80 years ago, a poem of Kipling in the face of the nazis entering Paris

The Cross : What happened on June 14, 1940, at the Museum of Man ?

André Delpuech : This morning, the director of the Musée de l’homme, Paul Rivet, takes the initiative to post on the door a poem by the british writer Rudyard Kipling, published in 1885, entitled Thou shalt be a man, my son “, which ends by the famous verse : “If you can keep your courage and your head/When all others lose/Then the Kings, the Gods, the Chance and the Victory/ Will be forever your submissive slaves, / And, which is better than the Kings and Glory / and Thou shalt be a man, my son. “

This act of resistance, on the day of the entry of the Germans in Paris, marked the spirits. Paul Rivet is a physician, anthropologist and américaniste, a former member of the popular Front. He has been engaged in the renovation of the Museum of the Trocadero in 1938, which became the Museum of Man, where then work fifty researchers and technicians, specialists in anthropology and ethnology.

For this director’s iconic, the role of science is to raise awareness and alert on the dangers that threaten society. As early as 1934, while Hitler has been appointed chancellor the previous year in Germany, he founded, together with the physicist Paul Langevin and the philosopher Alain, the Committee of vigilance of the intellectual antifascists.

Paul Rivet located in the museum of German-jewish exiles, and Russian émigrés, including the ethnographer, Boris Vildé and the linguist Anatole Lewitsky. On July 14, 1940, he published an open letter to marshal Petain in which he is critical of the regime with a vengeance, which earned him to be relieved of his duties. Put in danger, he left Paris on 11 February 1941 and joined the British, escaping a police raid of the Gestapo to 24 hours.

That started Paul Rivet at the Museum of Man ?

A. D. : A resistance network is in place as of the summer of 1940 under the leadership of Boris Vildé, Anatole Lewitsky and the librarian Yvette Odo. It is one of the first groups clandestine struggle against the Nazis to appear in occupied France. Around this core revolve of individuals with strong character that the writer Jean Cassou, the journalist Pierre Brossolette, the art historian Agnès Humbert, or Sylvette Leleu, the owner of a garage in Béthune.

The group is working with small units spread throughout the territory by participating in the escape of prisoners and the collection of information. It plays an important role in the information of the Parisians misled by the propaganda of the Vichy regime by publishing in December 1940 the diary Resistance from information from the BBC and an informant working at the embassy of the United States.

In 1941, as reported, Boris Vildé, Yvette Oddon and Anatole Lewitsky are incarcerated. It was then that Germaine Tillon, anthropologist, specialist of the Berbers of Algeria, takes over a part of the museum’s activities. In January 1942, following the trial of these resistant that the press calls the” Case of the Museum of Man “ten of the defendants are sentenced to death, the leaders of the network Boris Vildé and Anatole Lewitsky. Yvonne Oddon finally being deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp. Seven men are executed by firing squad at Mont-Valérien in 1942. On 13 August, Germaine Tillon is stopped to turn and then deported in 1943 to Ravensbrück concentration camp. It is the end of the network at the Museum of Man.

How it resonates with the world today ?

A. D. : The men and women of the network of the Museum of Man have continued to fight to defend the freedom of thought, access to knowledge and the equality of peoples. Since its reopening and its complete redesign in 2015, the Museum of Man continues the missions laid down by its first director : to defend a message of humanist and universalist, and to fight obscurantism.

Through his exhibitions (such as “We and the other, from prejudice to racism “ in 2017-2018), and based on science, the Museum allows one to see the unity of the human species in its diversity so that the public can better understand it.


An evening to relive June 1940 on France 3

France 3 is devoting an entire evening to the events of June 1940, which have tragically marked the history of france. There are eighty-four years, millions of people, car, bicycle or on foot, fleeing the advance of the nazis from the north of France.

→ TO READ. “The march of history “, June 1940 as told by Jean Lebrun

A documentary unpublished Emmanuelle Nobécourt traces this mass exodus and messy, driven by the fear of tomorrow. “It is a France that loses its bowels “described then of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry flying over this human tide, in which were wandering children lost or abandoned on the side of the road.

“These are exceptional times that cause people to decide “

If the documentary uses re-enactments, more or less, happy to feed the narrative, the fiction Three days in June filmed with more freedom the end of the battle of France, when the German army approaches the Loire, and the French military decided to resist to protect a bridge.

