Kruzak’s death or how Toyota Land Cruiser 300 may be in an awkward position without a V8

Consider examples of models that have lost the “eight.”

It is authentically known that the new Toyota Land Cruiser 300 will not be offered with V8 engines. The decision of the Japanese company to switch to more environmentally friendly engines in the modern world is understandable, but the rejection of a turbodiesel may not seem entirely successful. An example of this was the example of other automakers, consider them.

So, who else tried to get rid of the V8 and replace it with another motor? Probably, the saddest example served as the situation of the company Ford, which rejected the XF Falcon with the “eight” back in 1983. The Americans felt that buyers no longer want to see a sedan with a V8.

In Australia, where this model was sold, there was still a demand for the XF Falcon with a “heavy” engine – more than half of the total number of copies sold were equipped with it. And yet, for reasons known only to the Ford team, the V8 was replaced by an injected 4.1-liter V6.

Move on. In anticipation of the launch of the VL Commodore in early 1986, Holden struggled to get its engines to comply with the new emission laws. The new “six”, which replaced the V8, failedwithout meeting customer expectations. In the end, the V6 was thrown out of the engine range of the sedan and station wagon, and it was replaced by a batch of Nissan six-cylinder engines.

In Europe, BMW switched from a six-cylinder to a V8 for its fourth-generation M3. This was done in order to gain wide recognition among motorists. In 2014, it was decided to replace the “eight” with a twin-turbocharged V6, which was still a good engine, but lost its “sound” and high-speed characterthat many praised so much.

Similarly, the Audi S4, S5, RS4 and RS5 were once available with the V8, which was then replaced with turbocharged six-cylinder engines. Thus, it can be assumed that the exclusion of V8 from the Kruzak engine range may lead to his death. At least the new Toyota Land Cruiser 300 may be in an awkward position in the market.

Finally, we add that there is a well-known example when a manufacturer introduced V8 and practically “killed” it. We are talking about the Nissan Patrol Y62, which in 2013 became available exclusively with the “eight”, while previous versions of the model were offered with turbodiesel four- and six-cylinder engines.

Sales of “Patrol” immediately fell. Why? Because the V8 was gasoline – it’s a great 5.6-liter engine, but placing it under the hood of a 2800-kilogram “horse” fuel efficiency has become worse than terrible.


when plants replace concrete

It is a popular place for tourists, who like to sail on the Mayenne and admire its bucolic shores. The Grez-Neuville canal, north of Angers (Maine-et-Loire), has been the subject of rather rare experimentation on this scale for two years: restoring its banks by preferring plants to stones. “We had observed their degradation during periods of low water, says Gwennaël Cordier, technician in aquatic environments in the department. To restore them, two options were available to us: resort to civil engineering, with masonry or riprap, or else to plant engineering, by focusing on the capacities of plants to fix and consolidate the banks. We chose the second. “

To select the best species to implant, the department relied on the expertise of the Fresne Agricultural High School, near Angers. “They had to resist the water, the waves caused by the boats, the erosion and the nutria which dig galleries, explains the technician. They also had to develop slowly and require little maintenance. “

Nature-based solutions

The choice fell on the plantation of earth sausages surrounded by coconut fibers, sown with helophyte plants such as irises or rushes. “They have the particularity of having their feet in the water and their heads in the sun”, describes André Evette, engineer and researcher at the National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment (Inrae), which closely monitors plant engineering projects in France (1). “These nature-based solutions are not new and date back to Antiquity, he recalls. But we lost sight of them from the 1950s and the transition to all-concrete. It was the era of the Thirty Glorious Years, and we didn’t have the same way of seeing the world as today … “ In the 1970s and 1980s, Austria and Switzerland brought these techniques up to date, followed by Germany and the Netherlands. In France, they have reappeared for ten years.

“Their major advantage is to favor the ecological restoration of the banks, high places of biodiversity, explains the researcher. The plants filter the pollutants that arrive in the water, provide a welcome shade and recreate a whole habitat in the air as in the water: insects, dragonflies, crayfish, freshwater shrimps, fish … “ A virtuous circle, which saves money. “Not only is it better to work with living things, but it’s also cheaper, confirms Gwennaël Cordier. Our plant site costs around € 40,000, when a “hard” development can amount to millions of euros, taking into account the difficulties of access to the site for construction machinery. “ Finally, if its effectiveness is not as immediate as a concrete installation, over time, “Plant engineering is becoming stronger than civil engineering”, he continues.

