it affects not only the lungs, but the whole body

The first 10 days after the onset of symptoms of the disease, the 38-year-old American was feeling quite well. He was not at risk; he had no chronic diseases.

– The man was examined, the disease was mild. The patient had a slight cough. Therefore, he was sent home for treatment, ”says the head of the Department of Vascular Surgery at Westchester Medical Center Sean Wengerter.

And then the incredible happened.

One morning, a man woke up with icy and numb legs. The body was constrained by terrible weakness; there was not even the strength to get out of bed.

The examination showed that the patient had aortic occlusion – a large blood clot formed in the main artery at the place where the artery diverged in two directions – to the right and left leg. Because of this clot, blood enriched with oxygen did not enter the iliac arteries.

“This is extremely dangerous.” From this can die from 20% to 50% of patients, – notes Vangerter. – But such things are not typical for 38-year-olds.

An emergency operation to remove a blood clot could save the patient’s life. But doctors working with patients with COVID-19 are everywhere faced with rather strange and frightening phenomena in infected patients. For example, the formation of blood clots (actually blood clots) of various sizes throughout the body, renal failure, inflammation of the heart muscle and malfunctions of the immune system.

“Coronavirus occurs in each patient in its own way,” notes Scott Brackenridge, associate professor of emergency surgery at the College of Medicine at the University of Florida. – In some cases, the patient has a problem with breathing, in others, the internal organs begin to fail. In children, the immune system as a whole begins to rebel.

Coronavirus is not just a respiratory diseasePhoto: Ivan MAKEEV

MYSTERIOUS STROKES

A new type of coronavirus is considered to be a respiratory virus, although it is already becoming obvious – the infection affects the entire human body. The most common symptoms are fever, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

In this case, the virus attacks some organs directly. First of all, the mucous membrane of blood vessels, which entails unnatural coagulation of blood.

– COVID-19 provokes a local inflammatory reaction that leads to the formation of blood clots, – explains Wengerter. – This is due to the direct effect of the virus on the arteries.

A number of doctors recorded strokes in young patients with coronavirus, as well as the formation of blood clots in the lungs. Blood clots were found even in the smallest vessels.

“Since each organ feeds on blood vessels, and the virus attacks them first and foremost, we end up with damage to internal organs,” adds Dr. Scott Brackenridge.

Another serious symptom that is observed in some patients who become ill with the new coronavirus is the “co-fingers.” The infected toes swell, becoming red or purple. It is possible that the reason for this is blockage of blood vessels. But doctors say that usually this does not have serious consequences.

Kawasaki Syndrome

One of the most alarming reactions to COVID-19 is observed in children. It has already been named as a children’s multisystem inflammatory syndrome. In newYork Doctors have identified more than 100 cases.

This syndrome is characterized by a rather long fever, inflammatory process, malfunction of one or more internal organs, as well as the general condition, which is usually observed with shock. Pediatricians also compare these symptoms with the syndrome. Kawasaki.

Kawasaki syndrome is a rare disease that affects children aged 3 to 10 years. It is characterized by damage to the medium and small arteries, thrombosis, the formation of aneurysms and rupture of the vascular wall. Cases of infection are rare. However, recently, doctors have noted an increase in the number of patients with this syndrome.

Both childhood multisystem inflammatory syndrome and Kawasaki syndrome lead to an overly aggressive immune system response to coronavirus. This may be accompanied by inflammation of the blood vessels and heart muscle.

KILLER CELLS

However, scientists note that coronavirus is not able to cause a strong immune response, but, on the contrary, suppress the entire immune system. And this can allow the infection to freely attack the internal organs.

Partly this theory was confirmed by Chinese experts, led by Dr. Zhang Zhang. Scientists analyzed samples of immune cells taken from the lungs of 9 patients infected with coronavirus. The results of the study showed an abnormally high level of leukocytes – macrophages and neutrophils responsible for the destruction of harmful pathogen – in severe patients. At the same time, these patients had a rather low level of CD8 T cells, which are called killer cells. They are responsible for killing virus-infected cells.

But doctors are reassuring, noting that they have drugs that can thin the blood, and also help the work of white blood cells that resist infection.

