Effective way of struggle against diabetes

Scientists have identified a reliable remedy for chronic diseases of metabolism

Effective way of struggle against diabetesPhoto: Ivan MAKEEV

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Prolonged physical exercises and playing sports is an effective way to avoid and even to some extent to overcome some chronic diseases associated with metabolism, e.g., diabetes or metabolic syndrome. To such conclusion scientists from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden and the University of San Diego in the United States as a result of their research, reported in the journal Cell Reports.

The experiment involved eighteen people engaged in Jogging, Cycling and other endurance exercises at least 15 years and seven men, who regularly perform strength exercises.

The researchers found that frequent physical activity changes the activity (expression) 1 711 metabolic genes in women and 1,097 genes in men. That is, the endurance training significantly improves processes associated with the tricarboxylic acid cycle (Krebs cycle), which plays a key role in metabolism.

Those who performed strength training had only 26 genes, which changed their activity. However, this does not mean, however, training does not have any effect. They can directly affect the activity of proteins and not on gene expression.

Experts also compared the obtained results with the data about the change of gene activity in people with metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes.

By the way, the subjects periodically performed exercises for about 6-12 months, after which the situation with the expression of the genes was similar to that observed in the new study, people performing endurance exercise for many years.

SOURCE KP.RU

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In Antarctica an egg fossil from the shell, soft – News

Discovered in Antarctica a great egg fossil from the shell soft. For nine years, his origin was unknown and it was called “The thing”; now it is understood that the 66 million-year-old is the first found so far in the white continent, and belonged to an enormous lizard of the sea. Published in the journal Nature, the result is due to the researchers, coordinated by Lucas Legendre, of the university of Texas at Austin.

Artistic representation of the small mosasauro just out of the egg, next to the mother (source: Francisco Hueichaleo, 2020)

The large egg, measuring 30 inches, was discovered in 2011, but for almost a decade, it has remained without any description in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History of Chile. It was, in short, an object unknown to the point that researchers had nicknamed “The Thing”, inspired by “The thing from another world”, the story of science fiction that at the end of the ’30s used to describe a mysterious object is discovered in Antarctica, and from which were taken more film.


Artistic representation of the small mosasauro that comes out of the egg, next to the mother. The mountains in the background covered with vegetation in Antarctica in the Cretaceous period (source: John Maisano Jackson School of Geosciences, the University of Texas at Austin)

The analyses indicate now that this is the fossil of the largest egg from the shell, soft, never found, and experts think that has been deposited by a marine reptile giant extinct as a mosasauro, defying the prevailing thought that these creatures do not deponessero eggs. “The egg was laid by an animal the size of a large dinosaur, but it is completely different from an egg of a dinosaur,” said Legendre.

“It’s very similar – it has added – to the eggs of lizards and snakes, but is a relative to the truly giant of these animals”. The structure is very similar to that of the transparent eggs laid today from some snakes and lizards. However, because the egg fossil was the origin and contains the remains inside, it was easy to go back to the type of reptile that has laid.


The graphical representation of the egg of mosasauro, its size and the structure of its shell soft (source: Legendre et al. 2020)

By comparing the body size of 259 reptiles living with the size of their eggs, Legendre concluded that the reptile prehistoric that laid the egg had to be very large, perhaps measuring over 6 meters in length, compatible with the size of the tylosaurus. In addition to these tests, the rock formation in which it was discovered the egg also features the skeletons of small tylosaurus, together with adult specimens. The hypothesis is that the environment at the time was a sort of kindergarten with the shallow water and protected, where the little reptiles could grow in peace.

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Rivers similar to the Po on Mars, 3.7 billion years ago VIDEO – Space & Astronomy

Large rivers that flowed creating canals and sandbanks as the Po does: it happened on Mars 3.7 billion years ago. International research published in Nature Communications by Francesco Salese of the International Research School of Planetary Sciences (Irsps) of the Annunzio University of Pescara and the Dutch University of Utrecht reconstructs that ancient landscape.

