Discovered in Antarctica a great egg fossil from the shell soft. For nine years, his origin was unknown and it was called “The thing”; now it is understood that the 66 million-year-old is the first found so far in the white continent, and belonged to an enormous lizard of the sea. Published in the journal Nature, the result is due to the researchers, coordinated by Lucas Legendre, of the university of Texas at Austin.
Artistic representation of the small mosasauro just out of the egg, next to the mother (source: Francisco Hueichaleo, 2020)
The large egg, measuring 30 inches, was discovered in 2011, but for almost a decade, it has remained without any description in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History of Chile. It was, in short, an object unknown to the point that researchers had nicknamed “The Thing”, inspired by “The thing from another world”, the story of science fiction that at the end of the ’30s used to describe a mysterious object is discovered in Antarctica, and from which were taken more film.
Artistic representation of the small mosasauro that comes out of the egg, next to the mother. The mountains in the background covered with vegetation in Antarctica in the Cretaceous period (source: John Maisano Jackson School of Geosciences, the University of Texas at Austin)
The analyses indicate now that this is the fossil of the largest egg from the shell, soft, never found, and experts think that has been deposited by a marine reptile giant extinct as a mosasauro, defying the prevailing thought that these creatures do not deponessero eggs. “The egg was laid by an animal the size of a large dinosaur, but it is completely different from an egg of a dinosaur,” said Legendre.
“It’s very similar – it has added – to the eggs of lizards and snakes, but is a relative to the truly giant of these animals”. The structure is very similar to that of the transparent eggs laid today from some snakes and lizards. However, because the egg fossil was the origin and contains the remains inside, it was easy to go back to the type of reptile that has laid.
The graphical representation of the egg of mosasauro, its size and the structure of its shell soft (source: Legendre et al. 2020)
By comparing the body size of 259 reptiles living with the size of their eggs, Legendre concluded that the reptile prehistoric that laid the egg had to be very large, perhaps measuring over 6 meters in length, compatible with the size of the tylosaurus. In addition to these tests, the rock formation in which it was discovered the egg also features the skeletons of small tylosaurus, together with adult specimens. The hypothesis is that the environment at the time was a sort of kindergarten with the shallow water and protected, where the little reptiles could grow in peace.
The largest predatory dinosaur of all time, the spinosaurus, swam in the Cretaceous rivers thanks to a long, high and flat tail, never seen before in any other dinosaur: resurfaced from the Moroccan Sahara desert, it was equipped with powerful flexible muscles and joints and moved sideways with an undulating motion like the tail of crocodiles. The discovery is published in Nature by an international group of paleontologists (led by Nizar Ibrahim of the National Geographic Explorer and the University of Detroit Mercy) in which seven Italian researchers participate.
“Now all the books on dinosaurs will have to be rewritten,” explains Cristiano Dal Sasso, paleontologist at the Natural History Museum in Milan who took part in the excavations supported by National Geographic. “This tail represents the first unmistakable proof that dinosaurs also invaded aquatic habitats with a completely new and original anatomical model, which erases the false belief that all featherless dinosaurs were forced to inhabit only mainland ecosystems.”
Thanks to the excavations conducted between 2015 and 2019 in the Kem Kem desert, paleontologists extracted from a rocky slope almost 40 vertebrae and other bones of the tail of a large dinosaur: “under the scorching sun of the Sahara and almost 50 degrees of temperature , it was a challenge to the limit of the impossible “, recalls Gabriele Bindellini, PhD student of the University of Milan. The bones were enclosed in the same layer from which, a few meters away, the incomplete spinosaurus skeleton published in Science in 2014 as the first semi-aquatic dinosaur had already come to light.
Reconstruction of the appearance of the spinosaurus (source: illustration by Davide Bonadonna)
Paleo-histological analysis confirmed that the bones all belonged to the same young specimen of spinosaurus, more than 10 meters long and weighing more than 3.5 tons. The tail, 5 meters long, had large muscle bundles at the base, while long spines (both above and below the vertebrae) made it high and flat like a long ribbon.
To understand how it works, Harvard biomechanics experts have created a model moved by a robotic arm inside the water tunnel. The results of the tests “show that in the water the tail of the spinosaurus had a propulsion efficiency much higher than the long and thin tails of typically terrestrial carnivorous dinosaurs – explains Dal Sasso – much more similar to that of the tails of living aquatic vertebrates, which swim also good against the current. “” The ribbon-like tail – adds co-author Simone Maganuco – also gave greater stability by reducing the tendency to roll. The large back sail, which perhaps functioned as a reverse keel, could also contribute to this. “
One of the most creative things to learn in quarantine and enjoy with your family. If you are already locked that everyone is taking photos with the more than 20 animals that you can activate using GoogleWell, now you have the opportunity to surprise more than one with a large-scale skeleton that you can see from your cell phone, yes, it doesn’t hold you back.
