Lessons in secondary schools of 2nd grade will be able to start from 7 to 8.30 to help reduce the load on public transport at peak times. This is the suggestion of the Scientific Technical Committee provided to the Ministry of Education for the reopening of schools from 14 September. “Among the system measures – the scientists write – it is also necessary to evaluate the possible impact of the movements related to the mobility of the students. The ISTAT data reported in the “Technical document on the hypothesis of the re-modulation of the containment measures in relation to collective land transport, with a view to the recovery of commuting, in the context of the emergency from SARS-CoV-2” highlight critical elements in the major metropolitan areas, during working days, in the peak times of the morning and afternoon, with daily profiles also confirmed by the processing of mobile telephony data of the main Italian cities ».
Coronavirus, 658 new cases in Leicester in two weeks. «Crowd in pubs, cities at risk of lockdown»
Now live from Palazzo Chigi to present the guidelines for the reopening of September. https://t.co/Z38I6cGAlF
– Lucia Azzolina (@AzzolinaLucia) June 26, 2020
For experts who act as government consultants, “The great diversity of the school realities distributed in our country, with peculiarities in relation to the order of school (users, educational programs, organizational-didactic methods), school structures and infrastructures, geographic location, social fabric, etc. , they require a reflection and careful evaluation specifically contextualized ». Therefore, “it is a priority that each scholastic reality proceeds to a mapping of the spaces destined to all the didactic activities in relation to the number of pupils and staff in order to ensure as much as possible the teaching in the presence, albeit with possible hourly reductions / reductions”. Distance teaching in the months of the emergency “certainly represented a prompt and effective response from schools and led to an acceleration of new skills for school staff and students; in view of the reopening of the didactic activities in the presence, the remote modality can represent an integrative and not a substitute moment, differently applied and commensurate with the age groups of the students ».
Zangrillo: «The virus has not changed but has lost its charge. Disoriented and tormented Italy must start again »
Inhale through your nose and exhale from the mouth: it is not only an exercise to perform during a yoga lesson. Breathe in this manner presents a great advantage from the point of view of the doctor that can help you fight a viral infection.
The nasal cavity, in fact, produces nitrogen monoxide, is a molecule abbreviated by the chemical NO, that increases the blood flow in the lungs and increases the levels of oxygen in the blood. Breathing in from the nose we carry the NO directly into the lungs, where it can help fight infection by coronavirus, blocking the cycle and replication machinery of the virus in the lungs. Also, many yoga devotees benefit from the inhalation nasal rather than oral: the high oxygen saturation of the blood can make us feel more refreshed and increase our resistance.
I am one of the three pharmacologists who received the Nobel prize in 1998 for having discovered the way in which the nitrogen monoxide is produced by the human body and its functioning.
Nitrogen monoxide is a molecule that signal very widespread that triggers a variety of physiological effects. Clinically it is used as a gas to dilate selectively the pulmonary arteries of infants with pulmonary hypertension. Unlike many signal molecules, the natural state of NO is a gas.
Relax the muscles The nitrogen monoxide is produced in a continuous cycle from the thousand billion cells that form the endothelial tissue of the over one hundred thousand miles of blood vessels that wind up in our body, especially in the lungs. The nitrogen monoxide produced by the endothelial tissue serves to relax the smooth muscle tissue of the arteries to prevent excessive pressure and promote the flow of blood towards all the organs. Another essential role of NO is to prevent the formation of thrombi in the arterial vessels.
In addition to the muscle tissue, vascular, nitrogen monoxide also relaxes the airway (the trachea and bronchioles) and facilitates breathing. Another type of relaxation of the smooth muscle tissue linked to the NO occurs in the corpus cavernosum, creating the erection. The nitrogen monoxide is the main mediator responsible for erection and sexual arousal. This discovery has led to the development and marketing of the sildenafil (known as Viagra), a drug that acts by potentiating the action of NO.
