In the United States, designer Anatoly Daron died due to an exacerbation of a chronic disease. He created engines for rockets that delivered the first satellite and the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin to space. A message about this is posted on the website of NPO Energomash (Roscosmos enterprise).
“On June 24, 2020, an outstanding scientist, designer, who worked for many years at NPO Energomash, Anatoly Davidovich Daron, passed away,” the report said.
Daron was born in 1926 in Odessa, graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute. From 1948 to 1998, he worked at Energomash.
He was a leading designer in the development of the RD-107 and RD-108 liquid-propellant rocket engines for the R-7 rocket family. With the help of this engine and its modifications, an artificial satellite and a spacecraft with a man on board were first launched into space from Earth. The development was also used in flights of automatic stations to the Moon, Venus and Mars. Now, the RD-107 and RD-108 liquid-propellant rocket engines provide for the implementation of the domestic manned flight program.
In 1989, Daron received the honorary title of Honored Designer of the RSFSR, in addition, he was awarded the Orders of Lenin, Friendship, and the Red Banner of Labor.
The bore measures per stroke are 107.1 and 100 mm with light alloy pistons with the combustion chamber partially obtained in the sky of these pistons, while the crankshaft is obtained from tempered and forged steel; given the dimensions and the considerable weights at stake for all the various components of the frame, the crankshaft has three supports instead of the usual two that characterize the boxer engines. The cylinder head has four valves per cylinder with a diameter of 41.2 mm for the intake and 35 for the discharge and are inclined by 21 ° at the inlet and 24 ° at the outlet. The distribution is with rods and rocker arms to have heads with a smaller lateral development to avoid touching the curves with the two cylinders with a capacity of almost a liter soon. Articulated distributions such as the variable timing of the last 1250 boxers require more space while this is really reduced to a minimum, there is no automatic system to restore the operating clearance which is entrusted, as in the past, to a simple screw and a locknut, just like old boxers. The camshafts are at the top of the engine and take their motion from the crankshaft via a chain and two gears with a pattern that repeats that of the R 5 engine. Lubrication has an important part in this engine because the oil it also serves to eliminate heat: 4.1 liters is the quantity of lubricant, practically the same volume (4 liters) as the last 1250 boxers and there is a double delivery and recovery pump and a large radiator in front of the engine. The fuel supply is by injection with a 48 mm diameter throttle body and an injector placed practically in the intake duct. Together with the jets of air taken from the filter case, a “vortex” effect is combined in the cylinder head which improves combustion, therefore lowers pollution (we are in a Euro 5 regime) and decreases consumption (declared in 5-6 liters of fuel per 100 km). The transmission department is also different from the other schemes that we find in the new boxers because the clutch is dry, with a single disc combined with a large flywheel and combined with a control system when climbing: a sort of anti-hop device that minimizes the reactions of the final shaft transmission. The six-speed gearbox also has four axles to lower the transmission output and has (optional) reverse gear. The result of this remarkable work is a boxer engine that delivers the power of 91 HP (67 kW) at 4,750 rpm and a remarkable maximum torque of 158 Nm at 3,000 rpm, but at 2,000 rpm we already have 150 Nm. there are countershafts to reduce vibrations, the boxer scheme for its own construction minimizes the problem, indeed the German engineers have insisted on saying that the engine is “alive” and that its pulsations are healthy and beautiful “good vibration”.
The car attracts with comfort, a presentable appearance, a galvanized body and good handling.
At the word “business sedan”, many Russians immediately recall Toyota Camry or KIA Optima, but the list is not limited to them. As an alternative, among cars of this class it is worth recalling the Volkswagen Passat B6, produced from 2005 to 2010. The editors of the publication Pokatim.ru, having studied the reviews of motorists on Drom and Drive2, announced the TOP-5 reasons to pay attention to the German premium sedan with mileage.
