Smoking continues to decline among women in France

In these troubled times of Covid-19, there is good news on the front lines of public health : tobacco use continues to decline among women in France. Between 2018 and 2019, the percentage of women smoking daily increased from 22.9 % to 20.7 %. A “ drop significative ” greet the public Health of France (SpF), which makes available to the public these figures on Tuesday 26 may. ” In one year, the prevalence of smoking overall, which includes the daily consumption and occasional, is, it, increased from 28.9 % to 26.5 % among women “stresses Viet Nguyen Thanh, head of the unit addictions to public Health in France.

An overall prevalence of 30 % in France

These data come from the “Barometer” of public Health in France, which, every year, conducts a telephone survey of a representative population of 18-85 years of age residing in metropolitan France. For the year 2019, the survey was conducted between January and June with a sample of 10 of 352 individuals. It appears that in the year 2019, men and women alike, three French 18-75 years out of ten reported smoking (30 %) ; daily for a quarter of them (24 %). ” This level of prevalence (30 %) remains high compared to other countries. In 2018 the prevalence of smoking was, for example, 15 % Uk, 14 % in the United States and Australia “notes Viet Nguyen Thanh.

Between 2018 and 2019, the level of consumption has remained roughly the same in men. And so it is among women, and a decline has been recorded. The telephone survey does not allow to know what is the profile of these women, who, on this year, have stopped smoking or reduced their consumption. ” We can make two assumptions. The first is that this decrease is the result of a lesser entry in the tobacco of the part of the young girls. This hypothesis is supported by other work showing a continuous decline for several years, consumption among young people, and especially girls “says Viet Nguyen Thanh.

The second hypothesis is that this decrease reflects a release of smoking among older women, she continues. Again, this is a strong track, because it is known that women are more sensitive than men to the impact of measures to combat smoking, which are largely intensified in recent years. “

A whole battery of anti-tobacco since 2014

Since 2014, several important measures have been taken in France. In 2016, the prescription treatment nicotine replacement (NRT) has been extended beyond doctors and midwives. It has then been licensed for use by the occupational physicians, the surgeons, nurses and masseurs-physiotherapists. At the end of 2016, the annual rate of repayment of these substitutes (patches, chewing gums…) has been increased from 50 to 150€. January 1, 2017, the neutral package has been made mandatory. Launched four months ago, the operation “Month without tobacco” has allowed to renew the prevention messages. Finally, in recent years, the price of tobacco has increased steadily. With the aim of achieving a price of € 10 per package, which should be reached at the end of the year 2020.

In the Face of the tobacco, all the French are not equal

These efforts have borne fruit. Between 2014 and 2019, a significant decline in smoking is seen among the women but also, this time, in men. Over the period, the prevalence of daily smoking has decreased by 4.5% to all genders. ” This is the first time since the beginning of the years 2000 that a decline of this magnitude is recognized “notes on public Health in France. But this is an important development has not translated the same way in all social strata. And, that is the other lesson of this study : in the face of tobacco, all the French are not equal.

Even if social inequalities do not rise more from 2016, it is still very marked. There, in particular, a gap of 12 percentage points in the prevalence of daily smoking between the lowest and highest incomes, a gap of 17 points between unemployed individuals and employed “notes on public Health in France, noting that these social inequalities facing the tobacco end up in the same way in other countries.

Thus, in the United Kingdom in 2018, the prevalence of smoking ranged from 10 % for managers to 25 % for manual workers. ” Of
similarly, in the United States, the prevalence ranged from 4 % for those graduates to 36 % for the least educated, and from 7% to 21 % depending on the income
“, the study notes.

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The web discusses the beautiful daughter of Abdulov burned out of cancer

Alexandra Abdulova He died when his daughter Eugenia was only a year old: the 54-year-old actor burned out from cancer. The girl from childhood grew up in an artistic environment, the second wife of the artist Julia gave her to study at a theater studio. Recently, 13-year-old Zhenya has grown a lot and is slowly turning into a charming girl. Looking at her pictures on social networks, fans discuss how she matured.

“She’s quite grown up, and so looks like a father”, “A real beauty grows like a dad”, “His eyes, nose, lips are spilled Abdulov”, “I became so beautiful and sweet”, “Genes are immediately visible in you great Abdulova, ”they write on the Web.