Other cell types, including circulating cells, white blood cells and macrophages, produce nitrogen monoxide to purpose antimicrobial. The NO interacts with other molecules produced by the same cells to form antimicrobial agents which destroy the micro-organisms in the interior, including bacteria, parasites, and viruses. As you can see, the nitrogen monoxide is a molecule that is extraordinary.
Since NO is a gas, may be administered with the help of special devices that allow patients to inhale. The nitrogen monoxide inhalation is used to treat children born with pulmonary hypertension, persistent, a condition in which narrowed arteries restrict the blood flow and the uptake of oxygen.
The nitrogen monoxide inhaled dilates the narrowed arteries and increases the blood flow in the lungs. Thanks to this process, the hemoglobin contained in the red blood cells can pick up oxygen and release it into the circulatory system. The NO inhaled has literally transformed the complexion of many infants from “blue” to “pink”, allowing it to heal and go back home with the parents. Before this treatment, most children suffering from pulmonary hypertension not survived.
The studies on Sars Currently, the nitrogen monoxide inhalation is also used in some clinical trials on patients suffering from covid-19. The researchers hope to fight the virus, also thanks to the three main actions of the molecule: the dilatation of the pulmonary arteries with increased blood flow, dilation of airways with increased release of oxygen in the lungs and in the blood and the ability to stop or at least slow down the growth and spread of the virus in the lungs.
In one In vitro study conducted in 2004, during the outbreak of Sars, the experimental compounds that release NO have increased the survival rate of eukaryotic cells of mammals infected with the Sars-cov. These results suggested that the nitrogen monoxide has an antiviral effect directed. The study found that NO inhibited significantly the cycle and replication machinery of the virus by blocking the production of viral proteins and genetic material, Rna.
In a small clinical study conducted in 2004, the nitrogen monoxide that is inhaled has been shown to be effective against the Sars-cov in patients with pneumonia and in a serious condition.
The Sars-cov responsible for the epidemic of 2003-2004, it shares most of its genome with the Sars-cov-2, the virus that causes the covid-19. Consequently, it is possible that therapy based on the NO inhalation may be effective for patients suffering from covid-19. At the moment several institutions are conducting clinical trials with the administration of NO to patients with moderate or severe forms of covid-19 and forced to depend on a respirator. The hope is that the inhalation of nitrogen monoxide to be effective and reduce the need for ventilators and beds in intensive care.
Unlike the mouth, the nasal cavities produce NO in a continuous cycle. The nitrogen monoxide produced in the nasal cavity is chemically identical to the one used in the therapy for inhalation. Therefore, inhaling from the nose allows us to bring the NO directly into the lungs, where it increases the flow of the respiratory and blood as well as counteract microorganisms and viral particles.
While we look forward to the results of clinical studies on the inhalation of NO and the development of a vaccine against the covid-19, we should try to breathe in a proper way, maximizing the inhalation of nitrogen monoxide. Remember: inhale through your nose, exhale from the mouth.
Found a new scientific study that some forms of common colds and may help in providing protection against the “SGRF-19”, can be used against corona virus for up to 17 years, according to a study conducted by the experts of the taught area.
Researchers said the patients, who have colds because of the viruses in relation to the “SGRF-19”, called “MERS-CoV beta”, you may have their homes or suffer from a milder form of the disease.
Called the “virus Corona beta”, especially virus OC43 وHKU1, the common colds, but also severe infections in the chest and in patients older and younger.
These viruses in many of the features of the gene with coronary viruses “SGRF-19” SARS syndrome Middle East Respiratory, which produces all of the animals to humans.
It is believed that coronaviruses cause up to 30% of all colds, but I don’t know specifically of women caused by types of virus, Corona beta.
The researchers found now evidence that some product may be present for many years because of the cells, stimulating the “memory” of the body of the virus attacks the former with a genetic composition similar, even among those who were not exposed to the”SGRF-19″ or SARS.