If you want your child to learn during quarantine and at home, in order to avoid the coronavirus, you can use the following trick to be able to look at all the bones of the human body, in addition to learning from each one of them with quite creative information.
Like 3D animals, the human skeleton of Google It has a trick to be able to see it without any problem. As always the only requirements is that your cell phone has the option to activate augmented reality, gyroscope and the latest version of Google Chrome.
How do I activate the human skeleton? You just have to place Human skeleton in the search engine and hit the lupita.
The first thing you’ll see are related images, but if you scroll down a bit, you’ll notice there’s a 3D symbol. Click on it and you must authorize your cell phone to use the camera.
Once done, you can place the human skeleton in your living room, dining room, bedroom, bathroom, on the door of your house, among other places. You can even take a photo of yourself with this 3D element. Did you know?
At the moment there are only 24 animals that you can view in 3D thanks to Google. Here the listing:
Google’s trick to take a picture with a Lion and other animals in your home
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The enemy Hank Bolden
faced did not come from a distant front line.
It came from the skies.
It’s a battle that’s still going on 65 years later. Bolden, who is now 82 years old, is an atomic veteran – one of hundreds of thousands of American service members used in human testing by the United States government during post-WWII nuclear tests and sworn to a secret life.
“They wanted to see how the living soldiers would resist the exposure
to radiation, ”recalls Bolden. “Before using live soldiers they were using
mannequins. But you don’t get real results using mannequins as you would
live bodies. “
A DIFFERENT TIME
While accompanying a friend to a New Haven recruiting station in 1953, Bolden was invited to join the army. At just 16 years old then and already out of high school, he admits that he “pulled down” his birth certificate to move to the age of 18, joining the approximately 200,000 underage soldiers who would have served during the Second World War and the eras of the Korean War.
After basic training in
Fort Dix was assigned to work as a tank mechanic in Texas before moving to Texas
California and becoming a surface-to-air missile mechanic.
Despite an executive order issued in July
26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman to desegregate the armed forces, the last one
the all black units of the army were not abolished until 1954. And in 1955, Bolden
he says, racist attitudes persist even after the units have been racially integrated.
“The residual thoughts of people were firm
linger, “he says.” My outfit was 800 people strong. Thirteen of us were
black. Ten were from the South, who were more tolerant of treatment
they got racially. But the three of us from the North couldn’t tolerate it,
so I have had many fights over this. So I was the guy they wanted
get rid of.”
It would not be the only race
discrimination Bolden would witness as a soldier.
In 1955, the seventeen year old
he was suddenly ordered to the Nevada desert without explanation.
“They don’t tell you what you’re going to face,” he said. “Nobody
they knew what they were going to face. ”
What he would eventually face was a classified operation known as Operation Teapot at the Nevada Test Site. In a series of 14 bomb throws, or “hits”, military officials tried to test the effects of nuclear bombs on structures and strategies, animals and people.
All races of military personnel
participated in the Teapot operation. But upon arrival in Nevada, Bolden was
astounded to accomplish all the other soldiers in his new specially selected unit
for a mysterious assignment they were also black.
“There was this myth about black people
be able to resist, tolerate certain things more than any other race “, he
He says. “So it was a test on that too.”
AN ATOMIC NIGHT
One morning in February, Bolden
the unit was ordered in a desert trench. Unbeknownst to them, it was excavated
the expected route of the fallout, only 2.8 miles away from what it would have become
ground zero for the launch of an atomic bomb.
Even though a countdown sounded on the speakers, Bolden says, the soldiers still had no idea what they were about to face. Without protective gear in addition to the normal fabrics and helmets, they waited and looked.
“They tell you to cover your eyes”
On February 18, 1955, Shot Wasp, the first nuclear test of Operation Teapot, detonated a Mark 6 nuclear bomb dropped by a B-36 exactly at noon. A monstrous cloud of mushrooms filled the sky, reaching 21,500 feet in height.
“With radiation, when you put your arms over your eyes or hands, you actually see the bones, you see the bones in your body from the exposure. You can see your skeleton. “
After the relapse the warning came.