13-year-old Zhenya Abdulova became quite an adult. Photo: Instagram.

Many believe that Eugene has a great future in the cinema. The girl already has experience on the set. He played his debut role in the film by Alla Surikova “Love and Sax”. The director was satisfied with the work of the young actress: she is sure that Zhenya not only looks like her father, but also inherited his acting talent.

The role in the play was offered to the girl by the late artistic director “Lenkoma»Mark Zakharov. The head of the theater, where Alexander Abdulov served for many years, wanted the artist’s daughter to take the stage in the final of the Royal Games performance. The girl was preparing for the premiere, but then refused to participate in the play, saying that she did not like to rehearse.

“She never went on stage.” Sasha’s character! She was always the most important at children’s parties, she built all, commanded. Recently, however, she starred in a small role in the film with Maxim Averin, but so far, school is in priority, ”a close friend of the Abdulov family told reporters then.


The girl is very similar to her star father. Photo: Instagram.

The girl is very similar to her star father. Photo: Instagram.

Alexander Abdulov met his wife Zhenya’s lawyer two years before his death. The spectacular brunette immediately liked the famous actor, behind whom there were many novels with the most beautiful women of the country. Couple she got married in 2006, and in March 2007 they had baby Eugene.

Alexander Gavrilovich died of cancer in January 2008. He struggled with oncology for a long time – he was diagnosed with lung cancer of the fourth stage. Doctors did everything possible to cure the artist, but the disease was stronger. Probably, oncology could be provoked by long-term smoking: Abdulov was a heavy smoker and did not part with cigarettes for several decades in a row.

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Does nicotine protect against coronavirus? | World Events – Estimates and Predictions from Germany and Europe | DW

If we are talking about SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, then it is generally accepted that smokers are at risk. According to a study published in the Chinese Medical Journal, the onset of COVID-19 atypical pneumonia caused by coronavirus is more severe in smokers, longer, and more likely to result in deaths than non-smokers.

The French believe that nicotine helps not get infected with COVID-19

In turn, French neuroscience researchers at the Pasteur Institute, led by Professor Jean-Paul Shanjo, believe that a nicotine patch can help prevent coronavirus infection. They published the corresponding hypothesis on the Qeios scientific portal.

Does nicotine protect against coronavirus or not?

According to their findings, which contradict the data of Chinese studies, there are not so many smokers among patients with COVID-19. The most important result of the French study is that out of 500 patients with SARS, 350 were forced to be in the hospital, and in 150 the disease was mild. Only 5 percent of the total number of patients are smokers, professor of medicine Zahir Amura, who led the study, told AFP.

A similar conclusion was reached even earlier by Italian researchers from Verona, who worked under the direction of Giuseppe Lippi. According to the results of their study published in the European Journal of Internal Medicine, smokers get COVID-19 no more often than those who do not smoke.

Nicotine protects against coronavirus?

Moreover, French scientists believe that nicotine can protect against coronavirus. Their findings are based on the hypothesis that nicotine settles on ACE 2 receptors (a membrane protein, which is the entry point of the virus into the cell) and thereby blocks it, preventing the entry of coronavirus, explains Jean-Paul Shanjo, professor at the Pasteur Institute.

Smokers near the ashtray

Smoking is a bad habit

That is, the virus cannot penetrate the cell and spread in the body, this is the main conclusion of French scientists. To finally verify this, one of the Paris clinics will conduct a special study.

So far, scientists have no consensus on whether ACE 2 receptors have a blocking property. But neurologists James Olds and Nadine Kabbani from Virginia published the results of their research in the FEBS Journal on March 18, according to which nicotine is more likely to negatively affect cell receptors. They believe that for this reason, viruses have more potential to enter the cell. This may explain, for example, the particularly severe course of the disease in smokers.

Is smoking harmful or not?

Whether French scientists or their American colleagues are right, only further research can give an answer here. But almost all doctors agree that smoking tobacco is an additional risk when infected with COVID-19. They recommend quitting smoking as soon as possible. After all, coronavirus and the disease caused by it, first of all, threatens the lungs. In smokers, this organ is already affected. Unlike pure nicotine, which is found in patches for smokers seeking to abandon this bad habit, many harmful substances enter the body with cigarette smoke, including those that cause cancer.