And T-cells are a type of white blood cells and part of the second line of Defense immune system against any virus attack, which begin to appear about a week after the injury.
It is believed since a long time they provide permanent protection Virus and as such they are called the cells of “memory”.
In the latest study, led by climate scientist, Professor Antonio Bertolini and his colleagues from the Faculty of Medicine of the Duke-NUS in Singapore, offering some of the results “remarkable” about the potential role of T-cells in the fight against the “SGRF-19”.
Must demonstrate the protective effect of these cells against the “SGRF-19” in further experiments, but the experts say that patients who have recovered from the virus deadly lung, SARS, in 2003, demonstrated immune responses to proteins of the major found in the “SGRF-19”.
The researchers said: “These findings show that T-cells, and memory-related virus caused by a viral infection of beta corona, the long-term, what supports the idea that patients SGRF-19 control are long-lasting immunity T-cells”.
And continued: “If our findings also raise the possibility intriguing that the virus infection-related can also be to carry or to modify the disease caused by Sars-CoV2, and breed corona virus which causes the disease of these-19”.
The study was conducted on blood samples taken from 24 patients come from the “SGRF-19”, and 23 who were infected with SARS and 18 have never been subjected to any of the SARS or the “SGRF-19”.
Most surprising, according to the researchers, is that half of the participants who were not subjected to any of the SARS or the “SGRF-19”, have cells, stimulating showed an immune response to viruses Corona beta animal.
This means that suitable patients have been developed after exposure, common colds caused by a virus of the corona between or perhaps than the causes of other diseases are not yet known, according to “Russia Today”.
These findings come after experts from the Institute of La Jolla for a home in California last month, similar results, saying that the who contracted the common cold by Have cells can attack the “SGRF-19”.
“Which virologist do you trust the most?”asked the tabloid Bild to its readers, on April 3. The 60,000 participants in the survey did not hesitate: Christian Drosten is the undisputed champion, the favorite of the public. At 48, the director of the virology department of the Berlin University Hospital of Charity already has an impressive career behind him, just crowned with an award from the German Research Foundation. Drosten was recognized for his “exceptional achievements for science and society in the face of a dramatic evolution of the pandemic ”.
He is one of the most listened to scientists in Germany. By the government, but also the general public. He intervenes several times a week in a very popular radio program, covering all types of subjects : Does the virus spread through the air? Are children as contagious as they say? Begun on February 26, the show is at its 34e episode, and always
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The pathogen of a new lung disease has kept the world in suspense for months. The virus also spreads in Europe and Germany. Researchers explain how contagious the new corona virus is – and how dangerous.
The number of infections caused by the novel Corona virus rises steadily. New deaths are known every day. In Germany, too, there have been deaths from Covid-19 since March 9. Many people are concerned. How dangerous is that virus? You can see an animation of how the pathogen acts in the human body in our video above or here.
Since February 11, the pathogen originally named 2019-nCoV has had a new name: SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the large family of corona viruses – so named because they are surrounded by jagged structures that resemble a crown. Harmless types often only trigger mild cold infections. The new Corona virus on the other hand can lead to pneumonia and severe breathing difficulties. The lung disease that can trigger the corona virus has been given the name Covid-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019).
Many doctors compared it, especially at the beginning of the outbreak, with the SARS pathogen, which developed a disease in 2002/2003 epidemic caused. SARS stands for “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome”. The new name of the corona virus indicates the close relationship between the two viruses. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) SARS affected 8,096 people worldwide, 774 of them died. At that time, 349 deaths from mainland China were reported, as well as 299 others from China’s Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
According to current knowledge, the virus usually triggers the following symptoms:
Even more severe symptoms like one lung infection can occur. Other symptoms can chills, nausea, a headache and Shortness of breath his. Also typical flu symptoms like sniff or Sore throat can belong, according to the Robert Koch Institute. According to the Federal Ministry of Health, some of those affected also suffer diarrhea.