Volkswagen Passat B6 is distinguished by a spacious interior, which is conveniently located even for drivers with passengers whose height exceeds 180 cm. Some drivers note that the seats in the German sedan are much more comfortable than in the 10-year-old Camry, and are endowed with popliteal support. The front row of seats is equipped with electric adjustments. Good noise insulation also adds comfort to the interior – no extraneous sounds are heard in the cabin while riding.
“Passat” in the back of the B6 looks relevant even now due to a presentable and stylish appearance. The Volkswagen Passat body is galvanized, which is why you can meet a copy without rust, but with small chips. However, the latter can sometimes lead to corrosion. As the experts of the portal “Wheels” noted, the appearance of red spots on the body of a German sedan is the result of a “lazy” attitude towards the car, so experts recommend looking at the specimens, the owners of which did not save on anti-corrosion treatment.
A German sedan with mileage due to a downed, but moderately stiff suspension, demonstrates a comfortable ride – the car does not swing on the road and moves without banks. Even on poor road surfaces, the Passat delivers comfort to the owners, and due to the high ground clearance in winter, off-roading will not be a problem.
Volkswagen Passat B6 is distinguished by an extensive motor range – there are gasoline engines in volumes of 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 3.2 and 3.6 liters and diesel engines in volumes of 1.6, 1.9 and 2.0 liters. As for diesel units, such engines are famous for their resourcefulness, high-torque and economy, despite some problems with the turbine and fuel equipment.
Among gasoline engines, you should pay attention to the 1.6-liter engine, which is characterized by ease of maintenance, but at the same time, low dynamics. Also, one should not discount the 1.8- and 2.0-liter units with a strong piston group and cylinder head, although they are sensitive to the quality of the oil and are “famous” for their high lubricant consumption.
V6 volumes of 3.2 and 3.6 liters are famous for their improved dynamics, but you should forget about the ease of maintenance of such units – you need to remove the engine to replace the timing drive. As motorists noted in the reviews, when buying a “Passat” with 6-cylinder engines, you should lay the future financial reserve for possible problems. The best option for Volkswagen Passat B6 will be the version with 1.6- and 2-liter engines.
In addition to the advantages, the Volkswagen Passat B6 with mileage, like any car, also has disadvantages, among which there is a problematic DSG box, which often fails after 50,000 – 70,000 km, problems with the electronics due to burnout of bulbs and fuses. Also, many motorists complain about mediocre headlights, because of which it is uncomfortable to drive at night. More silent blocks and stabilizer racks often change.
On this topic
LADA XRay and Largus are in short supply in Russia
Volkswagen Passat B6 with mileage should be considered for purchase because of reliable engines, a comfortable interior, good handling, a presentable appearance and good corrosion resistance. As noted by experts of the publication “Wheels”, for 500 000 rubles in the market you can buy “Passat” in good condition and without serious problems.
Unlike Togliatti competitor, “French” and not nearly pulls for the price of one million rubles.
Raised hatchbacks — a controversial form factor for the car. Let the machine in such a body and increased ground clearance, it has no space in the cabin, nor patency of the crossover. However, cross-hatchback continue to come out, and the French Renault Sandero Stepway loses LADA XRay Cross, which he explained to the blogger YouTube channel Autospot.
The cost of the basic “Stepway” starts from 830 000 rubles, the top package costs 1 000 000 rubles. XRay in the “base” is cheaper than “French” — 784 900 rubles, but the maximum grade is also costs about a million. As prices on the best equipment of both cars together, it would be logical to compare them to the “maximum speed”.
In the top-end performance and “Sandero” and “Iccrea” there is one and the same 1.8-liter engine producing 113 HP, which residents have borrowed from the French. Despite one motor car traveling in different ways: due to the fact that the LADA is heavier, its acceleration to “hundreds” comes in 12.5 s, 0.5 seconds slower than the Sandero Stepway. Models also share the same CVT for two, produced by Jatсo.
The third detail you share with each other the “Stepway” and “Cross” — platform B0. However, for the running machines are much stronger than the motor or transmission, as the engineers of “AVTOVAZ” to seriously work on suspension XRay. With the front suspension the manufacturer has installed an L-shaped levers, which improve the controllability of the machine.
