the Covid-19 does not explain everything

What will be the impact of the crisis of the Covid-19 on the failures of French companies ? Of the OECD, the credit insurer Coface, many economists to be considered in these time on this critical issue, announcing sometimes figures as of the end of the world in which it is difficult to assess the relevance.

→ TO READ. Coronavirus : few business failures in France, a statistic in trompe-l’oeil

At the risk of adding to the confusion and pessimism, the OFCE was delivered to his tower in the year in publishing, Friday, June 19, a study that provides a new estimate of the magnitude of the shock is predictable.

A level of failure is unprecedented

Based on the assumption of a gradual recovery, the experts of the research center in economics of Sciences-Po have simulated the effect of the crisis on the accounts of a significant sample of a million companies.

Result : “The productive fabric is going to be heavily affected by this pandemic, with levels of failures is unprecedented, in other words, companies unable to cope with the payment of wages or suppliers,”, says Lionel Nesta, one of the four co-authors of the study (1).

In ” normal times “, the Bank of France accounts for, on average, 60 000 enterprises with payment difficulties each year. According to the forecasts of the OFCE, this number could increase to 40 000 failures by the end of the year. If “all the situations will not necessarily result in a final judgment of the company “ – some of which may be placed in a single receivership -, “the bankruptcy potential could cause the destruction of approximately 250 000 jobs “, say the authors.

→ TO READ. The green check, a good idea for the stimulus ?

These figures are to be taken with extreme caution. First of all, because the simulation is built on the latest balance sheet data known to companies that date back to December 2017, which is a bit dated. Then because, by construction, it does not take into account public policy that can still be put in place to counter the effects of the crisis.

A selection mechanism of the market

This is also the main interest of this study to make recommendations based on a detailed analysis of the results. These show that “the exposure to the risk of bankruptcy is not only determined by the magnitude of the shock, but by the interaction between this and other factors “in particular, the financial strength of more or less large companies.

“In a period of growth, companies that are sanctioned by the market are, in general, those who have problems with productivity. The crisis of the Covid-19 comes seize this selection mechanism since we observe a systematic increase of the share of economically viable enterprises in the population of insolvent companies “, says Lionel Nesta.

This increase is particularly notable in the sectors of hospitality and construction, where many small businesses are exposed to the risk of bankruptcy as much, if not more, because cash is too low and a lack of own funds as to the effects of a shutdown forced.

The price of the ” zero-fail “

However, unlike some large companies, they are also fragile due to their over-indebtedness, these small businesses still spend too often under the radar of public authorities.

→ TO READ. Coronavirus : few business failures in France, a statistic in trompe-l’oeil

The establishment by the government, in the emergency, part-time unemployment and of the device loan is guaranteed by the State has certainly allowed many of them to absorb some of the shock. “With the recovery that is beginning, it is necessary to find a new device that takes the relay. For example, by helping companies to refinance their own funds “advocates Lionel Nesta.

According to the OFCE, such a device, focused on companies whose difficulties are actually attributable to the containment, would cost about 3 billion euros to public finances, excluding sector-specific aid already envisaged, which amounted to ten billion. The price of the “zero-fail” promised by the president Macron.


Bruno Le Maire is also on LinkedIn

If politicians have long expressed interest in debates on Facebook, Bruno Le Maire has decided to inaugurate a new communication channel.

→ LIVE. Coronavirus: the latest news in France and worldwide on May 4

Barely finished an intervention on the radio in the morning, it was on the LinkedIn site, the social network devoted to the professional world, that the Minister of the Economy worked on Monday May 4 to respond to the calls of the actors of the economic world.

Worried little bosses

Before the opening of the video session, questions already abounded from restaurant owners, gyms or training centers, managers of clothing stores or vacation centers, freelancers or creators of companies. Most of the questions focused on the difficulties specific to their sector or their company, but nevertheless revealed recurring concerns.