Researchers at the Institute of Virology at the University of Bonn also recently found that the majority of Covid-19 patients from the Heinsberg district of North Rhine-Westphalia, particularly affected by SARS-CoV-2, had another symptom: 70 percent of them had temporary for two up to three days lost their sense of smell and taste – but without suffering from a runny or stuffy nose at the same time.
Professor Hendrik Streeck, head of the Institute of Virology at the University of Bonn, and his team had analyzed the data from more than 100 Covid-19 patients from Heinsberg. It was noticed that the majority of patients reported a loss of smell and taste over several days, said Streeck recently in the “Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung”.
However, the scientists cannot yet explain the phenomenon. In addition, many patients complain of being able to smell and taste bad or not at all, even with a flu infection or influenza. It is also the first expert observation of this symptom.
The incubation period – the period between infection and the onset of symptoms – should be two to 14 days according to current knowledge. However, some studies show that somewhat longer periods are also possible. There is currently no special therapy for treating the infection, only the symptoms can be alleviated with medication.
Like all corona viruses, the new pathogen was probably first transmitted from animals to humans. Mammals in particular carry germs that can spread to humans. Bats and fruit bats are among the sources of the new corona viruses. Farm animals have also transmitted corona viruses to humans in the past.
The new virus can also transmitted directly from person to person will. This is possible even before an infected person experiences symptoms such as fever or to cough has developed.
So far, scientists assume that SARS-CoV-2 is primarily about Droplet infection and probably also Smear infection is passed on. The virus multiplies in the throat. While an infected person speaks or coughs, he gives droplet of itself, said virologist Christian Drosten of the Berlin Charité at the end of February. “They fly maybe 1.5 meters and fall relatively quickly to the ground. It is the inhalation of such a cloud that infects you in most cases.”
The new types of corona viruses were also found in stool samples from some of those affected. According to the Federal Center for Health Education, it has not yet been finally clarified whether the virus can also be spread via the stool. The German Society for Infectious Diseases assumes that you have to be in contact at a distance of less than one meter in order to become infected.
As the Ärzteblatt reports, Günter Kampf from the Institute for Hygiene and Environmental Medicine at the University Medical Center Greifswald, together with Eike Steinmann from the Ruhr University Bochum, has compiled 22 studies on coronaviruses and their inactivation. This means that corona viruses can remain on inanimate surfaces such as metal, glass or plastic for up to nine days – if they are not removed. Experts such as the Berlin-based virologist Christian Drosten note, however, that in practice the virus is probably much shorter infectious when humans contact it through such surfaces.
In addition to the path of droplet and smear infection, initial studies indicate a possible further transmission path.
For the first time in mid-March, researchers were able to demonstrate in a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) that the coronavirus can survive as suspended particles in the air for three hours. To do this, they sprayed the virus with a kind of atomizer in the air in a laboratory experiment. The authors concluded from this that “transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus via aerosol”, that is to say via the air, is entirely possible. This means that viruses can remain in the air as suspended particles for a longer period of time. In theory, these could also be inhaled.
However, there are doubts about the transferability of the experiment. Scientists pointed out that there is little in common with reality: if a sick person coughs or sneezes, “compared to an aerosol, the droplets fall to the ground fairly quickly” because they are heavier than the suspended particles from a spray, said Paul Hunter of the British University of East Anglia. In addition, the corona virus dries out quickly in the air.
Christian Drosten, chief virologist at the Charité in Berlin, explains in the NDR podcast that such a drop is so small “that it dries very quickly, the virus is then no longer in a liquid and is then destroyed”. However, he generally believes it is possible for air movements in the room to transport aerosols that could ultimately be inhaled by a person.
The Robert Koch Institute writes on its website that airborne transmissions are not yet known. Further studies on this must follow.
A case from Wuhan also suggested a few weeks ago that the virus can also be transmitted from the mother to the newborn. Such an infection was found in an infant 30 hours after birth, the head of the newborn section of the children’s hospital reported Wuhan, Zeng Lingkong, according to the news agency China News service. The following studies have so far found no evidence that the virus can pass from mother to unborn child.