On the rear wheels of the Russian cross-hatch are disc brakes, while the Sandero — “drums”, despite the fact that he, too, is worth a million rubles in the “top”. Plus French cars in this sense the softness of the suspension. The only thing that can bring inconvenience to the driver — wheel, which fly strikes on the irregularities in the rest of the suspension gradually “eats up” all holes.
Comparing the equipment of two cars, the Frenchman losing almost everything: no heated steering wheel, armrest, sub-floor in the trunk, rear view camera etc. the Only thing that can boast the “Stepway” four, and not two as Lada, airbags and remote engine start.
The expert noted that neither the LADA XRay Cross, nor Renault Sandero Stepway does not show any dynamics. The difference in driving characteristics is that improvements in the suspension of “Lada” went in her favor, so that the machine is operated much better than “French”. In addition to the suspension, this helps MDPS and more accurate feedback on the steering wheel. The “Sandero” same wheel just heavy and does not give any connection.
Thus, it becomes evident that Renault Sandero Stepway is not competitive even in comparison with the best model of “AVTOVAZ”, but it shares the same engine, transmission and platform.
The demand for “Cretu” with “heavy fuel” in India suggests that the crossover could be even more in demand in the Russian market.
While the Russian dealers have successfully implemented the first generation Hyundai Creta, to the Indian market received the second generation of the crosswhich for several months had to demonstrate strong consumer demand. So, starting from the second half of March 2020 for a new generation “Koreans” received 30 thousand orders, 55 percent of which occur in diesel models. This was announced by the Indian automobile portal GaadiWaadi. It is noteworthy that the new Hyundai Grand for the Indian market available with three engine options: 1.4-liter petrol turbo, a 1.5-liter naturally aspirated petrol unit and a 1.5-liter “turbodiesel”. It turns out that the remaining 45 percent of the orders are divided between two of the three variants of the power plant.
The Russian audience only available two petrol modificationwith a capacity of 1.6 and 2.0 liters, but the version with the motor on “heavy fuel” are missing. Motorists are convinced that the diesel motor is what is missing “Russian” Hyundai Creta to “full stuffing”. User forums Hyundai-Creta.net and Creta-fan.ru in their reviews told why a crossover with “diesel” could become even more popular among Russians and in some cases it is necessary to give preference to this version.
For example, many motorists believe that the diesel engine is dressed with high-quality fuel that can drive up to 500 thousand km without major repairs subject to proper maintenance and good engine oil. And sure diesel with high torque will give Hyundai Creta to move in traffic at idlewhat is important to residents of major cities.
“More sound in the cabin is not audible, so did not immediately understand that Creta runs on diesel fuel,” “On the highway in 6 gear motor Crete holds 2000 rpm, the flow rate is 4 to 6 liters at a speed of 120 km per hour the revs rise to 2500″, “1.6 CRDi is a gem among the engines of Hyundai” — tell motorists about their experiences diesel engine “Korean”.
The question which engine is better — petrol or diesel — it is impossible to answer, because the choice of unit depends on the specifics of the operation of the vehicle. In terms of practicality and durability diesel SUV looks more attractive. Although the cost is higher than gasoline, the cost of large runs pay off with a cost-effective fuel consumption. However, the work of diesel engines may be accompanied by increased noise and vibration in the cabin. Gasoline is also suitable for those who have in the regions of insufficient quality diesel fuel, or who wish to to save on the starting amount of the car.
Motorists also note that petrol modification Korean cross have a high “voracity” and consume an average of 11-13 litres of fuel, and therefore the efficiency of the diesel unit can be a decisive factor in choosing a car.
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LADA Granta new generation: independent Published renders
Recall that sales of Hyundai Creta was launched in Russia in July 2016, and from 2017 the Korean crossover every year he became the absolute sales leader in the SUV segment. The cost of “Crete” in the Russian market is of 0.99 to 1.57 million. Fans of the brand believe that diesel versions Creta could attract more consumers and significantly increase the gap between “Koreans” from competitors.