The question of rents, in particular, has often returned to the merchant side. The minister recalled the agreement obtained from the major land groups to cancel three months’ rent for the smallest businesses. But Bruno Le Maire recognizes this, this will only affect 10 to 15% of these smaller companies.

The others are therefore invited to enter into negotiations with their owner. ” It is right that the rent should go down and it is in everyone’s interest to avoid the proliferation of bankruptcies Says the Minister.

“Economy on a drip”

Another subject that often comes up is the upcoming reduction in the partial unemployment system, which already worries many employers. ” We cannot live sustainably with an economy on a drip, financed by public funds “Replied the Minister, deeming it therefore necessary” to progressively evolve, I mean progressively, the system To encourage people to return to work. The priority, he explained, is ” to keep public money for sectors that have no other choice »And will remain permanently impacted, like catering or tourism.

Faced with business leaders who demand visibility, Bruno Le Maire assured that a possible postponement of the deconfinement would not concern the resumption of economic activities. He also once again promised that the government would announce the ” date and protocols For the reopening of cafes or leisure establishments.

The challenge of recovery

While several employees of the company Corsair had met on the site to question the minister on the assistance given to Air France, the latter replied that the state could obviously help other airlines. With one condition, however: ” that shareholders also do their part of the way

→ EXPLANATION. France and the Netherlands at the head of the Air France-KLM flagship

Bruno Le Maire also warned that once the deconfinement had passed, the hardest thing would probably begin. The period before the return to normal will be long and marked by two risks, he pointed out: a problem of solvency of companies which can lead to an increase in bankruptcies, and a possible acceleration of layoffs as long as activity remains slowed down .

This transition period is likely to last for months and probably years. It looks like ” a challenge “, Noted Bruno Le Maire because for the first time” we will have to work with a virus that continues to circulate and for which we do not have a vaccine


these chocolate makers who deliver at home throughout France

Chocolatiers-confectioners-confectioners are among the basic necessities that must remain open during containment at the request of the state. Some of them, however, decided to stop production and close the shop, to protect the health of their employees and customers. Others have chosen to remain open and / or offer online sales. Here is a selection of some of them … Order quickly to hope to be delivered in time for Easter, favor the craftsmen who are near you, limit your trips like those of the delivery men and stay careful!

In Paris

• The chocolate bean to bar PLAQ, whose boutique on rue du Nil remains open for take-out also offers the delivery of its tablets and its first Easter collection (they opened a year ago). This includes black or milk eggs whose chocolate was entirely made on site, with or without a Piedmont hazelnut praline inside (large single egg or small eggs in quantity, from 19 to 32 €) .

Order on of the Easter offer. Other chocolates available for delivery on or on 01 40 39 09 54. Delivery in Paris by courier, by UPS throughout France. Pick up in store, open from Tue to Sun, 11 a.m. to 5 p.m.

Carrots from Yann Menguy (Paris 18
Yann Menguy

• Yann Menguy reopens his Pastry of La Goutte d’Or for Easter. The pastry chef will be in the shop to prepare and offer a take away or delivery selection of 4 seasonal pastries as well as Easter chocolates: carrot (milk chocolate, hazelnut and coated almond garnish, € 19), surprise eggs (milk chocolate, sobacha, pistachio, garnished with hazelnuts and coated almonds, € 21), fried eggs (mango and caramel, € 49 for 6/8 pers.) and the crate of 14 mini eggs (dulcey, walnuts pecan, € 14).

In-house delivery to Paris for a minimum amount of € 30 ordered the day before in the store (183, rue Marcadet, 18e) or to the numbers 06 08 98 96 21 – 07 60 35 10 13. Delivery guaranteed the next day during the day. Or pick up in the store, Tuesday to Saturday from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. and from 3 p.m. to 7 p.m., from April 7.

And also:Patrick Roger and Maison Aleph.