Coronavirus under the microscope: Many questions about the enigmatic lung disease from China have still not been answered. (Source: Center for Disease Control / epa / dpa)
The Corona virus probably has its origins in a fish market in Wuhan, a city with eleven million inhabitants in the east Chinese province of Hubei.
“The source is believed to have been animals sold in this market,” said Arnaud Fontanet, head of the epidemiology of emerging diseases department at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. The market was closed and disinfected at the beginning of the year.
The new pathogen is currently considered to be contagious but less dangerous than the SARS pathogen. The death rate, for example, shows whether the pathogen is more or less dangerous: While the death rate for the SARS virus was around ten percent, it is only an estimated one to two percent for the corona virus. It is assumed that the rate is even lower because cases with a mild course are not recorded at all. In Italy, however, the death rate is currently significantly higher.
If the corona virus mutates like SARS at the time, the death rate could change worldwide. Some scientists assume that the situation will improve with the onset of warmer weather, which “is not conducive to the spread of contagious respiratory diseases”. However, other experts, such as infectiologist Stefan Moritz from Halle University Hospital and virologist Christian Drosten, question this.
Contagion and course of the disease during the SARS pandemic 2002/2003
Is the flu or Covid-19 more dangerous?
The corona virus, it seems so far, is easier to transmit than the flu virus. The infection rate of the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is, according to the data available to date, higher than that of influenza, as the influenza virus. Both viruses are transmitted by droplet infection. This means that when you speak, sneeze, cough or shake hands, it can pass from one person to another.
According to the RKI, the flu’s incubation period – the period between infection and the onset of symptoms – averages one to two days. In the case of an infection with the new corona virus, a very variable incubation time has been assumed so far. After being infected, the period of time until symptoms appear can last two days to two weeks. This in turn facilitates the virus transmission from healthy-looking, but already infected people to other people.
There is currently no vaccine. When a vaccination could be available is currently not foreseeable. However, according to the Robert Koch Institute, those who get vaccinated against the flu help to relieve the burden on the healthcare system. Older people can also get pneumococcal vaccinations.
Scientists around the world are already working on the development of an active ingredient. In the United States, a volunteer was first tested with a possible vaccine. This marks the start of the first phase of clinical tests for the vaccine in the US metropolis of Seattle. 45 healthy volunteers between 18 and 55 should take the test.
In order to support international measures to contain the virus, the Chinese authorities published the gene sequence of the pathogen early. As a result, a test for identifying infections with the novel corona virus was quickly developed.
If you are concerned that you have already contracted an infection, for example, you should contact your responsible health department. After an individual survey, necessary measures are then taken. RKI President Lothar Wieler also warns that it is important to call the doctor’s office before visiting a doctor. “Even people with very few symptoms can infect others.”
The following areas are classified as risk areas by the Robert Koch Institute and should therefore be avoided: (as of 02/04/2020)
In China: Hubei Province (including Wuhan City)
In South Korea: Gyeongsangbuk-do Province (North Gyeongsang)
Since March 31, 2020, the RKI has no longer identified any particularly affected areas in Germany, since there are outbreaks in all districts with large numbers of cases.
The Federal Foreign Office has also issued a worldwide travel warning and the Federal Government has issued one Return campaign started for vacationers.
“Pandemics are global epidemics that spread from person to person across large regions and usually affect many people,” says Dr. Stefan Moritz, Head of Clinical Infectious Diseases at the University Hospital Halle.
Despite increasing numbers of cases in several countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) was initially optimistic. The spread of the virus could still be “slowed down considerably”. On March 11, however, the institution had to officially declare a pandemic.
The Robert Koch Institute (RKI) in Berlin assessed the risk of coronavirus on a global level earlier than the WHO as a “very dynamically developing and serious situation.” In Germany, too, further cases, chains of infection and outbreaks must be expected. According to the Robert Koch Institute, the virus was expected to spread worldwide.