LISTEN ALSO

Sergey Mardan: In the USA, the clinic would simply go broke if the ventilator apparatus exploded and people died

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The gigantic military disaster of the English in the Spanish Caribbean that does not appear in history books

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If, as the British nationalist account assumes after the invincible Navy, England assumed the trident of the seas to the detriment of Spain, it seems that the Neptune instrument weighed heavily on him. In 1625, both countries fought a brief but intense war where the monarchy of Philip IV He came out triumphant. Under the protectorate of Oliver CromwellYears later, there was another defeat in the Caribbean of Dantesque dimensions. Both British setbacks barely occupy a few lines in traditional historiography …

As Spain entered a declining phase in the Thirty Years’ War, the two powerful Atlantic countries collided again in a warlike conflict because of trade rivalry in Cromwell’s time. The accusation, so many times repeated, that the Spanish monopoly was a focus of delay for the entire globe, served as a trigger for the conflict. It is still paradoxical that England, which always justified its wars and its pirate attacks against Spain in the need for global trade, was enormously restrictive in its colonies. Only English ships (neither Scottish nor Irish) could dock in American ports.

Cromwell’s messianic plan

Oliver Cromwell, the Protestant politician and military man who beheaded Charles I, started a real shipbuilding project in the second half of the 17th century. As the historian explains Esteban Mira Horses in your book “The armies of the empire” (The Sphere of Books 2020), it was at that time and not before when England began to rise as “an indisputable naval power.” By 1652 it is estimated that they already had a fleet of 180 ships. Spain, by contrast, experienced a moment of total fragility with assaults, looting and fires in more than 18 cities, four towns and 35 villages between 1655 and 1671.

Oliver Cromwell portrait

Immersed in several long and painful wars, Philip IV he was forced to fight with England in 1655 a conflict that he did not want and that surprised the Spanish ambassador in London, Alonso de Cárdenas, negotiating an alliance offer that even included freedom of worship for the English in Spain. The King habsburg he could at least be content that the first phase of Western Design, Cromwell’s messianic plan to wrest Spain’s American empire, failed miserably.

Without a prior declaration by the English, Cromwell organized a foray into the Spanish Indies. On December 26, 1654, he set sail from Portsmouth for the Caribbean. western design an expedition made up of 18 warships and twenty transport ships under the command of Admiral William Penn, with 2,500 infantry soldiers, with the aim of occupying one or more islands and taking over the Spanish treasure fleet. In Barbados they recruited another 5,000 men, who far from joining forces subtracted them due to their indiscipline and the impossibility of feeding so many mouths.

As in past and future expeditions to America, British logistics failed to adapt to the peculiarities of the terrain and the climate, so they were exposed to epidemics of all kinds. Inexperience, disease and hunger were too much for an army that was already ill equipped and worse fed on its departure, there was even a shortage of brandy. Most of the recruiting was carried out by Cromwell’s brother-in-law, Major General John Disbowe, who drummed up inexperienced people from London’s slums, joined by farmers without military training from the English possessions of Barbados and St. Kitts.

Three days of marching under the scorching sun on a dry and sandy area did not distract the Spaniards at all

The relationship between the admiral William Penn, in charge of the fleet, and the general Robert Venables, in charge of the army, was not the best possible either. When they opened, upon arrival in the Antilles, the secret instructions by which they were ordered to attack Santo Domingo, each one proposed his own strategy and, in the end, a mixture of both with the worst of each was assumed.

On April 14, 1655, the squad took control of the southwest coast of Santo Domingo. A small detachment landed near the city, whose defense was led by Governor Bernardino de Meneses, and the bulk of the British forces, led by Venables, made it 40 kilometers in order to distract the Spanish and divide their forces. Three days of marching in the scorching sun on dry, sandy ground did not distract the Spaniards at all. Rather it strengthened them.

Jamaica, a minor dam

As soon as both armies managed to meet, on April 18, the English suffered a first ambush. Although the Spanish could not gather more than a thousand valid soldiers, concentrated in the Primate City, Bernardino de Meneses knew how to play with the advantage that the rugged terrain gave him and he raised a resistance using wooded areas and caves.

The English lacked the most basic knowledge of the geographical situation and characteristics of Santo Domingo. It is told, between myth and reality, that the noise caused by the crabs on the beaches at night kept the English in a state of permanent tension, making them think that the Spanish were landing more troops on the island. The soldiers spent the nights shooting into the darkness, believing that the insects’ luminosity was flint sparks produced by the enemy.