In all of France

• The Parisian chocolate maker Edwart offers to order chocolates and Easter subjects online with several delivery offers depending on whether one is located in the capital or in mainland France. Squirrel, beaver, raccoon and other eggs garnished with hazelnut or pistachio praline (12 to 48 €) are all crunchy Easter creations, but also fragile: they are only available by courier delivery in Paris and in the Paris suburbs ( 2-5 days, from 50 € purchase). The rest of France can order mini praline eggs, fried foods, orangettes, bars … (Chronopost delivery in 3-8 days, € 14 or free from € 50 purchase).

Order on

To the Mother had started by closing its 14 Parisian shops and its commercial site. After distributing part of its chocolates to various hospitals and associations, the brand has just reopened its e-shop. All orders are made and shipped throughout France from their factory in Touraine: Easter molds (shells, hens, eggs, rabbits …), frying, praline rocks, papillot eggs … (from 11 , € 50 to € 65).

Order on, shipments from 1er April. Delivery throughout mainland France by Chronopost only (free from € 50).

The Dalloyau “dino”. Dalloyau

• The House Dalloyau offers this year a collection “Jurassic Easter” designed with Jérémy Del Val, French dessert champion: eggs and other dinosaurs (black and milk) will allow little gourmets to play apprentices paleontologists in the garden. Four packed baskets are available for delivery, from 30 to 99 €.

Chronopost delivery (€ 12) throughout France: order on from April 2 to 5 for a basket reception between April 9 and 10. Collection in store in Paris 8e and Boulogne free.

• The House Fauchon and his pastry chef François Daubinet offer to order online assortments of chocolates to be delivered for the Easter family hunt: mini chocolate eggs, dark eggs, milk and white garnished with praline, eggs in nougatine, fried food. . (from 12 to 19 €).

Order on Chronopost delivery throughout France, free from € 35 purchase with the code CHOCO20. Possible delivery by courier in Paris and near suburbs (35 €). Discounts of 15 to 30% on certain chocolates.

And also: Le Chocolat Alain Ducasse, Pierre Hermé, Ladurée, Lenôtre, Pierre Marcolini, Stéphane Bonnat, Christophe Michalak, La Maison du Chocolat, Chapon, Hugo & Victor or the Manufacture Cluizel.

»SEE ALSO – How to make a puffed rice chocolate bar


when plants replace concrete

It is a popular place for tourists, who like to sail on the Mayenne and admire its bucolic shores. The Grez-Neuville canal, north of Angers (Maine-et-Loire), has been the subject of rather rare experimentation on this scale for two years: restoring its banks by preferring plants to stones. “We had observed their degradation during periods of low water, says Gwennaël Cordier, technician in aquatic environments in the department. To restore them, two options were available to us: resort to civil engineering, with masonry or riprap, or else to plant engineering, by focusing on the capacities of plants to fix and consolidate the banks. We chose the second. “

To select the best species to implant, the department relied on the expertise of the Fresne Agricultural High School, near Angers. “They had to resist the water, the waves caused by the boats, the erosion and the nutria which dig galleries, explains the technician. They also had to develop slowly and require little maintenance. “

Nature-based solutions

The choice fell on the plantation of earth sausages surrounded by coconut fibers, sown with helophyte plants such as irises or rushes. “They have the particularity of having their feet in the water and their heads in the sun”, describes André Evette, engineer and researcher at the National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment (Inrae), which closely monitors plant engineering projects in France (1). “These nature-based solutions are not new and date back to Antiquity, he recalls. But we lost sight of them from the 1950s and the transition to all-concrete. It was the era of the Thirty Glorious Years, and we didn’t have the same way of seeing the world as today … “ In the 1970s and 1980s, Austria and Switzerland brought these techniques up to date, followed by Germany and the Netherlands. In France, they have reappeared for ten years.