“Even if they are complicated to film, the conflicts are interesting from a dramatic viewpoint : these are exceptional times that push people to determine, shape-ever of the personalities and commitment of the fates “, admitted in 2005, its director Philippe Venault, interrogated, par The Cross.

An ” episode little-known and little-glorious “

The screenplay, an adaptation of the book A bridge on the Loire Frédéric H. Fajardie, also discusses the massacre of the Senegalese by the nazis and their status as “cannon fodder” of the French army. “These are themes not treated in television dramas, where June 1940 is often limited to the debacle of the troops “noted the director.

A historian by training, he had a passion for this “episode little-known and little-glorious “ between the call to the deposit of the arms of Pétain and De Gaulle inviting them to the resistance. These three days, between 16 and 18 June, during which villagers and notable collaborators of the first hour, were ready to shoot them in the back of the French soldiers rather than resist the advance of nazi.


Contemporary witnesses tell of the end of the Second World War

Gotthilf Fischer contemporary witness

“When the Americans invaded, I played Glory Glory Hallelujah ‘”



Eight contemporary witnesses witnessed the end of the Second World War

Gotthilf Fischer contemporary witness

“When the Americans invaded, I played Glory Glory Hallelujah ‘”



May 8, soon a day off in Germany?

May 8, the day in Berlin in 1945 of the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany, should it be a public holiday in Germany, as it is in France? The controversy has increased this year, on the occasion of the 75e anniversary of the end of World War II and when the far right is back in the political landscape. The city-state of Berlin will be the only region of the country to be unemployed this Friday to celebrate “the day of liberation”, exceptionally. Next year, May 8 will be a day like any other.

A petition from an Auschwitz survivor

The idea of ​​making this date a holiday was revived by Esther Bejarano, president of the Auschwitz committee, in Germany. A 95-year-old Holocaust survivor addressed a letter to the President of the Republic, Frank Walter Steinmeier, and to Chancellor Angela Merkel. ” May 8 must be a holiday! She writes. ” A day when the liberation of humanity from the yoke of the Nazi regime can be celebrated. It’s been overdue for seven decades She writes. In the middle of the week, Esther Bejarano presented the Bundestag with a petition to this effect, which collected 91,000 signatures.

Supported by the left parties and by the liberals of the FDP, the idea was however categorically rejected by the far-right party Alternative for Germany (AfD), the third political force in the Bundestag. ” May 8 does not have the potential for a holiday Comments his honorary president, Alexander Gauland. ” It is an ambivalent day. For the concentration camp inmates, it was a day of release. But it was also a day of absolute defeat for Germany, a day of loss of immense territories and its ability to organize “, He summed up. Classic for the far right, this position has been strongly criticized. Josef Schuster, president of the Council of the Jews in Germany, recognizes there a way of “ portray the Germans as victims

Defeat or liberation?

Behind this debate, it is once again the question of the meaning to give to May 8 which is posed. Was it a defeat or a liberation? From 1950 to 1967, the East German communist regime made this date a public holiday, to celebrate the anti-fascist victory over the Nazi regime. In West Germany, on the other hand, it was not until 1985 that the debate progressed. The president at the time, Richard von Weizsäcker, was the first to call May 8 a day of “ liberation from a system erected by National Socialist tyranny

Twenty-five years later, this discourse is no longer controversial, outside of far-right circles. ” For many Germans, May 8 was a day of liberation against their will “Summarizes Jens-Christian Wagner, director of the Lower Saxony Memorial Foundation. From there to make it a holiday, the step is not yet taken.


Inventor, musician and master spy Leon Theremin honored in Moscow

Leon Theremin, the Russian musician and physicist, whose contactless instrument Termenvox revolutionized music, also served as a super spy for his homeland and revolutionized surveillance technology. In the Soviet GULag, where the deserved man landed shortly before the outbreak of World War II, he invented a passive bug that did not require any electricity and was later developed by the British secret service. Theremin (1896 to 1993), who was called Lev Termen in Russian, received the Stalin Prize and Freedom as a reward. At the Moscow Conservatory, where the qualified cellist worked after his release, the Center for Contemporary Music recently dedicated a concert with lectures to him to celebrate the invention of the Termenvox. Termen, who, despite his aristocratic origins, adopted the Bolshevik cause and enjoyed the trust of Lenin, was an honest scientist, assured the head of the center, Vladimir Tarnopolski, who had met the elderly pioneer several times in the 1980s. Termen’s thing was the technical progress, he was hardly interested in ideology.

