and No. 12,323 – extended by laws 14,013 and 14,609) are extended for 90 days.

1) They are the following NAIIB-18: 011111, 011112, 011119, 011121, 011129, 011130, 011211, 011291, 011299, 011310, 011321, 011329, 011331, 011341, 011342, 011911, 011912, 01260811, 01260811, 01260814, 01260811, 0126011, 011601 , 014211, 014221, 014300, 014410, 014420, 014430, 014440, 014510, 014520, 014610, 014620, 014710, 014720, 014810, 014820, 014910, 014920, 014930, 014990


284 school titles awarded in Kyrgyzstan in 2019

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