“Their major advantage is to favor the ecological restoration of the banks, high places of biodiversity, explains the researcher. The plants filter the pollutants that arrive in the water, provide a welcome shade and recreate a whole habitat in the air as in the water: insects, dragonflies, crayfish, freshwater shrimps, fish … “ A virtuous circle, which saves money. “Not only is it better to work with living things, but it’s also cheaper, confirms Gwennaël Cordier. Our plant site costs around € 40,000, when a “hard” development can amount to millions of euros, taking into account the difficulties of access to the site for construction machinery. “ Finally, if its effectiveness is not as immediate as a concrete installation, over time, “Plant engineering is becoming stronger than civil engineering”, he continues.

→ READ. Microplastics, nitrate: World Bank investigates invisible water pollution

Work on the Grez-Neuville canal was carried out in October 2018, testing two techniques. For the first 75 meters, a strip of local herb seeds has been planted above the helophyte sausages in geotextile. “It is a good alternative to the plastic sheet because it degrades naturally. “ Over the next 75 meters, a bed of willow plants has been added. The most effective technique will be reproduced on the 650 meters of remaining banks. A year and a half later, the first assessment is already positive: “The plants are well anchored to the ground and the willows have grown very well, greet the technician. But we must wait until spring 2021 to draw our conclusions. “

Only 5% of rivers in good ecological condition

In this department concentrating 7,000 kilometers of rivers, of which only 5% are in good ecological condition, the restoration of the banks and, ultimately, the recovery of the quality of the water prove to be crucial. “With plant engineering, we try to repair the mistakes of the past”, explains Marc Helbert, head of the water service in the department, which coordinates an Observatory of water quality in Anjou. “What weighs most on us is the fish index, he comments. It will replenish when they can circulate more freely in our waterways. But these actions will take time to produce their effects… ”

Especially since these techniques inspired by nature are not so simple to implement. “They require multidisciplinary skills and strong field experience, comments André Evette. It is not enough to follow technical rules like in civil engineering. Living things are impossible to model. How to predict that a beaver will eat the willow that has been planted? “ If plants can solve a multitude of problems – maintaining agricultural land in the face of erosion, preventing avalanches in the mountains, cleaning up soil, phyto-purification, wind or noise barrier – they cannot always be enough . “When you have a torrent near a school, you may not be going without concrete to secure the site, comments the researcher. In an urban environment, you don’t always have a choice. But mixed solutions are developing. “

→ REPORTAGE. At the Paris Aquarium, fish grow tomatoes

Nor is it easy to convince of the economic profitability of these developments. The establishment of hedges or buffer zones not cultivated in agricultural zones, for example, requires educational work. “Obviously, the financial gain is not necessarily demonstrated for a productivist agricultural model”, recognizes André Evette.

Last merit of plant genius: embellishing the landscape. “In front of our work on the canal, we have a very busy towpath, notes Gwennaël Cordier. Walkers are delighted with the new plantations. “ What hardly surprises André Evette: “Plants have a positive influence on humans: our blood pressure decreases in the forest, seeing a tree from its window facilitates healing in the hospital like concentration in a classroom. Putting plants back, in the end, is no longer disjoining man and nature … “


Not enough fish, too many pesticides

The balance sheet drawn up in 2018 by the Observatory of water quality in Anjou over the last ten years draws up an unquestionable observation: too much nitrates, presence of 151 pesticide molecules (glyphosate, atrazine…), average or even bad fish population.

However, two indicators experience improvement (phosphorus, nitrogen) linked to
progress in wastewater treatment.


New consultation on the support plan for the hotel and restaurant sectors

Will cafes, bars and restaurants reopen on June 15? If the government still refuses to provide an answer to this question, it nevertheless wishes to assure this sector in crisis of its support.

With this in mind, Emmanuel Macron held a videoconference on Friday morning with representatives of the hotel, catering and tourism sectors, in the presence of Bruno Le Maire (Economy), Gérald Darmanin (Budget) and Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne ( Trade). The meeting was devoted to the aid plan intended to support this sector hard hit by the coronavirus crisis.

