Viruses steal people’s pieces of the genetic code

Influenza virus attaches to its nucleic acid pieces of cellular nucleic acids, so the result in the cell are synthesized by the hybrid cell-viral proteins.

The virus is introduced into the host cell its genetic material (i.e. DNA molecules or RNA), in addition, many viruses are injected into the cell some proteins, which help reverse cellular processes in favor of the virus. But what does it mean to pay in favor? The virus must somehow convince the cell to start synthesizing viral proteins. The protein-synthesizing apparatus is a huge molecular complexes called ribosomes, plus a variety of other molecules, enzymes, ancillary proteins that control protein synthesis, transfer RNA which is transported to the ribosome amino acids. And all of them are engaged in the production of cellular proteins rather than viral.

The flu virus “in the cut” under the electron microscope. (Photo: Sanofi Pasteur / Flickr.com)

As you know, any protein encoded in the DNA. But with the DNA of the protein-synthesizing apparatus can not operate, therefore, between the DNA and the protein molecule is RNA – matrix, or information, of RNA which is copied a piece of information from DNA. Ribosomes and RNA work we can, and sit on a molecule of mRNA, starting to gather her protein according to the genetic code. But to get a correct protein, the ribosome must assemble it from the beginning, is quite obvious. That is, in RNA, the ribosome needs to land there, where starts the code of a protein.

To the ribosome of the village in the beginning, not the middle and not the end, of the RNA in our cells specially marked on its, so to say, the front end is a special label of the molecular beacon, called a cap. The ribosome with a whole set of auxiliary proteins comes to this cap (and then drove some distance before the start of the protein code, because the beginning code is not close to the cap, and a little distance).

As the virus to distract attention from the cellular protein-synthesizing apparatus? From cellular RNA to tear off a piece with a label-a beacon that attracts the ribosome, and attach this label to their RNA. Some viruses, e.g. the influenza virus or the Lassa fever virus – and do. Get a hybrid RNA: it starts with a small piece of cellular code that continues long viral sequence. Previously it was thought that ribosomes, sitting down at the beginning of such a hybrid RNA, flow cell part and begin to synthesize the viral protein already.

However, researchers from the Medical center the mount Sinai hospital, together with colleagues from the UK found that along with the normal viral proteins in the cells appear and the hybrid protein molecules. That is, the protein-synthesizing apparatus, sowing on hybrid RNA, often does not ignore the cellular part, and synthesizes a piece of cellular protein, which is stitched with the virus. That is, viruses don’t just steal a piece of cellular code – they, so to speak, embody. And pieces the cell code composed of viral nucleic acid can be packaged into new viral particles and change from one viral generation to the other.

These hybrid proteins, the researchers called UFO, that is Frankenstein Upstream Open reading frame overlying francescana open frame reader. Why frankensteinia, of course – in honor of the famous monster, which Dr. Frankenstein assembled from the body parts of different people. Open frame reader is, in a nutshell, and quite roughly, the plot in the code, indicating the start of protein synthesis, the overlying – because the start of protein synthesis on the hybrid RNA begins before the actual viral code. UFO-proteins found in cells with influenza A virus, however the authors do not exclude that the same UFO can be found with other viruses of the same type as the flu virus.

It’s also possible that the fusion proteins contribute to the pathogenicity of the virus, that they can somehow interact with the immune system, strengthening immune response. In fact, in an article in Cell it is said that T-lymphocytes react to UFO-proteins of influenza A virus, but how it affects overall on the immune reaction in the course of the disease and the condition of the body, will be clear only after further research.

Not only viruses we steal pieces of the genetic code, but we sometimes steal the virus code, sometimes in the form of a virus. These are viruses that are built into our DNA and become inactive, and subsequently, our cells adapt viral genes to fit their needs, in particular, we wrote how the dormant viral sequences in the DNA of immune cells and help them to start the synthesis of antibodies, and that the human embryo is literally under virus protection.

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The manufacturer of the herbicide Roundup will pay $10 billion to American farmers

The German company Bayer will pay more than $10 billion to residents of the U.S. who filed lawsuits against Monsanto due to the potential Carcinogenicity of means from weeds Roundup, the company said. Bayer will allocate from $8.8 to $9.6 billion for a license is filed, another $1.25 billion will be allocated for possible future cases.

The concern will resolve about 95 000 individual lawsuits from gardeners and farmers, 25 000 claims remain outside the scope of the settlement agreement. Sources The New York Times, people familiar with the negotiations, noted that each of filed with the court will receive from $5000 up to $25,000, depending on the severity of the damage to health. “The statement does not imply recognition [Bayer] of responsibility or guilt”, — stated in the message of the company.