Although a number of studies still need to be done to understand what dose of nicotine should be contained in the patch, French studies indicate that nicotine probably protects those who come in contact with infected coronavirus from infection.

Earlier, scientists confirmed that nicotine may have a positive effect on the human body. Studies have been conducted of the effects of substances like nicotine on the treatment of patients with diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. In people suffering from serious illnesses such as dementia (dementia), the results of the study were in favor of nicotine.

In general, the use of nicotine is dangerous, since it is poison. When one cigarette is smoked, one to three milligrams of nicotine enters the smoker’s body. One cigarette contains 12 milligrams of nicotine.

See also:

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French scientists test the health of nicotine resistance to the Coronavirus

French scientists are preparing, to start an experiment in humans, to test their hypothesis that nicotine can help the body fight the infection of the emerging corona virus Covid-19. To find out if there was any difference in their body’s reaction to the Corona virus causing Covid-19.

The experiment is the completion of a French study, published this month on the basis of public health data, that appeared to show that people who smoke had an increased risk of developing coronary coronavirus Covid-19 by 80 percent than those who did not smoke of the same age and gender.

In their study, the scientists assumed that the nicotine used to make cigarettes might affect the ability of corona virus molecules to bind to receptors in the body.

“There is a virus that reaches the receptors, and nicotine prevents this, and then they separate,” said Jean-Pierre Chanceau, professor of neuroscience at the Pasteur Institute in France, describing the hypothesis.

In developing this study, Chango cooperated with Zahir Ammoura, a professor at the Petit Salpetre University Hospital in Paris, both of whom will supervise the experiment.

Amorah said that the most important part of the experiment will be testing the sample of 1500 health workers.

They will be examined to see if they were infected with the virus, and if those who wear nicotine patches are more resistant than their colleagues who place fake stickers, Gomorrah said, “This may give us a way to limit the spread of the virus.”

A similar test will be conducted on 400 people who have been hospitalized with symptoms of the Coronavirus to understand whether nicotine changes the disease’s development.

The experiment will begin within three weeks, and the researchers said they will be careful not to encourage their research to smoke because of its harmful effects on human health. “This will be disastrous,” said Chango.

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Is it true that nicotine users contract Covid-19 less?

Hello,

Numerous case studies demonstrate this unequivocal : smokers who get Covid-19 have a risk greatly increased to develop severe forms of the disease. In this work, we find that the proportion of smokers is two to four times higher in severely ill patients than in those with a moderate form of the disease.

On the other hand, several publications relayed since the beginning of April report a counterintuitive phenomenon: in several countries, the proportion of smokers infected with SARS-CoV-2 would be lower than the proportion of smokers at regional or national level. The Minister of Health, Olivier Véran, recently mentioned this data.

In France, works being published conducted on a limited number of patients at the Pitié-Salpétrière, as well as a study in a school environment in Crépy-en-Valois (prepublished this April 23), also reported this statistical trend.

Many potential limits

Note now that the link between smoking status and propensity to be infected does not appear in all research. So in a recent study published in the Jama, involving 5,700 New York patients hospitalized for Covid-19, the proportion of smokers was analogous to that observed in the regional population.

The first studies were met with skepticism, not without reason. Indeed, many of these works have sometimes significant biases.

First limitation present in all studies (with the exception of French studies): the age parameter of hospitalized patients. Indeed, a significant proportion of patients with severe forms of Covid-19 are over the age of 65. The prevalence of smokers decreases very strongly with age (for example, in France, 65-75 year olds smoke 2.5 times less than the general population).

In the study conducted at Pitié-Salpêtrière, taking into account the age and sex of the patients, smokers nevertheless appeared to be four times less likely than non-smokers to be Covid +. A rate observed both in hospitalized patients and in patients treated on an outpatient basis. However, in order to draw more solid conclusions, these results should have been put into perspective with the smoking profile of patients who usually attend this hospital, at the same periods in previous years.

Another parameter that seems to be excluded from most analyzes: the socio-economic profile of the groups studied, which can strongly influence the expected proportion of smokers. A limitation mentioned by the authors of the French study, who established their calculations “Assuming that the population studied who lives in a limited area around a Parisian hospital has the same smoking habits as the French population in general”, and who note that “Healthcare workers were overrepresented in the outpatient group due to routine workplace testing when they became symptomatic”. The study conducted at Crépy-en-Valois seems to take this parameter into account. And its results are consistent with the Pitié Salpêtrière study.