The Robert Koch Institute and the Federal Center for Health Education have set up corresponding websites. From the World Health Organization WHO there are other tips in English – including information about common myths and incorrect information about the virus. The Barmer health insurance has set up a free hotline for telephone questions (0800/84 84 111). It is available around the clock.
You can also find the latest information at t-online.de. Current case numbers for Germany Is there … here. All important new research findings, advice on hygiene measures and everyday life in times of the corona virus are collected on this page. The latest news about the virus in Germany and worldwide as well as political decisions you can read here.
Have at least two million people worldwide been infected with a new virus after it spread from animal to human in a poorly controlled exotic animal market in Wuhan? The most common lecture about the emergence of the pandemic was already disastrous for the Chinese authorities from a PR point of view. The badly hit United States is now drawing attention to an even more damaging theory for Beijing: the suggestion that SARS-CoV-2 may have escaped from a biomedical laboratory in Wuhan.
Chances are that it is never completely clear how the virus reached humans. That fact leaves room for conspiracy theories, one of which is persistent about the lab in Wuhan. On Wednesday, US President Trump and his foreign minister Pompeo called on the Chinese to be “open” about this. The origins of this global outbreak have thus become the focus of a high-profile geopolitical propaganda battle.
The question of debt probably makes little difference to the further course of this pandemic, but it certainly does not matter to the image of China in the rest of the world. Gross negligence in a prestigious lab where dozens of other sars-like viruses are stored would cost China more reputational damage than poor hygiene in a market.
Apart from the black pete, it is important to know everything possible about the origin of the disease, in order to prevent that an animal-borne virus can again cause so many victims in the future.
Concerned diplomats, in 2018
There are no hard facts for the lab lecture. But after previously the Trump administration and its friendly media such as Fox News pointed to supposed indications, progressive media such as The Washington Post and The Atlantic the story as a serious possibility.
The Post holds official messages that American diplomats in China sent back to Washington in early 2018. They were alarmed after a visit to the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), which was partly funded with American money. In their memos, classified as “sensitive, but not confidential,” they express concerns about vulnerabilities in the security and management of the IPH. In 2015, this was the first lab in China to obtain the highest degree of safety BSL 4.
Also read: Trump sees campaign opportunities everywhere in the corona crisis
Among other things, research has been conducted into coronaviruses in bats for years. This is aimed at preventing another sars outbreak, like the world experienced in 2003. Important, but also dangerous research. And in 2015 asked a group of researchers located in scientific journal Nature already wondering if too many risks were taken in Wuhan.
In the first diplomatic memo, dated January 2018, the Americans explicitly expressed concerns about this bat investigation. During their visit to the IPH, they saw “a serious shortage of well-trained technicians and researchers to safely manage this very closed lab”. A virus, they warn, could spread to humans and lead to a new sars-like pandemic. They therefore advocated more American support for the lab.
About a second visit by the American diplomats, on March 27, 2018, the IPH published a news item on its website, which has recently been removed. In the message, which is still to be found, states that Rick Switzer, technology and health adviser at the United States Embassy in Beijing, had an “in-depth discussion” with institute staff to “understand the demands of both sides.” According to the Post, there has been no additional American aid after the official reports.
On the Chinese side, too, a wild theory has circulated about the origins of the pandemic for a while. In mid-March, Zhao Lijian, a very outspoken spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry, suggested that US military personnel have taken the virus to Wuhan. “The US owes us an explanation!”, tweeted he. The rumor went down when Cui Tiankai, the Chinese ambassador to Washington, put the theory into one interview Called “madness.” It is unclear to what extent the two officials in these contradictory statements have been driven by the party leaders.