William Penn portrait

On April 25, 6,000 soldiers finally made their way to the capital, being attacked by a cavalry of 120 horsemen who ambushed them in a narrow passage. When arriving in front of the walls, a new Spanish attack caused the definitive collapse of English discipline. Spanish troops led by the governor Bernardino de MenesesAlong with the black and mulatto slaves, they harassed them in their retreat in what was a whole lesson on guerrilla warfare and in which at least one woman, Doña Juana de Sotomayor, participated, who “reported having fought in the campaign dressed as a man with weapons ».

The English fleet tried in vain to bombard the city during the retreat, but eventually the army re-embarked again and withdrew from the scene in mid-May, leaving behind a thousand deaths and 200 prisoners. Many of the officers, including the Cromwell commissioner, died during the flight or in the weeks dozing on ships infected with misery. The seafarers continued to mock the actions of the ground soldiers, which in turn increased hostility between William Penn and Robert Venables.

A few Spaniards continued to live in the interior of the island as if there was such a thing waiting for help that finally never came.

Following this setback conveniently erased from the history books, the expedition marched against the neighboring island of Jamaica, which defended itself with a scorched earth strategy. The few defenders preferred in this way that the English went into the interior of the island, whose economic importance was nil, and wasted away by hunger. A few Hispanics continued to live in the interior of the island as if they were waiting for help that finally never came. The English stayed with Jamaica more out of boredom and Spanish laziness than out of their own merits.

Even when a brief peace was reached with the English and their possession over Jamaica, the former Spanish governor, was recognized, Christopher Sasi ArnoldoHe tried to fight back knowing how weak British control was on the island. However, his little out-of-invasion from Cuba crashed with colonel doyley’s resistance and he was unable to shake hands with the Spaniards in the interior. Nor could it be achieved in 1660, with even fewer troops, so that the survivors of the interior finally abandoned their posts.

The collapse of the Habsburg empire

The British commanders, in open discord, returned in 1655 to the british isles each on their own, where they would be charged for leaving their post and sent to the tower of London. Only time, and propaganda, revalued what sounded like a miserable conquest. Jamaica was a minor dam. That same summer, the English admiral Robert Blake He kept the Strait of Gibraltar blocked with an army of 28 ships, hoping to catch the Fleet of the Indies off guard, which was to return to Cádiz. Warned of the English threat, the Spanish fleet wintered in the Caribbean, forcing Blake to return to England without having established contact with her.

That year the British arms left empty.

Robert Blake's St. George, in the attack on Santa Cruz de Tenerife in 1657.
Robert Blake’s St. George, in the attack on Santa Cruz de Tenerife in 1657.

Despite the British failure in 1655, the Duke of Medina Sidonia warned Felipe IV of the precarious position of the Atlantic trade: “You cannot believe that the English have to break the public faith and the peace that exists between this and that Crown, and thus there is no need to prevent anything, but to send to raise the four vessels and patache and hurry to the dispatch of the fleet ». And indeed, a year later, luck would favor Blake in one of the few captures that the Fleet of the Indies suffered in its entire history. Almost within sight of Cadiz, Blake intercepted a first fleet returning from Tierra Firme. He took the captain and a merchant ship, which reported loot of two million pesos.

The New Spain fleet, who was behind, took refuge in the Canary Islands at the notice that Blake was waiting in Cádiz. It was not enough. Most of the ships were destroyed, although at least they were able to land the silver from their warehouses in Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

In the following years, Cromwell’s alliance with France placed Spain in both the Netherlands as in the Caribbean on the verge of collapse. The Battle of the Dunes in June 1659 staged the lowest moment of the Habsburg Kings’ arms.

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Criticism of the stock exchange after hours of failure

EThere has never been such a long failure on the German stock exchange in the recent past. Almost nothing lasted for almost four and a half hours on Deutsche Börse’s two most important trading systems, Xetra and Eurex. From 9 a.m. to 9.25 a.m., the leading index Dax had just started to recover after the long Easter weekend. From then on, the “curve” on the large display board in the Frankfurt trading hall moved sideways for the time being, the most important German share index, the Dax, remained at the 10,675.93 points it had achieved so far.

Tim Kanning

When the trade started again, the Dax continued on its recovery course taken before the Easter holidays. In the late afternoon, the stock market barometer rose by around 2.3 percent.

“Technical disruption,” it said succinctly from the German stock exchange, and that one is working on the solution of the problem. Such faults are not that rare, but the problems are usually resolved after an hour at the latest. Trading on the stock exchanges in Vienna, Prague, Budapest, Zagreb, Ljubljana, Sofia and Malta is also affected, since these exchanges also use the Deutsche Börse trading system.