Third important pitfall: the quality of the information collected is not always there … far from it. In some studies used by epidemiologists to conduct their analyzes, the smoking status of the sickest Covid + patients was simply not informed. Commentators have also noted that one of these studies considered individuals to be “non-smokers” less than 30 packages per year – preventing any comparison with national statistics which relate to all cigarette consumers.

For its part, the study conducted at Pitié-Salpêtrière seems to consider as “former smoker” any person who had quit smoking at the time of his hospitalization … without mentioning the hypothesis that patients may have stopped smoking because of the first Covid-19 symptoms! A point which would considerably influence the results. Requested by CheckNews, Zahir Amoura, author of this work, has not yet commented on this point.

Is the phenomenon biologically plausible?

The interpretation of these statistics, as well as the extent of the associated phenomenon, are still questionable.

Researchers, however, have begun to explore the hypothesis of a direct causal link between smoking status and primary SARS-CoV-2 infection. The question arises indeed: from a physiological point of view, is it plausible that lungs exposed to tobacco are less permeable to this coronavirus? Could nicotine be involved in the phenomenon?

A possible link with the ACE2 receiver?

SARS-CoV-2 infects cells by binding to the ACE2 receptor, abundant on the surface, in particular, the cells of the mucous membranes and the alveolar pulmonary tissue. The expression of the gene corresponding to ACE2 is not identical in smokers and in non-smokers. Based on animal models, smokers have long been considered to express less ACE2 – which suggests a simple explanation for the phenomenon: less ACE2 induces a lower propensity for infection.

But recent data, which seem to be corroborated by new researchsuggest that in humans, smoking is associated with a higher expression of ACE2. A higher propensity for coronavirus infection would therefore be expected. The epidemiological observations mentioned above, suggesting a protective effect of tobacco, would therefore raise a paradox.

Several explanatory hypotheses have been formulated. Some authors have advanced that in all patients, infection with SARS-CoV-2 would decrease the availability of ACE2 receptors in the lungs. The biological processes that usually mobilize these receptors would be hindered, leading to various symptoms of the disease. People with more ACE2, even if they were infected, would develop fewer symptoms. However, this interpretation is challenged by the Crépy-en-Valois study, where the diagnosis of infection was made on a blood test, and not on a simple clinical assessment of symptoms.

According to other works, the nAChR nicotinic receptor could modulate the activity of ACE2. Could stimulating nAChR make infection through ACE2 more difficult? This fact is not yet proven. “The possibility of a reciprocal modulation between ACE2 and the nicotinic receptor is an interesting scientific question for which we have no answer”, insists Professor Jean-Pierre Changeux, co-author of a scientific article inviting this hypothesis to be explored.

La Pitié-Salpêtrière has announced the launch of several clinical trials in this direction. The first, conducted on caregivers, aims to compare the infection rate between a group carrying nicotine patches and a group carrying placebos patches. More trials need to be done on Covid + patients in hospital to assess whether nicotine affects the course of the disease – especially in smokers who are forced to quit as a result of hospitalization.

Nicotine and vaping: preliminary data not very encouraging

The return of associations of electronic cigarette users does not seem to go in this direction, however. According to the analysis of a questionnaire sent in early April to several thousand members of the AIDUCE and SOVAPE associations, the rate of patients suspected of being Covid + was similar whether or not there was nicotine consumption – around 2.5 %. “Although it concerns nearly 10,000 people, this citizen survey is inconclusive on a major protective effect of nicotine, note the associations in a press release. The first data show no major positive or negative effect of vaping when faced with the risk of contracting Covid-19 for vapers and their entourage. ”

Tobaccoologist Bertrand Dautzenberg, who had encouraged these associations to explore this hypothesis, notes on Twitter that the data was not collected under conditions “Respecting all the obligations of scientific studies”. He nevertheless considers that they are not showing strong signs of a beneficial effect of nicotine in reducing Covid-19 levels. ” He invites an analysis of the Health Database to further explore this hypothesis.

No reason to start smoking

The tobacco specialist recalls “That tobacco certainly brings a negative effect greater than that of a small benefit which is not confirmed at all”. “This leads to encouraging all doctors to advise and support smoking cessation for all smokers.” The authors of the Crépy-en-Valois study abound in this sense, recalling that tobacco is responsible for 75,000 deaths per year in France. “Smoking cannot therefore be offered as a way of protecting oneself against the new coronavirus”, they insist.