“A strategy at local and national level” necessary

A recovery plan from which professionals expect a lot, in particular the exemption from the payment of local taxes in 2020, the cancellation of rents for six months and the at least partial coverage of operating losses.

Thursday, the president of the Hauts-de-France region Xavier Bertrand (ex-LR), and the mayor of Lille Martine Aubry also called on the government to mobilize asking, in particular, “The creation by the State of an investment fund”. Among them, “The incentive by the State to insurers so that they cover at least partially the loss of turnover that restaurants, cafeterias and hoteliers record”, they write with the president of the Lille European Metropolis, Damien Castelain, in a letter sent to Prime Minister Edouard Philippe and of which AFP obtained a copy.

Because if cafes and restaurants “Are ready to put in place the necessary health rules, both to protect their customers and their employees”, “A real strategy at the local level, as at the national level” is necessary “To allow the reopening in the best conditions of the hotel, cafe and restaurant sector”. Indeed, “In view of the imperatives of social distancing, a limitation in the number of tables in the dining room or on the terrace could lead a professional to work at a loss”, explain the three elected officials.

The reopening date still pending

Another strong expectation of bars, cafes and restaurants: knowing when they can reopen their establishments, of which they had to lower the curtain since March 14. A question mark on which the government does not want to lift the veil for now. Asked Wednesday about it, spokeswoman Sibeth Ndiaye did not confirm the hypothesis of a reopening on June 15. “We need time to develop the different scenarios for resumption of activity, so I obviously can not confirm this date of June 15“, She explained.

For their part, Xavier Bertrand, Martine Aubry and Damien Castelain also call to “give the profession visibility as quickly as possible, both on the health measures to be taken, but also on the possible date of recovery”.

Thursday morning, in a tribune at Le Figaro, Xavier Bertrand had already called to “save” the café-bars-restaurants which “Shape the identity of France” and find themselves stopped due to confinement. “We must save this essential link of our economic activity which is, with our museums, our cathedrals and our festivals, the pillar of our tourism, one of the emblems of our culture and a good part of the French art of living”, he said.


order a drink for the end of containment

Neighborhood cafes and barter shops had to lower the curtain in disaster. On March 14, Edouard Philippe hastily announced the closing of bars and restaurants for midnight, as part of the fight against the coronavirus. Since then, the owners have been waiting and waiting for deconfinement. In order to provide them with a cash advance, the platform “I like my bistro” was created.

The principle is to allow loyal customers to pre-order coffee, wine, beer, cocktail or even a meal, for an amount of 1.50 to 50 euros. Consumption may be served at the end of confinement. On the move, major brands such as France Boissons, Coca-Cola, Pernod Ricard, Heineken, Kronenbourg, Lavazza … For the first 10,000 paid purchase vouchers, the latter will add 50% to the ticket. For example, for 10 euros paid by the consumer, the owner of the cafe will receive 15.

Payments should be possible from this weekend, on site. Bistro owners must register in advance. “The French bistro is emblematic of our culture, it is our heritage that must be helped“, We explain from the side of the platform. “The cash collected will be used to limit the use of government guaranteed loan Says Sébastien Couret, owner of the Ballon Rouge, a wine bar in downtown Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Nothing will be easy to take back, our loyal customers will be essential” In Lyon, the Le Crazy Dog beer bar is also participating in the operation. “This will allow us to pay the salary supplement advance to our partially unemployed employees. And we have a whole bunch of fixed charges that we continue to pay: rent, insurance …

“J’aime mon bistrot” is not the only initiative of this type. The AB iNbEV brewer (Stella artois, Leffe, Corona …) has also launched a platform called “Solidarity bar”, on the same principle.