“Japanese” 1988 release may be an option to “Loaf.”
Photo: Mitsubishi Van 1988, source: Motor1
On the eve of the American automobile portal Motor1 reported that Mitsubishi Van sell in Washington for $ 5,000. According to the seller, “minivan runs and drives good, it had lots of mechanical work recently”, and it is in excellent condition, which is not expected from 32-year-old car with mileage of 380,000 km.
Under the hood of the “Wagon” is naturally a 2.4-liter gasoline engine that equipped with new components. Under the replacement went the water pump, timing belt, thermostat, accessory belts, spark plugs, fuel filter and fuel injector connector. Block four-cylinder coupled with an automatic transmission four-speed, and the actuator is provided back.
Photo: Mitsubishi Van 1988, source: Motor1
Of the minusesMitsubishi Van the owner has identified unsatisfactory insulation and rough engine operation at idle. From the pros spacious 8-seater cabin, capacity 1200 kg, maneuverability and low maintenance. For comparison, the capacity of Ulyanovsk “Loaf” is 875 — 1225 kg. in addition, inside “Mitso” you can furnish a house on wheels.
Recall that the value of the Japanese car is 5,000 dollars, which translated into Russian currency is 347 000. It is noteworthy that the UAZ the same year in good condition can be found on the secondary market for 250 000 — 370 000 rubles. Lovers of Japanese cars such exhibit may be to the taste, because it looks decent.
Photo: UAZ “Loaf”, source: Drom
On the subject
Skoda will develop competitor Hyundai Creta
Compact minivan Delica Mitsubishi made its debut in 1968. Under this name a car known in his homeland, as well as on the Australian and Taiwanese markets. In Europe, Africa and the United Arab Emirates model known as the L300, but in America — the Mitsubishi Van or Wagon. The conveyor 52 for years, the minivan was replaced by the 4th generation and has undergone 6 restyling, while domestic UAZ “Loaf” for the conveyor 55 years, has had only 3 upgrades.
It’s called Spring, Sean Wotherspoon, and it is the new arrival in the home of the Vespa. Born from the collaboration with the american artist, one of the protagonists of the culture of the ‘street’ of the moment, the new Vespa signed Wotherspoon is presented in a special limited edition. The common line between the Vespa and the designer was found in the passion for the color to catch the trends of tomorrow and conquer that want to play with the style. The work of Wotherspoon is completed by a helmet and a capsule collection of streetwear consists of two T-shirts. The capsule keeps in part to the strong colors of the Vespa Primavera Sean Wotherspoon, side by side to the typical characters of the world of Vespa and also introducing a reinterpretation of the famous logo which is accompanied by the signature of Sean. The livery of the Vespa Primavera Sean Wotherspoon represents the love of the artist for the style of the ’80s and ’90s. Yellow, red, dark green and water green are the main colors on the vehicle, embellished with white inserts as the ‘tie’ on the shield, the profiles of the shell and the rims, the edges of which are embossed with the Vespa logo. Different are the materials used: from the metal to the plastic, through velvet and rubber. In the pure tradition of the Vespa, in fact, the shell is made of steel, a characteristic that distinguishes Vespa from the very beginning. On the metal body engages the footrest red plastic with a blue insert in the rubber. For the saddle, Wotherspoon has chosen a corduroy light tan in color, to which he added finishing touches of white and its distinctive logo. The back of the hood is custom with a dedicated graphics, which plays serially to the logo of the Vespa Primavera. The engine is a single cylinder 125 cc four-stroke of modern-series-get, equipped with electronic fuel injection. Vespa Primavera Sean Wotherspoon is already available at a price of 4.990 Euro.
The engine is stronger, the light brighter, and most importantly, the little things are encouraging.