Unsurprisingly, this finding is similar to that of the authors of a review on the complications of Covid-19 related to smoking. “Risk factors for severe forms of Covid-19 (pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, etc.) are more common in smokers. Smokers with comorbidities should quit smoking by all means. ” They also observe that confinement can lead to social isolation and psychological distress that increase the need for smoking. [En outre], smoking is more prevalent among the economically less advantaged groups, and they are potentially more at risk for Covid-19. ”

For its part, the association Alliance contre le tabac urged the greatest caution with regard to speculative information in circulation. In the absence of more evidence, nicotine users, “Should not expect to be more protected than the population from the current epidemic”, she recalls. In addition, she advises non-smokers to use nicotine substitutes. A warning also formulated by the promoters of the Pitié-Salpétrière study or by the Minister of Health.

In summary

Although well publicized, epidemiological observations associating smoking and the risk of developing the symptoms of Covid-19 are difficult to interpret at this time. Under the hypothesis of a real cause and effect link, the biological mechanisms mentioned in the press are still hypothetical. None have yet been formally tested.

Listen to the weekly behind the scenes podcast of CheckNews. This week: Covid-19: what are the real figures for deaths in intensive care?

Jérôme Salomon, the Director General of Health, mentioned a mortality of 10% in intensive care of patients hospitalized for Covid-19. In this episode, Luc Peillon explains why this figure is largely underestimated.


Florian Gouthière

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Cigarette companies “exploit” the Corona crisis … and the “Health Organization” warns

World Health Organization In her post on her Facebook page: “Pro-tobacco pressure groups tried to manipulate decision-making in light of the widespread Sk, In order to list the tobacco stores as necessary. “

“Smoke is not necessary, not during the outbreak of corona or others. As the corona virus preys on the lungs, the smoke industry places people at greater risk,” she noted.

The international organization explained that Cigarette manufacturers It “entices” consumers to continue purchasing by delivering their products to them for free in their homes during the quarantine period.

The World Health Organization said: “Smokers are likely to face more severe symptoms in the case of coronavirus, leading to hospitalization and early death.”

On March 31, the organization said in a post on its Facebook account that smoking of all kinds, whether cigarettes or shisha, increases the chances of a smoker being infected with the Corona virus and transmitting the infection to others.

The organization stated that placing a hand on the mouth during smoking could lead to the transmission of the virus inside the body, noting that the exchange of cigarettes could also transmit the disease among smokers.

She stressed that smoking weakens the respiratory system, which enhances the chances of infection with the Corona virus, especially as the disease specifically attacks the lungs.

The international organization called on smokers to stop smoking immediately in light of the spread of the epidemic, in order to maintain their health and the health of the people around them, and said, “This is the time to get rid of this habit.”

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And she said World Health Organization In her post on her Facebook page: “Pro-tobacco pressure groups tried to manipulate decision-making in light of the widespread Sk, In order to list the tobacco stores as necessary. “

“Smoke is not necessary, not during the outbreak of corona or others. As the corona virus preys on the lungs, the smoke industry places people at greater risk,” she noted.

The international organization explained that Cigarette manufacturers It “entices” consumers to continue purchasing by delivering their products to them for free in their homes during the quarantine period.

The World Health Organization said: “Smokers are likely to face more severe symptoms in the case of coronavirus, leading to hospitalization and early death.”

On March 31, the organization said in a post on its Facebook account that smoking of all kinds, whether it is cigarettes or shisha, increases the chances of a smoker being infected with the Corona virus and transmitting the infection to others.

The organization stated that placing a hand on the mouth during smoking could lead to the transmission of the virus inside the body, noting that the exchange of cigarettes could also transmit the disease among smokers.

She stressed that smoking weakens the respiratory system, which enhances the chances of infection with the Corona virus, especially as the disease specifically attacks the lungs.

The international organization called on smokers to stop smoking immediately in light of the spread of the epidemic, in order to maintain their health and the health of the people around them, and said, “This is the time to get rid of this habit.”