Georges Nivat: “In Russia there is the idea that there is no truth, only opinions”

The memories of Russia are multiple. It is this plurality that the specialist of Russian culture Georges Nivat continues to explore in the monument work Sites of Russian memory, whose second volume – “History and myths of Russian memory” – was recently published by Fayard editions. On several hundred pages are listed the topoi from this memory – from historians who over the centuries have ordered the national narrative to peasant folklore, from mythified figures like Peter the Great and Lenin to the founding myths of “Moscow, third Rome” or of the patriotic war against Napoleon in 1812, passing by saints and martyrs, encyclopedias, the image of the Jew or the question of women…

You are openly referring to Memory places by Pierre Nora. Is your approach the same?

Memorial place, that inspired me, were built little by little. I remain very modest, but I built right away. In France, literature begins earlier, cathedrals too, free cities and the franc-bourgeoisie appear before. In Russia, we realized very late that the “chronicle” had started as early as the XIe and XIIe centuries. The Chronicles Edition, which I called “The invention of chronicles”, starts under Nicolas Ier, in particular with the publication of Chronicles of Novgorod, in 60 volumes, and continues to this day. Russia really liked to build its scientific memory through this.

Amnesia-hypermnesia, eternal tension of Russian memory issues …

Russia has a long memory, if we compare to France, which has a short memory. Take the example of the glory of arms. In France, we no longer have the idea of ​​this glory, the public no longer knows what a war is. Napoleon, we don’t have a cult anymore. Young people no longer know who Clovis is … On the other hand, there is not a Russian who does not know Vladimir the Red Sun, the founder of “Holy Russia”.

And then there is what I call “the school of amnesia”, the one we knew during the French Revolution at certain times – Lyon was renamed into “nameless city” to punish it, it doesn’t only lasted a few months. While the Russian blackout during the Soviet period lasts seventy years, when cities are renamed and history rewritten. Or the hole in the peasant memory, the loss of popular folklore, as the sociologist Boris Firsov, from the working class, who so well started living oral history with peasants, shows so well. arrived in cities in the aftermath of the revolution.

Russian society is still sick of these mutilations of memory, of amnesia imposed at the state level …

From the point of view of memory, the truth does not make sense. One can very well keep the memory of a lie by being convinced that it is the truth, and all the efforts of authentic historians to demonstrate for example that the Katyn massacre is not due to the Germans, but well to the Soviets, will be in vain. Even when the government admitted it, Yeltsin first, Putin second, opinion did not change its mind. I also wanted to show another aspect of these extraordinary memory lapses: 95% of the churches and monasteries were destroyed, but at the same time there was a first-rate restoration school for the remaining 5%.

Today, is Russian history taught in a less mythical way?

Textbooks, from the first under Nicolas Ier until today, have always been and remain to the glory of the regime. Today’s textbook is inspired by President Putin, who demanded that nothing be excluded, neither the White Army, the Red Army, nor the Autocracy. A kind of consensus.

But this unique manual is rightly criticized for minimizing the terror, the gulag, and more generally the dark aspects of the communist regime …

Yes, but the Gulag Archipelago, in the abridged version by the widow of Solzhenitsyn, is on the school program. As long as Putin does not ban this book, he defends a certain idea of ​​the terror debate.

State violence, the fear it inspires are among the topoi that you describe …

Fear of the State was established by the great reformer Pierre the Great, in the XVIIIe century. He imports both science and technology, corresponds with Leibniz, and at the same time he creates the Third Section, a secret police which instills mad fear. Pierre is a despot, enlightened but despot. Another great figure in Russian history is Ivan the Terrible. Was he a madman, a madman, or a progressive man who understood that without terror you cannot hold a gigantic territory? It was he who gave Russia its present form …

Are the debates on historical memory fruitful in Russia?