Photo: left Volkswagen Tiguan, Volkswagen source; right KIA Sportage, a KIA source
KIA Sportage and Volkswagen Tiguan are avid competitors in the world automotive industry. A key factor during the purchase price becomessince “Korean” in the maximum configuration for a half-million cheaper “German”: a 1.4-2.3 million rubles against 1.7-2.8 million rubles. The user portal Drive2.ru nick ooGAMEoo outlined 5 reasons to change from KIA Sportage for Volkswagen Tiguan.
The first reason is the 4-cylinder engine capacity of 2.0 liters. It is superior to the competitor of the power: 220 vs 184 horsepower, which affects the dynamics of dispersal and potential. Columnist says that inferior to the KIA Sportage Volkswagen Tiguan in the wings and vitality, because “German” is included in the first two gears.
The second reason — a robotic 7-speed transmissionwhich, according to the owner, less of a problem than with automatic transmission on KIA Sportage.
“The speed and the sharpness of the shifts in sport, small claps, even on a stock exhaust is for me the pros of this box. This also will record its reliability,” he says.
Blogger on the YouTube channel “Fox Rules” I’m sure that with proper and timely servicing of the DSG-box is the most environmentally friendly and directly affects the voracity of the machine.
According to the portal Drom.ru, fuel consumption of Volkswagen Tiguan Sportline equal to 6.4 liters in the combined cycle drive, and the KIA Sportage Premium is 8.8 liters. If not for the difference in the recommended fuel: for the “German” gasoline AI-95 and AI-98, and “Korean” — gasoline AI-92 and AI-95, it was another plus in the direction of “Tiguan”, and “that is what comes out at the price.”
Photo: on the left the salon, Volkswagen Tiguan, Volkswagen source; right transmission KIA Sportage, a KIA source
The third reason is the 190 mm ground clearancethat adds German SUV cross. However, the observer noted that the whole height is leveled with a body kit and at the end he was getting the KIA Sportage with its 182 mm, which had no complaints.
The fourth reason — led headlamp near and far light projection type, as well as led taillights with 3D design. The former owner of the “Sportage” don’t miss the opportunity to complain about xenon headlights that are missing on the lighting track.
The fifth reason — heated windshield and the presence of pre-heater. Seemingly small things, but the benefits of PPP is that the driver of the car sits in the winter in a warm car, not waiting for warm-up. In his KIA Sportage was not given options from the factory.
Photo: left Volkswagen Tiguan, Volkswagen source; right KIA Sportage, a KIA source
The owner would have recognized the appearance of the Volkswagen Tiguan perfect, but fallsville, which is only in the maximum configuration, caused him to doubt and to put the “Four plus”. Summing up, the motorist noted that this is the case when a good car is worth to pay.
What new sanctions prepared by the United States against Russia, how many Russians reach financial independence, 2 million cases COVID-19 in the United States, Musk praised Rogozin’s article; top news — a review of RBC
The US has proposed to impose “tough” sanctions against Russia
The Republican study Committee submitted a 120-page report, which included “the most stringent ever proposed” sanctions against Russia, China and Iran.
In particular, Russia, the Republicans are urging to recognize the “state sponsor of terrorism for its support of the Islamic revolutionary guard Corps, Hezbollah, the Taliban (an organization banned in Russia) and “Russian Imperial movement”.
Sanctions, in the opinion of the Committee, you must enter against companies that support the Russian oil and gas projects. Also Russia should be excluded from the international system SWIFT. Restrictions should also apply against “the leaders of her campaign of disinformation”: the head of AFK “Sistema” Vladimir Yevtushenkov, the former Prime Minister of Georgia Bidzina Ivanishvili, the leader of Ukrainian party “the Opposition platform For life” Viktor Medvedchuk.
In addition, Republicans believe that Congress should authorize the U.S. Department of state to arrange for the collection of news and information to Russians directly, what did the Obama administration.
Sberbank called the age of achieving financial independence in Russia
A study of the savings Bank have shown that the Russians are financially independent from their parents, on average, 26 years. Respondents in the far East and Siberia