Lucky coincidence

The reactions of trading participants were mixed. At the request of the F.A.Z. Benjardin Gärtner, head of equity portfolio management at the fund company of the Volks- und Raiffeisenbanken, Union Investment: “The technical problems and the impairments are unpleasant,” he said. “Smooth trading is very important to us at all times. Today we can be happy that the great unrest on the stock exchanges of the past few weeks with the high volatility in equities is behind us.

It sounded similarly for Eric Böss, who heads global trading at Allianz Global Investors and who also referred to the comparatively calm trading trend: “The markets that were still open, including the American futures, showed little movement and we were therefore not forced to deal with extremely thin liquidity trade. ”The orders from the morning were then simply processed in the afternoon. But Böss also pointed out that it could have been very different on many of the past trading days: “It was a happy coincidence that the default did not take place on a day with the current volatility.”

It was not until 1:20 p.m. that Deutsche Börse gave the all-clear and prepared the trading participants for the restart of the systems at 1:50 p.m. Here, too, the reasoning remained vague: the problem arose in the T7 trading system, which both Xetra and Eurex use. “An error in the internal communication of the trading system triggered the problem.” The Dax then started at 35 points above the level at which it got stuck. During the past trading days, around 1 million transactions had been carried out via Xetra, so it had only been around 240,000 by the afternoon due to the long interruption.

Damage difficult to prove

Does a shareholder simply have to accept such a trade interruption? After all, on days with high volatility, high losses can quickly arise if you cannot sell at the desired time. Shareholder protector Klaus Niedung from the German Association for the Protection of Securities generally sees a right to compensation if the stock exchange simply refers to a technical malfunction.

For small shareholders, however, it is hardly demonstrable how exactly the concrete damage looks and that it actually arose from the loss of trading. The effort would be too high due to the low sums in question. Large institutional investors would, however, sometimes complain if such trade interruptions occurred.

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Xetra disruption: criticism after hours of failure

EThere has never been such a long failure on the German stock exchange in the recent past. Almost nothing lasted for almost four and a half hours on Deutsche Börse’s two most important trading systems, Xetra and Eurex. From 9 a.m. to 9.25 a.m., the leading index Dax had just started to recover after the long Easter weekend. From then on, the “curve” on the large display board in the Frankfurt trading hall moved sideways for the time being, the most important German share index, the Dax, remained at the 10,675.93 points it had achieved so far.

Tim Kanning

When the trade started again, the Dax continued on its recovery course taken before the Easter holidays. In the late afternoon, the stock market barometer rose by around 2.3 percent.

“Technical disruption,” it said succinctly from the German stock exchange, and that one is working on the solution of the problem. Such faults are not that rare, but the problems are usually resolved after an hour at the latest. Trading on the stock exchanges in Vienna, Prague, Budapest, Zagreb, Ljubljana, Sofia and Malta is also affected, since these exchanges also use the Deutsche Börse trading system.

Lucky coincidence

The reactions of trading participants were mixed. At the request of the F.A.Z. Benjardin Gärtner, head of equity portfolio management at the fund company of the Volks- und Raiffeisenbanken, Union Investment: “The technical problems and the impairments are unpleasant,” he said. “Smooth trading is very important to us at all times. Today we can be happy that the great unrest on the stock exchanges of the past few weeks with the high volatility in equities is behind us.

It sounded similarly for Eric Böss, who heads global trading at Allianz Global Investors and who also referred to the comparatively calm trading trend: “The markets that were still open, including the American futures, showed little movement and we were therefore not forced to deal with extremely thin liquidity trade. ”The orders from the morning were then simply processed in the afternoon. But Böss also pointed out that it could have been very different on many of the past trading days: “It was a happy coincidence that the default did not take place on a day with the current volatility.”

It was not until 1:20 p.m. that Deutsche Börse gave the all-clear and prepared the trading participants for the restart of the systems at 1:50 p.m. Here, too, the reasoning remained vague: the problem arose in the T7 trading system, which both Xetra and Eurex use. “An error in the internal communication of the trading system triggered the problem.” The Dax then started at 35 points above the level at which it got stuck. During the past trading days, around 1 million transactions had been carried out via Xetra, so it had only been around 240,000 by the afternoon due to the long interruption.