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Smokes is trout

Animated picture Emmanuel Pierrot

Jim Harrison must go back to his grave: this year, he could not have teased trout in the rivers of the Morvan, near his friend Gérard Oberlé, writer ogre of knowledge and good things to drink and eat . All of this is the fault of this damn coronavirus that prohibits dipping the wire in water. However, we know a lot of chicks who recognize themselves through the words of Jim Harrison in A good day to die (ed. 10/18, 2003): “I was struck again by the way the fishery helped me to wipe out everything else, at least as long as I was in the river. For a few hours, all the problems – money, sex, alcohol, madness – disappeared in my concentration on the river, the places where the big trout were probably, the clear currents or in the swirls near the grassy shore , or behind the big rocks and pebbles that protruded from the surface of the water, forming pockets of water that always seemed to contain one or two fish. ”

Ass comb

Our old friend Bébert is one of those guys for whom life revolves around three pillars: the factory, the garden, fishing. Turner that he was Bébert. “OHQ” as we said for a highly skilled worker. At the workshop, he was entrusted with the machining of prototypes on his Ernault Somua lathe. You shouldn’t have risked touching his bike, which he burnt like a new penny. He was so proud of it that he didn’t understand anything when the takeover’s combs passed before him without a look or a word. It’s true what, almost forty banks to machine scrap for the same taulier, it deserved at least a bit of chat. He didn’t see anything coming either when the HRD told him that it was not going very much question backlog. It must be said that Bébert is not the kind of guy who gossips at the bistro after work. Him, it is the garden, the fishing which ventilates the mood. So when the big egg spoke “Production outsourcing” in Hungary and China, he simply put his tools in their large rag, emptied his closet in the locker room and then he went home to butter his potatoes. When his wife tumbled into the garden to unpack his chickweed, he simply shrugged, grumbling: “I was told I have enough quarters for retirement.”

Giant of Flanders

Sometimes he misses his turn, the smell of hot metal, the precision of a successful adjustment. But he doesn’t say anything because he always has something to take care of. The garden first: prepare the soil for the end of winter before the spring sowing: transplant, pick, pick, water, and then there is always a blade of grass to pull. You also have to take care of the hens, the rabbits (he is particularly proud of his giant of Flanders, a male), give a helping hand to his wife to hull the beans of the canned goods. Winter, Bébert “Do his wood” as he says in his communal affouage. He cuts, he splits oak, beech, foyard. Logs and quarters of 50 cm (it is precise as in the factory) for the Godin stove which heats a large part of their house. Bébert does everything himself. He never put the words “autarky”, “autonomy” in Scrabble. But the other day, he laughed softly when he heard on TV talking about “transition”, “living and consuming differently”. “I’ve always lived like this, that he thought, and my world will last long enough before I pass the gun to the left. “

Reels

And then there is fishing. This year, as usual, Bébert checked his gear in February. You have to see him polishing his rods, disassembling and checking his reels, mounting his lines, classifying his hooks and lures in his drawer box as tidy as that of his wife’s sewing. At dawn on March 14, he was happy as a kid, posted in one of his favorite fishing spots. To tell the truth, he doesn’t care a bit about the fish, especially since the farmed trout that has just been released is a bit like “duck fishing” at funfairs. Bébert especially likes “to take some fresh air” as he says, snack alone with his dog corniaud by scanning the river bed where he hopes to see a real trout, “A savage”. This year, Bébert came back from fishing with a nice … dandelion salad they ate with bacon and a poached egg. When containment landed like smallpox on the low clergy, Bébert sighed that he was “Too old for this kind of bullshit”. But the doctor phoned: with his emphysema (the fault in the scrap metal dust at the factory), he has to stay well sealed so as not to catch the coronavirus. As usual, he shrugged. he “Fuck the coronamachin” and then “Those joggers idiots”, they have the right to run in the countryside. So why shouldn’t he walk his dog along the river?

Big fario

So the other afternoon, after sowing an 18-day radish plank in the garden, he goes to the water’s edge while the boss goes shopping at Super-U. The dog knows the way alone, over there where the river bends under a large willow. This is where it hides “The memory”, thinks Bébert. A big fario that he spotted a handful of times when she came out of his hideout, a huge strain. Bébert admires him. She fucked all the fishermen in the area. He is afraid it will end up in a landing net. He never had the trophy virus. He would just like to feel it undulate between his fingers underwater like when he was fishing by hand, kid. Today, the wave is clear under a hot spring sun. Bébert leans against the stump under which he distinguishes a tapered shadow. It’s for sure, it’s her. So he plunges his arms into the water to try to catch Memère. But it is already far away when Bébert falls with all his weight into the river.