Bayer bought Monsanto in June 2018 at this point, the company had filed hundreds of lawsuits over the use of glyphosphate in the herbicide Roundup and its alleged health effects. Consensus about whether glyphosphate cancer, no. The international Agency for research on cancer calls the substance “probably carcinogenic”. Protection Agency environmental (EPA), the United States believes that glyphosate is safe with careful use.

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Elon Musk sold the sale of all “his possessions” | latest news

The Wall Street Journal reported, citing public records that Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla has sold one of his homes in the Bel-Air in Los Angeles compared to $ 29 million.

Earlier said Musk in a tweet on May 1: “I’m selling all of my possessions, physical almost. I’m not going to own any home”.

The report said that the buyer is a company linked as a billionaire China’s William Ding. Founder and CEO of NetEase Inc games online.

The Musk has bought the house for $ 17 million in 2012 from Mitchell golf, the company’s co-founder for a hedge fund Canyon Capital advisers, according to the report.

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Berkshire Hathaway suffered a massive loss of 50 billion dollars in the first quarter | Company news

The billionaire Berkshire Hathaway and Ran Buffett incurred a net record loss of about $ 50 billion, as the Corona pandemic destroyed its investment in common stocks, but operating profit increased even as COVID-19 was affected by its business.

Berkshire’s first-quarter net loss was $ 49.75 billion, or $ 30,653 a Class A share, reflecting $ 54.52 billion in losses from investments, especially common stock. A year earlier, net profit was $ 21.66 billion, or $ 13,209 a share.

On the other hand, the quarterly operating profit, which Buffett considers a better performance measure, increased by 6% to $ 5.87 billion, or about $ 3,624 a Class A share of $ 5.56 billion, or about $ 3838 per share.

The accounting base requires Berkshire to report unrealized losses and gains of shares with profits. This causes major fluctuations in the net results of Berkshire that Buffett considers meaningless.

The company resorted to accumulating liquidity and buying shares with very small shares, as the cache recorded 137 billion dollars from 127 billion dollars at the end of 2019, while the company spent only 1.8 billion to buy shares and 1.7 billion dollars to repurchase Berkshire Hathaway shares.

It is noteworthy that the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index fell by 20% in the first quarter, but there were sharp declines in several major holdings in Berkshire including American Express, Bank of America, Bank of Wales Fargo, in addition to four airlines: American and Delta, Southwest, and United.

The company said most of Berkshire’s business was affected by the pandemic, with effects ranging from “relatively slight to severe” to date, and corporate earnings deemed “essential” slowed significantly in April.

Deputy Chairman Charlie Munger told the Wall Street Journal last month that some small businesses in Berkshire could be closed entirely.

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Women breathe harder than men

In the airways of women, the airflow becomes turbulent faster.

During physical activity, we begin to breathe deeper and more often – the body needs more oxygen in order to get more energy. And at this moment, the difference in the anatomy of the respiratory system in men and women begins to affect – women need more effort to provide themselves with oxygen.

Researchers from the University of Waterloo set up an experiment in which men and women worked out on a stationary bike for several days, gradually increasing the load. They breathed a gas mixture from a special tank, and on some days it was ordinary air, and on other days a mixture of helium and oxygen. Respiratory containers were filled so that they had the same amount of oxygen. The trainees themselves did not know how they breathe, air or an oxygen-helium mixture.

In addition, the participants in the experiment were equipped with a special device that made it possible to track the pressure in the esophagus – by the pressure in the esophagus, which goes near the airways, it was possible to understand how much effort is spent on breathing. It turned out that if you needed to breathe a mixture of helium and oxygen, then the respiratory efforts were the same for all, that of men, that of women. If you needed to breathe normal air, women began to breathe harder, they needed more effort.

The mixture of helium and oxygen is less dense, and therefore its flow moves laminarly, without turbulence. If the density of the gas mixture increases, turbulences, vortex movements occur in it, so that the gas mixture seems to resist movement, and this resistance must be overcome in order to push the gas further.

But the laminarity and turbulence of the flow still depend on its speed and width (which are again interconnected). In men, the airways are wider, the gas flow in them also becomes turbulent, but at a higher speed. In women, with their narrower airways, turbulence begins earlier, and therefore they spend more energy simply on breathing. (Well, in a calm state, we breathe slowly, the air flow rate is already low, and there are no difficulties here.)

The authors of the work were going to report their results to the congress of the American Physiological Society, but since the congress did not take place in view of the coronavirus epidemic, they will be published shortly FASEB Journal.

Obviously, this difference in male and female breathing should somehow be taken into account not only in sports, but also in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system, such as asthma and obstructive pulmonary disease.

According to the materials MedicalXpress.