Damage difficult to prove

Does a shareholder simply have to accept such a trade interruption? After all, on days with high volatility, high losses can quickly arise if you cannot sell at the desired time. Shareholder protector Klaus Niedung from the German Association for the Protection of Securities generally sees a right to compensation if the stock exchange simply refers to a technical malfunction.

For small shareholders, however, it is hardly demonstrable how exactly the concrete damage looks and that it actually arose from the loss of trading. The effort would be too high due to the low sums in question. Large institutional investors would, however, sometimes complain if such trade interruptions occurred.

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Trump threatens WHO to freeze payments

DThe United States is considering a possible freeze on its payments to the World Health Organization (WHO). His government will consider whether payments should be stopped, President Donald Trump announced on Tuesday in Washington during a briefing on the coronavirus pandemic. He accuses the WHO of making serious mistakes in responding to the spread of the virus.

At the beginning of the briefing, Trump even presented it as if the suspension of payments to WHO had already been decided. “We’re going to stop spending money on WHO,” he said. Only a little later, however, he limited this statement: “I’m not saying that we will do it,” he said.

“We will look at an end to the payments,” Trump said later in the briefing, making it clear that such a possible measure is still being examined. With his statements, however, he definitely increased the pressure on WHO massively – the United States is the largest contributor to the UN subsidiary.

“China-centric”

Earlier on Tuesday, Trump had heavily criticized WHO’s response to the spread of the novel corona virus on Twitter. “The WHO really screwed it up,” he wrote. The organization is largely funded by the United States, but is “China-centric”. Trump is generally a keen critic of international organizations.

The president accused the WHO of “making a wrong recommendation” in the fight against the spread of the virus. “Fortunately, I rejected her recommendation early on to leave our border with China open,” Trump tweeted. The United States had banned travelers from China from entering the country in late January. The pandemic had started from the People’s Republic.

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Insurers are now paying for restaurant closures

insurer

Allianz also intends to pay for the hotels and restaurants affected by closings through the corona pandemic in the case of existing business closure insurance.


(Photo: dpa)

Munich Hotels and restaurants closed due to the corona pandemic are now getting money from the insurance, at least in Bavaria. The Association of Bavarian Business (vbw) announced on Friday that several insurers were willing to pay ten to 15 percent of the agreed daily rates to the restaurateurs concerned, following an agreement with the Bavarian Minister of Economic Affairs, Hubert Aiwanger.

Among them are the alliance, the Insurance Chamber of Bavaria (VKB) and the liability insurance company that specializes in gastronomy. Other insurers have signaled their support. The prerequisite is the existence of business closure insurance.

Allianz announced that it would apply the regulation to its customers across Germany. Half of the damage remaining after state aid is covered. This cost the insurers a triple-digit million amount.

The insurance industry had taken the position that the company closure insurance did not cover the consequences of the corona pandemic – partly because the virus was new and therefore not covered by the police, and partly because the reason for the closings was not a health risk that emanate from the restaurant itself.

In addition, the restaurants would not have to close completely, but could offer delivery or pick-up services. That had caused much displeasure among the financially insured.

More: The head of reinsurer Munich Re sees the corona crisis as an opportunity.

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Forgive bankruptcy student loans

Joe Biden says that if he is elected president, student loans are forgiven in the event of bankruptcy.

Here’s what you need to know.

Student loans

Former Vice President Biden has said he will support Senator Elizabeth Warren’s plan to grant student loans in the event of bankruptcy. As a presidential candidate, Biden advocated bankruptcy student loans, although as a US senator, he opposed the student loan forgiveness in bankruptcy, such as when he voted for the Abuse Prevention Act. and consumer protection in 2005. In a virtual town hall in Illinois on Friday, Biden told voters that he would support Warren’s plan that Biden would also broaden his appeal to supporters of fellow presidential candidate Senator Bernie Sanders .

The Brunner test: financial difficulties

Traditionally, unlike mortgages or credit card debt, student loans cannot be liquidated in the event of bankruptcy. However, there are exceptions, particularly if certain conditions relating to financial difficulties occur. For example, a Navy veteran had $ 221,000 of student loans dumped in bankruptcy. These conditions are reflected in the Brunner test, which is the legal test in all fields of the circuit, except the eighth circuit and the 1st circuit. The eighth circuit uses a totality of circumstances, which is similar to Brunner, while the 1st circuit has yet to declare a standard.