There are very old debates, fundamental for the memory, but almost without exit. Like these series of collections entitled “Pro and Contra”, which present different points of view on the work of writers, poets, philosophers. It’s interesting but it creates the idea that there is no truth, only opinions. These debates give no key to find your way around. Take for example the character of Boris Godounov, at the end of the XVIe century: did he really order the murder of Tsarevich Dimitri to steal the throne from him? No, he did not sponsor it. Historians have confirmed this as early as 1920-1930. But the historian Nicolas Karamzine had found that this alliance of virtue and crime, it sounded good, this stain on the conscience of the virtuous man. The poet Alexander Pushkin took up the story [dans une célèbre tragédie, qui a par la suite inspiré, entre autres, un opéra de Moussorgski et une musique de scène de Prokofiev, ndlr]. From that moment on, it became the truth, the accepted version. Russian culture debates what its historical memory is, but it debates badly because it does not listen to the historical inquiry.

Veronika Dorman Photo Rémy Artiges for Liberation

Georges Nivat (under the direction of) Sites of Russian memory tome 2 Fayard, 880 pp., € 49.90 (ebook: € 39.99).


Coronavirus: 75% of restaurants and hotels closed and many companies are considering not reopening | Coronavirus

In an online press conference to present the results of the study “covid-19 – Impact on tourist activity”, AHRESP’s secretary general, Ana Jacinto, said that, of the 75% of companies closed, almost 70% concern the area of tourist accommodation and 33% to catering.

The same survey, carried out between the 1st and the 3rd of April, and which counted around two thousand responses, also indicates that 50% of the surveyed companies intend to move towards the simplified lay-off, one of the government measures to support companies .

Of that 50%, about 70% admitted not being able to pay wages this April, if, however, the Social Security does not make the timely delivery of the planned support, which must be paid on the 28th. Of the group of companies that said they intend to proceed to lay-off, 75% said that it is a measure to apply to all employees. their workers.

Almost 80% of AHRESP’s member companies said they did not use financial support and, of the 23% who did, two-thirds used the Turismo de Portugal support line, which is aimed at micro-companies.

Of the companies that responded to the survey, 60% said “clearly that the helplines are not suitable to their needs and indicated as a priority the support to non-refundable funds ”, added Ana Jacinto.

As for redundancies, 94% of the companies have not yet dismissed any workers, however 30% say that they were no longer able to pay wages in March and 80% estimated a total lack of invoicing in April and May.

“The impact on employment is tremendous, the impact on billing is tremendous and the scenario only confirms what AHRESP has been saying,” said the association’s general secretary. “There is an urgent need for serious measures to directly support the treasury of companies so that they can survive and maintain their jobs ”, warned the official.

For AHRESP, companies must be supported with non-refundable money, to avoid over-indebtedness. “There is no other alternative, because companies will not bear” the “huge costs” that they will have to pay when the crisis is over, he stressed.


Customer distrust of meals prepared and delivered to your home

Containment brings down the activity of the Deliveroo, Uber Eats and Just Eat platforms.

In Paris, delivery men are waiting in front of a Dark Kitchen, a restaurant brand 100% dedicated to delivery.
In Paris, delivery men are waiting in front of a Dark Kitchen, a restaurant brand 100% dedicated to delivery. Jean-Christophe MARMARA / Le Figaro

In a deserted Paris, we sometimes meet at the door of his building his postman, a DHL delivery man, and, getting off his bike, a courier came to deliver a meal ordered on Deliveroo, Uber Eats or Just Eat. The government may have ordered all restaurants to be closed during containment, but meal deliveries are allowed. A boon for platforms? Not that much.

Everything from outside worries

Confined, in stress at the idea of ​​being contaminated at the slightest gesture, the French show distrust. The safety instructions that everyone is working to respect to limit the risks associated with food purchases, have thrown an enormous cold. Everything from outside worries, even more when it comes to food.

The government has published a guide to good practice to respect: the delivery person must have no contact, either with the restaurant owner or with the customer. Once at his destination, he must warn of his arrival (by striking or ringing), leave immediately or depart

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In company canteens, artificial intelligence helps reduce queues

Artificial intelligence arrives in your canteens: using an algorithm capable of identifying the content of your tray, the French start-up Trayvisor intends to reduce the queues which sometimes lengthen at the cash desk in the company canteens. But it is not the only start-up in the FOODTECH to take an interest in your plate.