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Cartabia: ‘We need cooperation to face the emergency’ – Politics

“The full implementation of the Constitution requires a choral commitment, with the active, loyal collaboration of all the Institutions, including Parliament, Government, Regions, Judges. This cooperation is also the key to tackling the emergency. It is one of the steps of the report of the president Marta Cartabia on the activity of the Constitutional Court in 2019, where you can read the main trends of constitutional jurisprudence.

“The Constitution, in fact, explains Cartabia- does not contemplate a special right for exceptional times, and this for a conscious choice, but also offers the compass for” sailing on the open sea “in times of crisis, starting with the fair collaboration between institutions, which is the institutional projection of solidarity among citizens “.

The report – explains a note from the Court – starts from the health emergency, which forced the Court to postpone the traditional extraordinary meeting, with the subsequent press conference, to illustrate the activity of the previous year.

“To pursue the convict’s rehabilitative purposes, without neglecting, at the same time, the needs of the security of the community, but calibrating each decision on the path of each prisoner, in light of all the concrete circumstances”. It is the path that the president indicates to the surveillance judiciary. Particularly significant words now that these judges are at the center of controversy over the release of mafia bosses.

Pending the recovery of the usual meeting with journalists by the month of July, or even earlier, the Constitutional Court intends to use all its multimedia channels to make known, in a transparent, complete and accessible way to interested citizens, the statistics and reports that document the activity carried out in 2019.

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And the Oscar goes to …

A dream came true for several Hollywood stars at the Oscar ceremony on Monday night: Joaquin Phoenix became the male lead in the dark thriller joker excellent. To gladiator, Walk the line and The Master Now it worked for the American Jewish actor on the fourth attempt. Phoenix used his acceptance speech for a flaming appeal for nature conservation and against injustice. “I think we’re best when we support each other,” he said.

Brad Pitt also received his first acting Oscar: for his supporting role in Quentin Tarantinos Once Upon a Time in Hollywood. The 56-year-old remembered his beginnings in Hollywood with tears and dedicated the award to his children. Renée Zellweger won the role of Judy Garland in Judy as expected, the award for best actress, and Laura Dern was honored for her portrayal of a tough divorce lawyer in “Marriage Story” as best supporting actress – the evening before her 53rd birthday.

Taika Waititi The New Zealand director Taika Waititi was for his Nazi satire Yoyo Rabbit was awarded an Oscar for the best adapted screenplay. He said, “I made this film in response to the return of hate, intolerance and hate speech. Anyone who was a Nazi went to prison after the war. Today, however, Nazis can hold a rally in a square in a city. Something has to change, something is wrong here. «

At first, the 44-year-old was surprised at how light the Oscar statue was. Then he thanked his mother who gave him the book on which Yoyo Rabbit based. He mentioned a few other names and said he wanted to thank more people, but he didn’t remember any names. That’s why he said: “That’s it!”, Which caused laughter in the hall.

But he added: »This is really great and I dedicate it to all indigenous children who live in the world and make art, dance and write stories. We are the original storytellers and we can make it here. «

Scarlett Johansson for her role in Jojo Rabbit as the best supporting actress and her role in Marriage story was nominated as the best leading actress, went away empty-handed.

Scarlett Johansson, for her mother role in Yoyo Rabbit as best supporting actress and for her portrayal in Marriage story was nominated as the best leading actress, went away empty-handed.

The Oscar for the best film goes to South Korea for the first time – and for the first time to a non-English-language production. In total, there were four awards for the satire in Hollywood on Monday night Parasite: In addition to the king category, filmmaker Bong Joon Ho also won the Oscar abroad and the awards for best director and best original screenplay.

His bitter film, which had already won a Golden Globe and the Golden Palm from Cannes, tells the story of a poor family who nestles in the home of a wealthy family. The highly traded war drama 1917 received three Oscars, including the one for the best camera. The historic racing film received two awards Le Mans 66: Against every chance. The Mafia epic was the loser The Irishman from the 92nd Oscar gala. The top-class film by old master Martin Scorsese had been nominated ten times, but did not win a single award.

Film music Rock star Elton John and his songwriter Bernie Taupin were awarded for the best film song: “(I’m gonna) Love Me Again” from the biopic Rocketman. The best film music in the opinion of the US film academy came from the Icelandic Hildur Gudnadóttir for joker from.

The 18-year-old US singer Billie Eilish, who sang the Beatles classic »Yesterday« for the greats in the film industry who had died since the last gala, such as Kirk Douglas and Doris Day, created a moving moment during the gala. The fatally injured basketball superstar and Oscar winner Kobe Bryant was also commemorated.