“You swore not to speak
“said Bolden. The soldiers were threatened with imprisonment and fines for violation
For 60 years, Bolden didn’t tell anyone. No this
family, not his wife, not his children. Not even her doctors when she spies on her
tumors have started to show. He developed bladder and posterior subcapsular cancer
cataract and in 1990 multiple myeloma was diagnosed.
“They actually gave me three and a half years
four years to live, ”recalls Bolden. So in 1995 I should have been a statistic. “
But in 1995, Bolden was in remission. He is a citizen
the secret was coming to light.
Government figures estimate between 400,000 and 550,000 US military personnel who participated in a series of nuclear tests between 1946 and 1992. According to the Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency, this includes post occupation forces -Second World War of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, prisoners of war in Japan at the end of the Second World War, participants in the atmospheric nuclear tests in Nevada and the Pacific from 1945 to 1962 and participants in the underground nuclear tests in Nevada from 1951 to 1992.
Many of these “atomic veterans” have succumbed before their own
the stories have become public, their bodies are full of tumors. In
1990, the veil of secrecy began to lift.
After setting up the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments to investigate 10-year experiments, President Clinton made a formal apology to American atomic veterans on October 3, 1995. By order of the president, Congress would repeal the nuclear radiation agreement law. and secrecy, allowing atomic veterans to talk about their experiences without fear of fines or treason charges. And financial compensation has been opened to all qualified atomic veterans.
“Those who led the government when these decisions were made are no longer here to take responsibility for what they have done. They are not here to apologize to survivors, family members or their communities whose lives have been overshadowed by shadow of these choices So today, on behalf of another generation of American leaders and another generation of American citizens, the United States of America offers sincere apologies to those of our citizens who have undergone these experiments. the government is wrong, we have a moral responsibility to admit it, “said President Bill Clinton on October 3, 1995
But the television address has been obscured. The same happened
day when OJ Simpson’s verdict was issued in a live classroom feed, taking
on televisions and news cycles across America.
As a result, many skilled veterans had no idea of the ban
the secrecy had been lifted, nor that they could claim benefits. Bolden no
find out until he researched the Internet, he says, in 2015.
“I was once so angry and so aggravating with the government that I thought I would be murdered to keep me from talking,” he says.
When Bolden attempted to apply for subsidies, he found that the burden of proof was placed on his fellow atomic veterans. The government would give compensation from the date a complaint was filed, but not retroactively, and only if the veteran could prove that he had participated in the tests – which proved to be an almost impossible task after millions of military documents were destroyed in a 1973 fire against the National Staff Registration Center. As many as 18 million documents were burned, including 80% of all army personnel discharged between 1912 and 1960.
“They hoped for it
would have died sooner or would have been one of those guys who surrendered ”
says Anthony Bolden, Hank’s son. “No thanks. Hank doesn’t have it.”
After paying her
own pocket for a polygraph lie detector pouch, Hank eventually claimed
approved, setting a precedent for other atomic veterans whose records were
Photo: Hidden story: the atomic veterans of America
Hit a high note
“The love of music has
I’ve always been there. “
After his honorable discharge
from the army, Bolden went to work as an engineer before deciding to pursue a
career as a jazz musician who works while his family grows. Tell the story
while cradling the tenor saxophone that has been at his side since 1967. The “Rolls
Royce “of tools, he says.
The brand is Selmer. IS
in a strange coincidence, the model is a 6 sign. It is the same name as the shot
Wasp atomic bomb design.
But this is where the
the similarities end. The bomb was his nightmare. Music, his dream and his
outlet to work through the trauma of what lived in Nevada
“It’s like the blood inside
my veins. It takes away all my other thoughts, “he says
Bolden is finally
he receives compensation from the government and is now using it to help make his dream come true.
He returned to school, studying jazz performances at Hartt University of Hartford
“They are like the relic
here with all these kids, you know, “he chuckles.
Professor Javon Jackson
says that the 82-year-old is leaving a unique mark on the prestigious program.
“He has a lot of emotion,” says Jackson. “He is a very bluesy, very full of feeling, a natural player. His life, wisdom and the things he has acquired allow him to play the way it sounds.”
The vast majority of
Today, the American atomic veterans of the atmospheric test era are gone. About
400,000 veterans were present during these tests, according to the veterans
Administration. Survivors’ numbers vary, from around 10,000 to 80,000
Bolden believes he is one of only two surviving African American atomic veterans who are recognized and receive compensation from the government. He is on a mission to reach as many survivors as possible and help them request the long-awaited recognition and compensation.
And he’s sharing his story, he says, to make sure the plight of American atomic veterans is no longer ignored.
“When people like me pass by, this won’t be part of the story unless someone makes sure it’s kept alive.”