On Thursday, Zhao said that the World Health Organization (WHO) has “repeatedly stated that there is no evidence that the new virus was created in a laboratory.” That statement will be of little value to President Trump: he suspended US funding from WHO on Tuesday because he thinks China has the organization in his pocket. He holds both WHO and China responsible for the magnitude of the pandemic.
Connection with the animal market
Also read: Is WHO really holding its hand over its head?
So far, the first manifestation of Covid-19 in humans is known to have many patients who visited the Huanan animal market in Wuhan. According to Chinese research published in The Lancet two thirds of the 41 first hospital patients had a connection with the market. But that idea is not entirely satisfactory, because the first known patient, who already reported to a hospital on December 1, has not been on the market.
However, there is no indication that the virus was created in the lab, let alone released on purpose for biological warfare. US intelligence agencies still believe the outbreak is likely to have a natural origin, US general Mark Milley, chairman of the unified chiefs of staff, said Tuesday.
But that the virus does not come from the WIV lab is therefore not excluded. And the leader of the conscious bat research was also initially awake, she told the magazine in mid-March Scientific American. This Shi Zhengli, nicknamed “Bat Woman”, was afraid that the virus had escaped from her lab. After genetic research comparing the now prevailing SARS-Cov-2 with samples in her own lab, she was able to say, she was relieved, that this was not the case.
You can file a complaint in Spanish and online HERE.
HERE You will find the guide in Spanish on paid sick days.
You can also call the Wage and Workplace Standards Division at (860) 263-6790 or the Program Policy Office at (860) 263-6755.
Employers of workers at increased risk of contagion should follow the following preventive measures, OSHA requires:
Assess the hazards to which workers may be exposed.
Assess the risk of exposure.
Select, implement, and ensure workers are taking protective measures to prevent exposure, including the use of physical barriers (face masks, latex gloves, face shield, coveralls) to stop the spread of
Limiting social contact and the use of appropriate personal protective equipment are required.
OSHA requires workplaces:
Encourage workers to stay home if they are sick.
Require workers to cover themselves when coughing or sneezing.
Provide a place to wash hands as well as hand wipes containing
minus 60% alcohol.
Limit access to the workplace to only essential personnel, if possible.
Establish flexibility for the workplace (work from home) and the
working hours (staggered work shifts) as soon as possible.
Discourage workers from using phones, desks, or other
tools and work equipment of your colleagues.
Frequently clean and disinfect surfaces, equipment and other items in the work environment.
Using cleaning chemicals with disinfectant labels approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the use of all cleaning and disinfection products.
Encourage workers to voice any concerns about occupational safety and health.
FOLLOW EXISTING OSHA STANDARDS
Although there is no OSHA standard that specifically covers exposure to SARS-CoV-2, some requirements may apply to prevent exposure in the workplace. Among the most relevant are:
OSHA standards for respiratory protective equipment (PPE) (in general industry, 29 CFR 1910 Subpart I), which require the use of gloves, eye and face protection, and respiratory protection. CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION.
When masks are necessary to protect workers or when employers require their use, employers must implement a comprehensive protection program in accordance with the respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134).MORE HERE.
The General Duty Clause, Section 5 (a) (1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 29 USC 654 (a) (1), requires employers to provide every worker with “a job and workplace that is free from recognized risks that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm. ” COMPLETE INFORMATION HERE.
CLASSIFYING WORKERS ‘EXPOSURE TO SARS-COV-2
Workers’ risk from occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, during an outbreak could range from very high risk to high, medium, or low (caution). The level of risk depends in part on the type of industry, the need for contact with less than 6 feet of people known or suspected to be infected with SARS-CoV-2, or the requirement for repeated or prolonged contact with people. known or suspected to be infected with SARS-CoV-2.
To help employers determine appropriate precautions, OSHA has divided job duties into four levels of risk exposure: very high, high, medium, and low.
The Occupational Risk Pyramid displays the four levels of risk exposure in the form of a pyramid to represent the likely distribution of risk. Most American workers are likely to be at low (precautionary) or medium exposure risk levels. MORE INFORMATION HERE.