The trophy for the best animated film went to the fourth Toy story-Movie Everything does not stop at a command by Josh Cooley. Greta Gerwig’s novel adaptation received the Oscar for the best costume design Little women. The drama was in the make-up / hairstyle section Bombshell – The end of silence excellent.

The film won in the Documentation category American factory. The documentary tells of the people in a factory in Ohio. It is the first plant to be supported by the Barack and Michelle Obama production company. Both congratulated the filmmakers on Twitter for their “moving story”. The only German Oscar hope – the documentation co-produced by SWR The Cave about an underground hospital in Syria – went empty-handed. dpa / ag

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Chancellor delivers speech to nation – he wants to announce that now – News

Sebastian Kurz (VP) wants to deliver a hopeful speech to the battered nation at the ceremony for “75 years of the Second Republic” on Monday and, above all, encourage those who went bankrupt because of the corona crisis.

The 75th anniversary of Austria’s declaration of independence and the associated establishment of the Second Republic will be celebrated on the coming Monday. Due to the corona crisis, the planned ceremony will take place in a reduced form this year. Following a long-standing tradition, this day also begins in 2020 with the wreath-laying ceremony of the Federal Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and the Minister of Defense at the castle gate – this time Sebastian Kurz (VP), Werner Kogler (Greens) and turquoise Claudia Tanner have to do with fewer soldiers of the guard and guard music to take.

New speech on the state of the nation

The ceremony from the Federal Chancellery will be broadcast on ORF from 11:00 a.m. Chancellor Sebastian Kurz will address the population in a 15-minute speech from the Chancellor’s Office. Some details from this speech leaked to the nation on Saturday evening. Sebastian Kurz said it was an anniversary in the middle of a time of crisis “Today”– According to information. Austria “had many successes and wonderful moments, but also always faced challenges and crises together”.

“Will master this crisis”

A few weeks ago, if he had to issue drastic warnings (“We will all know someone who died of Corona”) about the virus, the head of government will now be positive. The Chancellor would like to say “hope and optimism” to the people against the background of the current crisis management, as opposed to the Chancellery “Today” called. Austria will “open a new chapter” at the start of the 76th year of the Second Republic and will also overcome this crisis through “cohesion, hard work and joint efforts”.

“Abandonment demanded a lot from us”

After the phase of “renunciation, deprivation and loneliness that demanded a lot”, according to Sebastian Kurz, “our way back now begins – with gradual upswing in social life and the economy”. For the Federal Chancellor in the coming months it will be a matter of “quickly bringing people back into short-time work and unemployment into full employment” and “helping everyone who has been completely deprived of their economic existence by the virus overnight.” In short: “Companies and their employees now need our full support.”

For this, the government will “work harder” to “make the comeback for Austria together”, Sebastian Kurz wants to tell people in his speech on the state of the nation on Monday, it says.

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Styrian corona party tiger has already celebrated with Putin – Styria

That millionaire, whose corona pool party recently attracted attention, has already celebrated with ex-Foreign Minister Kneissl and Putin.

People come together to celebrate. However, given the still high risk of coronavirus, this is not currently desirable. A round of Austrian millionaires in Styria recently whistled. They demonstratively celebrated a pool party in the time of Corona. The Graz public prosecutor is now investigating several suspects.

In the meantime, new backgrounds about the group have come to light. The Ober-Partytiger celebrated in 2018 as a guest at the wedding of the then Foreign Minister Karin Kneissl. There he caused a sensation with a very special gift, “which even caught the eye of Russian President Vladimir Putin,” reports the “Krone”.

However, this is of no use to him after his media-effective pool drink. “The public prosecutor’s office in Graz initiated an investigation on its own initiative. The criminal police were commissioned to investigate the matter,” spokesman Hansjörg Bacher confirmed. Investigations are being carried out against four persons known by name and other unknowns.

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That is why there was a bloody deed from son to mother (81) – Upper Austria

Long-standing disputes are said to have led to a murder in Kronstorf (Linz-Land district). It was probably about the fact that the homestead has no heirs.

The mother (81) was in the clinch with the son (46), who lived with her at the large farmstead in Kronstorf and who ran it after the death of her father 19 years ago, for years. There was a lot of controversy about family planning: the 81-year-old wanted an heir for the farm, but the 46-year-old had not found a woman.

Rifle fetched from room

On Friday and in the night of Saturday, the dispute had escalated into violence. The son is said to have got his small-caliber rifle shortly after midnight and shot twice in the head and neck of the 81-year-old mother. The woman was dead on the spot. The man then dialed the police emergency number, confessed to the crime and was arrested without resistance.

Man is fully confessed

The man was also confessed to the police questioning. The mother’s body is now to be autopsied. The man was taken to the Garsten Prison after the questioning and after consultation with the Steyr public prosecutor’s office. Is being investigated for murder.

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