Termenvox player Olesja Rostowskaja recalled that the spherical sound of the first electronic instrument is known today primarily from satirical or eerie films, where, as with the “Simpsons” or in the Hannibal-Lecter series, it is grotesque to psychedelic Evokes atmosphere. Theres had high musical demands. In his last interview, the ninety-three-year-old admitted that as a cellist he was plagued by the contrast between the lightness of the music and the mechanical hardships of its production, that like an orchestra conductor he wanted to produce tones solely through body gestures. Then in the Rachmaninov Hall the studio for new music played the neoclassical fantasy for termenvox, oboe, string quartet and piano by Bohuslav Martinů, which was written in 1944 when Termen was in prison. The soloist Rostowskaja trailed the air around her instrument so virtuously and precisely that one really thought to hear a kind of Aeolian cello in the finely vibrating vocal line.

The Termenvox works on the principle of an electromagnetic distance sensor, which Termen discovered during the First World War as an employee of the laboratory for electrical oscillation near Petersburg and also used for alarm systems. The technology and music enthusiast Lenin, to whom the all-rounder in 1922 presented his inventions in the Kremlin, intoned a Glinka melody on the Termenvox and sent the genius as an ambassador for his electrification plan GOELRO through the far back country. Back then, Termen also hoped to immortalize by freezing bodies. He wanted to freeze himself after his death and was shocked when Lenin’s body was embalmed rather than frozen.


Experience report of an escape in the last days of the war

In endless columns: 75 years ago, millions of Germans fled west in the final phase of the Second World War.
Picture: dpa

The last days of the war were dominated by fear and despair. Maria Frisé, born in 1926 and long editor of this newspaper, remembers.

EIn April 1945, nobody spoke of the miracle weapon that was to bring about a change. The war was lost, Hitler was dead, but the battle for Berlin was still raging. Millions were on the run. I had fled in stages from relatives to relatives from Silesia to an aunt to Mecklenburg, near Rostock. Every day, treks and armed German soldiers moved westward through the village. Everyone fought on as soon as possible for fear of the Russian troops. Despair dominated the mess.

Rumors circulated that the German territories, which were already occupied by English and American troops, would soon no longer accept refugees. It was high time that I too came to the Elbe or at least to the Elbe-Lübeck Canal. My husband, who was still a soldier as a serious war wounded, had given me measuring table sheets from Wehrmacht stocks at our last meeting – maps on which even narrow country lanes were still marked. We wanted to meet on a farm near Lübeck.


“Alias ​​Caracalla”, the beating heart of the Resistance

We must kill boche! “ Ulcerated by the announcement of Pétain’s capitulation to the enemy, the young Bordeaux aristocrats have only one idea in mind, to take up arms to restore the honor of France. Faced with general resignation, they surrender to the obvious: to continue the fight, you have to leave. On June 20, 1940, they embarked for North Africa before being diverted to England and joining General de Gaulle.

In this swarm of scorched heads, this captivating television film by Alain Tasma, broadcast for the first time in 2013 on France 3, focuses in particular on the young Daniel Cordier, an exalted Maurrassian, whose political and artistic education is followed by the great resistant and visionary republican Jean Moulin, of which he becomes the secretary. From the book Alias ​​Caracalla, a vibrant learning story by Daniel Cordier, the director was able to capture the passion, as well as this curious mixture of candor and resourcefulness that characterizes the young idealist and his resistant comrades. Several touching sequences (including the first Christmas dinner away from their families) remind them that they have barely emerged from childhood and underline their loneliness, their fragility.

Jean Moulin very human

Far from the classic iconography with hat and scarf, Alias ​​Caracalla is also attached to the figure of Jean Moulin. “We wanted to avoid the legendary representations to be in life, declared during its first broadcast producer and screenwriter Georges-Marc Benamou. ” At the time of the facts, Jean Moulin did not know that he was Jean Moulin, he did not take himself for a hero. He is a double being: both an uncompromising prefect and a gourmet Mediterranean, a lover of painting. A man, also, of remarkable political intelligence, who projects himself into the future and who, in the fierce battles of ideas between the great “big cats” of the Resistance, carries a vision of post-war France . A generous and peaceful society which, alas, he will never have the opportunity to build.