Launched at the start of the year in the canteens of large French companies, the service offered by Trayvisor is very innovative. Using a complex algorithm based on artificial intelligence and Deep learning, the contents of a tray are entirely scanned by terminals which replace the traditional self-checkout cases. This algorithm can identify all types of products, products “packagedLike yogurts, with elaborate recipes proposed by the chef.

Indeed, the software “self-learningFrom Trayvisor detects and recognizes food through its database. Then once the reference has been found, all that remains is to pay the bill with your badge or a bank card. At Elior, whose canteens were the first to test the services of Trayvisor, we praise the speed of the operation (ten seconds): “this technology allows the guest to limit their waiting time at the checkout, and the cashier’s hosts and hostesses to devote more time to welcoming and serving guests“.

A copy of the Trayvisor terminal, displayed at Station F. Trayvisor

But the advantage of this algorithm lies above all in its database extended to 10,000 recipes thanks to a partnership with Foodvisor. Founded in 2015, the Foodvisor start-up also relies on artificial intelligence to recognize thousands of foods and provide users with a nutritional analysis of scanned products from their phones. Foodvisor has had resounding success, exceeding one million users. With Foodvisor in its investors, Trayvisor easily imagines the future development of its services: “on solves the problem of collection, but soon we can go further by providing, in connection with Foodvisor, nutritional advice to our users“Explains Camille Davy, COO of Trayvisor, at Figaro. Before adding that a third pillar for the start-up would be food waste, which is still too important in corporate restaurants.

An innovation that arouses the interest of large groups

For the moment, three Elior restaurants located in the Paris region and welcoming more than 600 guests daily use the Trayvisor kiosks. And the start-up intends to extend its services to restaurants of large companies in the Lyon region. Elior also clarified at Figaro that this technology could be deployed in higher education canteens. France is a large market for collective catering, but Trayvisor is also planning to develop abroad: “in Europe and maybe even one day in the United States“Says Camille Davy. Elior is the French leader in collective catering and number 4 in the world, with a turnover of 4.9 billion euros in 2019.

But in the “service” branch of the FOODTECH , Trayvisor is not alone : other start-ups also use artificial intelligence and visual recognition to optimize the waiting time at the self. Among them, the Chinese start-up AEYE-GO, created in 2017 and financed by Sodexo Ventures, an investment fund launched by Sodexo and dedicated to start-ups. At AEYE-GO, artificial intelligence makes the checkout even faster: the terminal not only scans the tray, but also registers the face of the customer (exclusively in China) in order to debit their account directly, payment by badge or by phone then becoming optional. On its website, Sodexo Ventures specifies that these terminals have already been deployed in 11 restaurants managed by Sodexo. If catering is only one branch of Sodexo’s activity, the group’s strong international presence (19th largest employer worldwide, 72 countries) will be of great help to the Chinese start-up.

In front of Trayvisor is also the French start-up Deepomatic, which designs visual recognition algorithms for companies in various sectors. Deepomatic has developed with the catering group Compass the “express terminal”, Implemented in 37 restaurants since February 2019. The operation of these terminals is similar to that of the Trayvisor and AEYE-GO terminals: artificial intelligence once again allows a checkout in less than 10 seconds. In February 2019, Compass said in a press release that the “Express terminal“Makes it possible to free up two hours of the time of the employees of its restaurants, who are then more available for the guests:”employees can thus devote themselves to missions improving the quality of service such as reception, restocking and advice on the proposed offer“.

It remains to be seen whether their services will become the norm in all our canteens tomorrow. The first tests seem conclusive in any case: for example, Deepomatic reports that 92% of the guests were very satisfied with the use of their terminals.