Read alsoLast week’s “You simmer”: Vincent, Paulo and spelled

“You are going to catch death”, she says Bébert’s wife as he dries himself with a rough towel. Once the anger of his mishap is over, he smiles and thinks he’s twelve years old this afternoon. Then he leaves in a huge laugh when he sees in the middle of his wife’s shopping a bag of smoked trout which she is carefully disinfecting with hydroalcoholic gel.

Noirmoutier beanie

Like all fish when smoked, trout love potatoes, especially when they are early, like those grown on the island of Noirmoutier. The star is the bonnotte but there is also the earlier sirtema, the iodea, the lady christ’l. Here is a recipe for “Bonnet apples in goat whipped cream and dill, strips of smoked trout and Siltimur pepper” that you can make with the potatoes available in these confined times.

You need 20 medium-sized underwear for six people; 2 slices of smoked trout cut into strips; 20 cl of very cold liquid cream; ½ fresh goat cheese log; 12 small sprigs of dill; 1 lime cut into quarters; Siltimur pepper or another if you can’t find it (black pepper, Espelette pepper …)

Wash and brush the potatoes then immerse them in a large pot of boiling salted water. Allow 10 minutes for cooking as soon as it boils again. Drain and keep warm. Whip the liquid cream with a mixer. In another bowl, whisk the goat cheese with the rinsed and finely chopped dill and stir in the cream. Whisk again and keep cool.

Arrange the bonnottes on each plate (about three per guest), cutting the top to make the flesh of the potato visible. Using a fluted piping bag or a spoon, arrange your cream.

Add one or two strips of trout, a sprig of dill and a wedge of lime. Give two mill turns with Siltimur pepper and it’s ready.

You can zest your lime in the whipped cream.


Jacky durand

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Extremely few smokers among COVID-19 patients

Posted: Edited by:

According to the AP-HP center, which unites hospitals in Paris and the capital region, among the 11 thousand patients hospitalized with COVID-19, only 8.5% of smokers were. This is an extremely low figure, considering that in France more than a quarter of the population smokes daily – 25.4%. Statistics published April 22, the French edition of Le Monde and Le Point.

According to AP-HP, nicotine probably inhibits the spread of the virus in the cells of the body.

Another study was conducted by doctors from the largest Paris university hospital Drink-Salpetriere. They found the number of smokers among 343 hospitalized and 139 outpatients. It turned out that among patients who were hospitalized with an average age of 65 years, only 4.4% smoked constantly. Among outpatients (mean age 44 years) only 5.3% smoke daily.

“Among those infected with COVID-19, there are approximately 80% fewer smokers than among the general population, if we consider people of the same gender and age,” quotes Le Point professors from Drink-Salpetriere Zahir Amuru (Zahir Amourа).

“Our study suggests that smokers are much less likely to become infected with severe symptoms than the rest of the population,” the authors of the study note.

“Five times fewer smokers than we expected, among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and coming to a consultation at Drink-Salpetriere. We do not have vape data yet. New research is needed, ”wrote the French tobacco doctor, professor Bertrand Dautzenberg, on his Twitter account. “Let’s not forget that smoking kills more people than COVID.”

French researchers like writes Le Monde intends to use nicotine patches as part of clinical trials for both hospitalized patients and medical staff not infected with coronavirus. “We are now evaluating the effectiveness of this approach with the support of the Ministry of Health,” said Florence Tubach, a epidemiologist who participated in the study.

A similar study by Chinese scientists was previously published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Of the thousands of people infected with coronavirus, only 12.6% were smokers, while in China there are even more smokers than in France – 28% of the total population.

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Representative of the World Health in Egypt: Smoking puts its owner in the range of confirmed infection Corona

Dr. John Jabbour, the representative of the World Health Organization in Egypt, said that smoking represents a great danger for a person who smoked in the period of the epidemic, referring to “hookah” specifically as a fertile environment for transferring the new corona virus to its smoker, and that cigarettes reduce the capacity of the device Respiratory to address the symptoms of the Corona virus if infected.