→ READ. Microplastics, nitrate: World Bank investigates invisible water pollution

Work on the Grez-Neuville canal was carried out in October 2018, testing two techniques. For the first 75 meters, a strip of local herb seeds has been planted above the helophyte sausages in geotextile. “It is a good alternative to the plastic sheet because it degrades naturally. “ Over the next 75 meters, a bed of willow plants has been added. The most effective technique will be reproduced on the 650 meters of remaining banks. A year and a half later, the first assessment is already positive: “The plants are well anchored to the ground and the willows have grown very well, greet the technician. But we must wait until spring 2021 to draw our conclusions. “

Only 5% of rivers in good ecological condition

In this department concentrating 7,000 kilometers of rivers, of which only 5% are in good ecological condition, the restoration of the banks and, ultimately, the recovery of the quality of the water prove to be crucial. “With plant engineering, we try to repair the mistakes of the past”, explains Marc Helbert, head of the water service in the department, which coordinates an Observatory of water quality in Anjou. “What weighs most on us is the fish index, he comments. It will replenish when they can circulate more freely in our waterways. But these actions will take time to produce their effects… ”

Especially since these techniques inspired by nature are not so simple to implement. “They require multidisciplinary skills and strong field experience, comments André Evette. It is not enough to follow technical rules like in civil engineering. Living things are impossible to model. How to predict that a beaver will eat the willow that has been planted? “ If plants can solve a multitude of problems – maintaining agricultural land in the face of erosion, preventing avalanches in the mountains, cleaning up soil, phyto-purification, wind or noise barrier – they cannot always be enough . “When you have a torrent near a school, you may not be going without concrete to secure the site, comments the researcher. In an urban environment, you don’t always have a choice. But mixed solutions are developing. “

→ REPORTAGE. At the Paris Aquarium, fish grow tomatoes

Nor is it easy to convince of the economic profitability of these developments. The establishment of hedges or buffer zones not cultivated in agricultural zones, for example, requires educational work. “Obviously, the financial gain is not necessarily demonstrated for a productivist agricultural model”, recognizes André Evette.

Last merit of plant genius: embellishing the landscape. “In front of our work on the canal, we have a very busy towpath, notes Gwennaël Cordier. Walkers are delighted with the new plantations. “ What hardly surprises André Evette: “Plants have a positive influence on humans: our blood pressure decreases in the forest, seeing a tree from its window facilitates healing in the hospital like concentration in a classroom. Putting plants back, in the end, is no longer disjoining man and nature … “


Not enough fish, too many pesticides

The balance sheet drawn up in 2018 by the Observatory of water quality in Anjou over the last ten years draws up an unquestionable observation: too much nitrates, presence of 151 pesticide molecules (glyphosate, atrazine…), average or even bad fish population.

However, two indicators experience improvement (phosphorus, nitrogen) linked to
progress in wastewater treatment.


Dominic Raab, a “politician” to replace Boris Johnson

The coronavirus has unprecedented consequences. After the amazement to learn that their 55-year-old prime minister is one of the patients in intensive care in the hospital, the British were surprised to learn that Dominic Raab, the foreign minister since July 2019, little known to the great public, would “compensate” for the temporary incapacity of Boris Johnson.

→ THE FACTS. Coronavirus: Boris Johnson hospitalized in intensive care

The young guard of the Brexiters

The head of government thus rewards fidelity to any test on the Brexit of his minister ”, analyzes Valérie Auda-André, teacher-researcher at the University of Aix-Marseille. Dominic Raab is part of the young Brexiters guard on which Boris Johnson – who won hands down the December 2019 legislative elections on the promise “Get Brexit done” -, supported and promoted in his first government.

“He preferred the” political “profile of Dominic Raab, rather than the” technocratic “profile of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Rishi Sunak, 39, another rising figure of the conservative party”, adds the specialist in the political history of the United Kingdom in the XXth century.