Intelligent virus “is just a metaphor for the director general of Health, Graça Freitas. What scientists discover with their sequencing machines, the size of a desktop printer, turns out to be much more prosaic: the SARS-Cov genome -2 has about 30 thousand base pairs of nucleic acid and variations in only eleven pairs identify, for now, eight different species …
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Chloroquine is an inexpensive and widely available drug that has been used regularly since 1945 against malaria and other conditions and can be safely taken by pregnant women and children. Laboratory studies have found that the antiviral drug was effective against coronavirus, at least in one Petri dish, and the results of a small French study of 24 patients, announced this week, suggested that it could speed recovery.
Doctors said that 25% of patients who received the drug tested positive for the virus after six days, compared with 90% of those who did not receive it. Chloroquine and a related drug, hydroxychloroquine, are among four treatments tested in an international clinical study, announced Wednesday by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Kingdom has added chloroquine to its list of medicines under control. of exports.
The drug for the treatment of HIV: Kaletra
Kaletra is a combination of two antiviral medicines, lopinavir and ritonavir, normally used for the treatment of HIV, which laboratory studies have suggested as promising as a potential Covid-19 treatment. However, these hopes suffered a significant setback this week with one of the first major studies of 200 seriously ill patients from China who found no benefit. The study is not the end of the road: it is possible that the drug may be effective if administered previously or for less seriously ill patients. WHO has included Kaletra in an important multinational process launched this week.
The flu drug: favipiravir
The Japanese flu drug, produced by a subsidiary of Fujifilm, has created a sensation more than halving the time in which people with Covid-19 test positive for the virus. A Chinese study of 340 people showed that the virus tended to be eliminated in four days in those who had received the drug, compared to 11 days in those who had not used it. Chest scans supported the results, revealing less harm to those who took the drug. But it may be necessary to administer the antiviral, also known as Avigan, before virus levels peak in the body. A Japanese health official told the Mainichi Shimbun newspaper that it does not seem to work as well in seriously ill people, where the virus has had more time to replicate.
The Ebola drug: remdesivir
Remdesivir was originally developed as a treatment for Ebola, but the drug has emerged as a reference among potential antiviral drugs to combat Covid-19. The enthusiasm comes from studies showing that it works against Sars and Mers, two other more lethal but less transmissible coronaviruses. The drug works by blocking the virus’ ability to replicate within cells. This means that it is very likely that it will be effective when a person has just detected the bug and the virus is still reproducing in the upper respiratory tract. One reason for caution is that early data suggest that people may already have elevated virus levels when they start showing symptoms. Multiple studies are underway to evaluate remdesivir in China, the United States and Asia, with the first results expected for April.
Doctors in China treated some critically ill patients with the recovered patients’ blood plasma, an approach dating back to the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. The rationale is that the blood should contain antibodies to help fight infections. The negative aspects include the difficulties of expanding the method for widespread use, the risk of transmitting other diseases and that the relevant antibodies are present only in small quantities, therefore the treatment, if effective, is far from optimal. Numerous teams, including the US company Regeneron, are working on the hi-tech equivalent of serum therapy. Regeneron says that a few weeks are left before the identification of two powerful antibodies that protect against Covid-19, which it will then synthetically produce and turn into a therapeutic cocktail, in view of the beginning of human trials in the summer. If successful, antibody therapy could be used both as a treatment and as a prophylaxis to protect healthcare professionals and other high-risk groups.
British biotechnology company Synairgen has obtained accelerated approval for testing a drug for lung disease in Covid-19 patients. The compound, interferon beta, is part of the lung’s natural defense system against viruses and was originally developed for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder or COPD. The hope is that the administration of interferon beta will increase the body’s ability to fight the virus, especially in those who have weakened the immune system. It was identified in February by the WHO as the only therapy in phase 2 studies that can be inhaled, meaning that patients can administer it alone through a small battery-powered nebulizer.