“The characteristics of the area studied indicate that there were many large rivers on Mars with very high probability, which are probably buried today” and that probably existed for a long period, even over 100,000 years, said planetary geology expert Salese, who conducted the research with William McMahon, of the University of Utrecht. French, Dutch and British researchers also participated in the study.

The river, whose deposits are visible in the Martian cliff of Izola, over 3.7 billion years ago crossed a large plain in the north-western edge of the Hellas basin in the southern hemisphere of Mars, most likely flowing into the Hellas basin, which billions of years ago would have hosted the largest Martian lake, over seven kilometers deep and 2,300 kilometers in diameter.

Mars as it was more than 3 billion years ago, when there was liquid water on the surface. Below the Hellas basin, to the north-east of which large rivers flowed (source: Greg Shirah, NASA. Modified by Francesco Salese)

River deposits were discovered thanks to images sent to Earth by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Mro) satellite HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment). “It is the first evidence of sedimentary rocks exposed at the cliff showing canals formed by large rivers active on Mars more than 3.7 billion years ago. U-shaped structures are visible on the wall, the most recent of which dates back to 3 , 7 billion years ago, and which indicate how the course of the river has changed over time. ” The satellite images made it possible to identify a well-exposed and preserved rocky structure 200 meters high, one and a half kilometers long and with sheer walls: a cliff twice the height of the cliffs of Dover.


3D reconstruction of the geological structure that made it possible to reconstruct the ancient Martian river (source: Francesco Salese)

“The sediments – observed Salese – were deposited in tens of thousands of years and tell us that on Mars there had to be environmental conditions such as to allow for large-scale waterways and a water cycle in which rainfall had an important role. ” Geological evidence of this type is also “crucial for finding life forms,” ​​added the geologist.


3D reconstruction of the geological structure that made it possible to reconstruct the ancient Martian river (source: Francesco Salese)

“It’s not exactly like reading a newspaper, but the high-resolution images allowed us to read the Martian rocks as if we were really very close,” said the researcher. The key to reading the rocks, McMahon observed, is the same that on Earth allows us to reconstruct the geological history of the planet through sediments.

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Scientists have linked the high mortality from COVID-19 with a lack of vitamin D :: Society :: RBC

They indicate that residents of Italy and Spain, where the highest number of deaths are recorded in the European region, are deficient in vitamin D. Some studies show the benefits of taking it in the prevention of respiratory infections

Photo Credit: David Dee Delgado / Getty Images

A large number of coronavirus-infected deaths in some countries may be due to a lack of vitamin D. This is stated in a study by scientists from the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Foundation and the University of East Anglia, published in Research Square.

The researchers compared the mortality statistics from COVID-19 with the average vitamin level in citizens of 20 countries in Europe and saw a significant correlation between these indicators.

Referring to other works, they note that the inhabitants of Italy in the body on average contain 28 nmol / L of vitamin D, the Spaniards – 26 nmol / L. In this case, a lack of substance is recorded when the indicator falls below 30 nmol / L. Scientists note that among citizens of the Scandinavian countries the amount of vitamin D in the body on average reaches 45 nmol / L.

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They also point out that a large number of deaths are registered among older people. In Switzerland, the study says, vitamin D levels among those living in nursing homes do not exceed 23 nmol / L, and in Italy, substance deficiency is observed in 76% of women over 70 years of age.

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Covid: Iit bracelet to stay safe – Liguria

It vibrates if too close and registers codes to trace infection

An ‘intelligent’ bracelet to be worn in phase 2 of the COVID19 emergency, to be able to monitor the safety distance between people and body temperature. The Italian Institute of Technologies of Genoa has developed it, which is now looking for companies and investors for large-scale production. Named iFeel-You, the bracelet uses the research results obtained within the European An.Dy project also dedicated to the development of a sensorized suit capable of monitoring some parameters of the human body.
The prototype, created by the IIT Dynamic Interaction Control Lab research group in Genoa, coordinated by Daniele Pucci, uses part of the algorithms and technologies that the researchers devised for the sensorized suit to read the movement of the body and emit a radio signal : when two bracelets are close together, they vibrate emitting an alert signal and facilitating compliance with the safety distance.

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