The WHO representative added, during a telephone conversation with the media Amr Adib, on the “Al-Hekaya” program, which is broadcast on the channel mbc Egypt, that there are many treatments that are being conducted experiments in order to reach the vaccine for the new Corona virus, including plasma treatment, indicating that all precautions must be taken to prevent infection.

The representative of the World Health Organization explained that, with regard to the tests that are carried out in Egypt, they have a pattern of escalation in Egypt, but the World Health Organization seeks to have a unified methodology for the examinations that take place in Egypt, because this will lead to the detection of injuries at the level of the Republic, which is what it seeks Mechanism of the organization always, despite its upward trend in Egypt.

Dr. John Jabbour said, “The commitment will reduce the pressure on the health system, and this will lead to a quick vertical departure, and commented on fasting during Ramadan, that there are some habits that we can change in order to prevent the rapid spread of the epidemic, and any precautionary measure approved by the state must start.” Citizens implement it until the epidemic is overcome.

He added, that a booklet was prepared for the necessary instructions that must be followed in the blessed month of Ramadan, noting that there is no study confirming that there is a relationship between fasting and the emergence of the emerging coronavirus, while patients with the virus can obtain a religious license to break the fast.

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4 drinks that you do not eat on an empty stomach immediately after waking up .. “Harmful to health”

08:00 PM

Monday 13 April 2020

I wrote – Amira Helmy:

Each of us has a certain habit once we wake up from sleep every morning. Some of us drink a cup of water, another drink a cup of coffee, and a third may smoke his cigarette and other habits, without regard to the extent of the harm or its importance.

So we show you the most important drinks that we should not eat on an “empty stomach”, according to the Health Line website.

1- Coffee:

Despite the many benefits of coffee for health, eating it on an empty stomach may lead to irritation of the stomach due to its caffeine content, and raise the risk of stomach acidity and even ulcers in the future.

As caffeine is linked to digestive disorders, drinking coffee may cause appetite suppression temporarily, making you gradually step aside from a balanced and balanced breakfast.

2- Soft drinks:

Eating it on an empty stomach causes constricted blood vessels and lack of blood flow to the stomach, and thus difficulty digestion, stomach cramps and pain, as well as a feeling of acidity at a later time, as these drinks consist of acidic substances.

Also read: “Corona” evolved within 100 days … new symptoms and 3 types of virus invade the world.

3- Canned juices:

Canned juice, one of the worst options you can eat in the morning, if the fruit juices on the market contain very little juice and are sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. High levels of sugar increase the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and other diseases.

4- Natural juices:

Even 100% fruit juice contains a lot of sugar. Consuming large amounts of fruit juice can have the same effects on your weight and health as drinking sugar-sweetened drinks.

Drinking fruit juice causes your blood sugar to rise too quickly, since there are no fats or fibers to slow down the absorption process. High insulin and low blood sugar can lead to fatigue, tremors, and hunger.

In addition to smoking on an empty stomach, it gives the stomach signs to work, and asks to pump more blood from other organs. In this period, the immune system weakens and is vulnerable to disease, according to the website “dailymedicalinfo”.

What do I drink upon waking up?

There are several health benefits of consuming a cup of water immediately after waking up. Drinking water on an empty stomach at the beginning of the day makes water a cleansing medicine, and it is one of the most important healthy habits that make the Japanese enjoy high levels of health.

These are the most important benefits of drinking water after waking up, according to the website “webteb”.

Moisturizing the body after a dry period of approximately 7 hours.

Headache prevention.

– Activate the metabolism process after inactivity.

Drinking water is the best way to protect the kidneys from stones and infections.

In the morning, water revives the vitality and activity of the lymphatic system, the cornerstone of the human immune system.

Also read: Corona’s dead do not transmit the infection … thus their bodies are washed and buried

Drinking water in the morning helps to remove toxins that formed inside the layers of the skin during sleep, and with morning water the skin regains its vitality.

– Reducing heartburn and stomach disorders that occur due to increased acidity in the stomach, and if the sour liquid reaches the esophagus one will feel uncomfortable, but when drinking water after waking up from sleep, the acid is diluted and avoided heartburn, as the stomach prepares for that for a meal the breakfast.

Prevent kidney stones and bladder infections, as adequate fluids reduce stomach acid and flush toxins out of the body.

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