A 99-year-old war veteran raises 28 million euros with his walker | Global World Blog

He fought in World War II in India and Burma, and has now wanted to deal with the coronavirus. Retired Captain Tom Moore thought about how to contribute to the fight that his country is fighting, with more than 120,000 confirmed cases of the disease and more than 16,000 deaths, and he thought of a viral challenge: walk 100 meters 25 meters from his garden to raise funds before turning 100, next April 30. The walker that Moore has used since he fractured his hip has allowed him: last Thursday he completed the tour and has managed to collect from his fans more than 25 million pounds (28.6 million euros) that will go to the coffers of the Service British National Health.

The effort of the old captain has deserved words of admiration from Prince Henry, who this Saturday congratulated him in a podcast for British Army veterans. “Congratulations to Tom. What he has done is very exciting. And not only what he has done, but the reaction people have had. Something wonderfully British,” says the Reuters agency. The Duke of Cambridge has referred to it as “a fundraising machine”, notes the BBC. Also Prime Minister Boris Johnson, affected by covid-19, has praised the effort and has indicated that he is studying how to recognize the “heroic efforts” of the centennial Moore.

The veteran initially set himself a much more modest goal: to raise £ 1,000, but that goal was soon outweighed by the interest of the media, who voiced their challenge and managed to focus attention on his Bedfordshire garden in the central zone of England. More than a million people have donated for his cause.

“I am still impressed by the amount of kindness and generosity of the people of the UK who continue to donate despite for many people this is a time of uncertainty,” said the veteran in a statement released last Saturday. Her daughter, Hannah Ingram-Moore, has also been excited. “There are no words left to say; we cannot believe so much generosity in people and he feels overwhelmed by them.”

A popular online petition has proposed that Moore be knighted; it is already supported by more than 680,000 firms. For now, his feat has earned him an invitation as a guest of honor at the opening of a new field hospital in the town of Harrogate (northern England), next week, installed to combat the epidemic.

The challenge of the almost centennial has far exceeded in money the one proposed by a British athlete, James Campbell, who offered to run a full marathon (42.2 kilometers) in his small garden. Campbell promised to do the marathon if one of his tweets reached 10,000 retweets. And his exhausting career was not in vain: he has managed to raise 18,000 pounds (just over 20,000 euros), which he will donate to the British health service.

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The art of not provoking with art: About censorship in Japan

Dhe image that Germany likes to draw from Japan is often characterized by silent admiration – this society seems so efficient and forward-looking, so friendly and ingenious. What is mostly excluded is the vehement nationalism with which Prime Minister Shinzo Abe leads the country. Most newspapers are heavily controlled, especially when it comes to Japan’s role in World War II, the emperor, or the Fukushima nuclear disaster. But a new generation of Japanese artists, designers and architects are dealing with precisely these issues. And reaches the limits of a democracy in which not everything can be said.

At the 2019 Aichi Triennale, there was an exhibition in the exhibition entitled “After Freedom of Expression”. Works were shown there that had already been censored or at least came into contact with the subject of censorship. After anonymous threats and massive protests, the exhibition was initially closed and only opened again after a week. Then, however, not freely accessible, but only after prior registration and regulated with a lottery system. Visitors had to make a written commitment not to share pictures on social media. Important funds from the Ministry of Culture have been withheld. They were particularly angry about a sculpture by South Korean artists Kim Seo-kyung and Kim Eun-sung entitled “Statue of a Girl of Peace”, which deals with the role of the euphemistically called “Comfort Women” Koreans, who during the World War II were forced into prostitution.

Later backed off

Aichi’s outrage should also affect an exhibition in Vienna last November. There the curator Marcello Farabegoli had compiled works under the title “Japan Unlimited”, on the basis of which one wanted to describe Japan’s handling of censorship and self-censorship. It was located between the two social poles “Tatemae” and “Honne”. Tatemae is the masquerade of feelings, which is adapted to the expectations of the public, while Honne can be understood as the true, but hidden feeling. It is about not hurting others and maintaining public peace.

At the beginning, he had no idea that Farabegoli’s exhibition would not only show how artists deal with critical issues, but would also illustrate how the Japanese authorities dealt with them. The exhibition was conceived as part of the celebration of 150 years of diplomatic relations between Japan and Austria, and the Japanese embassy had included the exhibition in its official program. However, after the situation at the Aichi Triennale escalated, the Japanese authorities, who became aware of it on Twitter, took another close look at Vienna and found: “When we checked again, we had to conclude that the exhibition, Japan Unlimited ‘ does not meet the purpose of anniversary events to promote the friendly relationship between Austria and Japan. For this reason, we have decided to withdraw our recognition as an official event for the exhibition ”- and this five weeks after the opening.