Born in Great Britain to a family of Jewish origin from Czechoslovakia, who fled the Nazis in 1938, Dominic Raab, followed a rather classic course: studying law at Oxford and Cambridge before starting a career as an international lawyer.

In 2000 he joined the British diplomatic service and in 2003 he was posted to The Hague where he led a team to gather evidence against the war criminals, Slobodan Milosevic, Radovan Karadzic and Charles Taylor. Back in London, he followed the files of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, European legislation and Gibraltar.

Conservative MP

This accomplished sportsman – he is a black belt in karate – entered politics in 2006 by putting his legal skills at the service of the Conservative party then in the opposition. Four years later, in May 2010, he was elected Conservative Member of Parliament for the riding of Esher and Walton (Surrey).

He was re-elected there in 2015, when he joined the government of David Cameron as Minister of Human Rights. After the yes vote in the referendum for the UK’s withdrawal from the EU, Theresa May, who succeeds David Cameron, appoints him Minister of Justice and then Minister of Housing. In 2018, he made a brief stint at the head of the Brexit ministry, which he left expressing his disagreement, when Theresa May signed the Brexit treaty with Brussels, in November 2018.

Because Brexiter Dominic Raab belongs to the movement ” of those who have a neoliberal approach and want to make the United Kingdom a “Singapore-on-Thames”, a sort of neoliberal island, freed from European regulations, and whose links are strong with the Anglosphere “, continues Valérie Auda-André.

Limited power

In his new role, Dominic Raab has limited power. What Minister of State Michael Gove immediately reminded Tuesday, April 7: ” We NWe are not in a presidential system, the Prime Minister is a “primus inter pares” in the cabinet, the first of us. And, within the cabinet, decisions are taken by consensus, it is the real decision-making bodyision ” Dominic Raab ” cannot replace the Prime Minister. He has no legitimacy Adds Valérie Auda-André.

→ LIVE. Coronavirus: the latest information in France and worldwide

For now, his agenda is dominated by the coronavirus. This Thursday, April 9, he was to chair the crisis meeting during which a probable extension of the confinement should be decided. Because in the UK, we are still far from the peak of the epidemic.

The latest report from the Ministry of Health, published Wednesday, April 8, identified 938 deaths from the new coronavirus in 24 hours, a new record. In total, Covid-19 killed 7,097 people in hospitals in the UK and officially infected 60,773 people.


“In an Ehpad, nothing can ever replace the visit”

“The confinement continues. Here, it has already been over three weeks, because we are close to a cluster where the coronavirus circulated very early. This passing time begins to weigh on the morale of the residents of my Ehpad. Some are not necessarily aware of everything that is playing around this virus, especially its dangerousness, because they can have cognitive problems. But what is certain is that everyone feels the lack of human contact. The ban on visits is difficult to live with. Faced with this, we must continue to give life. It is not easy because usually we are accompanied by volunteers, whose absence is really visible.

We try to encourage them to make a phone call to their loved ones, or to send them messages. This morning, I got out of my role as a nursing assistant and I led a workshop during which we made pastries. Then we took photos to email them to the families. All of this helps to forget the heavy context a little.

“This human want is stronger than worry”

However, we cannot organize a video call with loved ones because we do not have wi-fi. We do what we can, but nothing can ever replace the visit of a loved one or physical contact with the hand of your child or sister. We can clearly feel it. In fact, among residents, this human shortage is greater than concern.

On the caregiver side, what has changed for us is that our management has decided that we should no longer wear a mask systematically. This is a big change because until then we had one permanently. It is very difficult for us to understand this decision: my colleagues and I are surprised, some are even a little angry. We are caregivers, but we are also parents, we have family.

→ MAP. Spread around the world

Now, we should wear a mask only when a patient is sick or suspected of having a coronavirus. There are currently no suspicious or proven cases in my establishment. But in reality, wearing a mask is a way of protecting residents, much more than we do. It hasn’t really been presented to us like this, but I think it’s a way to save material. I must admit that I do not understand very well, because in all the media, we see that masks are distributed and that the mobilization is general. If so, how come there is a shortage? “