Put simply, the Brunner the standard says:

  1. the borrower has mitigating circumstances that create difficulties;
  2. these circumstances are likely to continue for a term of the loan; is
  3. the borrower tried in good faith to repay the loan. (The borrower should not actually make payments, but simply attempt to make payments, such as trying to find a viable payment plan.)

Differences exist between federal districts, but this is the basic framework. To settle student loans in the event of bankruptcy, an adverse proceeding (a bankruptcy court case) must be filed, in which a debtor claims that paying the student loan would create undue suffering for the debtor.

Does this average biden support student loan forgiveness?

Unlike Sanders, who proposed to forgive all $ 1.6 trillion of student loan debt, Biden does not support the large-scale forgiveness of the student loan, but does have his own $ 750 billion student loan plan. Biden and Sanders both support the public service loan forgiveness program. Instead, President Donald Trump has called for an end to the public service loan forgiveness program in his annual budget for a simplified income-based repayment plan.

What can you do if you are struggling to make student loan payments?

If you are struggling to make student loan payments, the good news is that you have several options. Trump has temporarily waived interest payments on federal student loans to help borrowers who will be financially affected by the coronavirus.

Here are some steps:

1. Income-led reimbursement: For federal student loans, consider an income based repayment plan such as IBR, PAYE or REPAYE. Payment is based on discretionary income, family size and other factors, and you can receive student loan forgiveness after 20 or 25 years.

2. Payment of other debts: Pay off credit card debt first (particularly if the interest rate is higher than the student loan interest rate). Credit card consolidation is the process of paying off existing debt with a fixed rate credit card at a lower interest rate.

3. Contact your lender: If you are struggling financially because of coronavius ​​or something else, contact your lender to discuss alternative payment options. Don’t wait until the last minute to face your student loan debt.

4. Funding for refinancing students: Student loan refinancing rates are incredibly cheap right now and start at 1.9%. The Federal Reserve cut rates again yesterday (the second time this month), which has led to student loan refinancing rates falling to near-historic lows. To qualify, you will need a credit score of at least 650 and sufficient monthly income for living expenses and debt repayment. If you do not meet these requirements, contact a dealer for approval and to obtain a lower interest rate.

This student loan refinancing calculator shows how much you can save with student loan refinancing.

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FORUM 1: if you take out a student loan, you should repay it | Opinion

Take a student loan, pay off the student loan. This should be the obvious basic understanding of how student loan works.

There may be times when this should not apply, but against Presidential Candidate Bernie Sanders, such times should be rare and dependent on specific circumstances.

Federal loans made up about 88% of the total volume of student loans in the 2018-19 school year. Let’s be clear about what they do: they give taxpayers money to students so that recipients can get a degree and significantly increase their lifetime earnings.

The Center on Education and the Workforce of the University of Georgetown has estimated that the typical person who finishes their formal education with a bachelor’s degree will earn approximately $ 1 million more over the course of their life than someone who gets a school diploma higher. This is a big plus, and there is no justification for taxpayers to eat the associated debt, which for 69% of graduates with 2018 debt was $ 29,800 on average.

Forgiveness of the large-scale student loan would immediately rob Peter to enrich Paul.

Such forgiveness would not only be morally wrong, it would aggravate many huge higher education problems, ranging from rampant price inflation – the more money people are able to pay, the more universities they can charge – to the arms race of services. If students don’t think they have to repay their debt, why not accept higher student fees for, say, a water park on campus?

Having said that, there are two situations in which it can be reasonable to forgive loans, especially if they are private, but perhaps also federal: when it is impossible to repay borrowers physically or financially.

The physical inability to repay is easy to predict. If someone has an accident and ends up with a disability that makes it impossible to work or work at the level of remuneration they reasonably expected, it makes sense to forgive their loans. This applies regardless of whether the loans are federal or private: if one is rendered completely unable to earn enough to repay, there is no reasonably to do.

What about financial bankruptcy? This is tougher if it doesn’t stem from an act of God. If someone spends luxuries or buys a house that is too large and is unable to repay their debts, they can file for bankruptcy, authorizing a court to create a repayment plan that can pay off. some debts. But they should really remain responsible for what they have to – since the situation was their own initiative.

In such a situation, student loans are more difficult to fulfill than other liabilities such as credit card debt. As for student debt, it has to be shown that reimbursement would create “undue suffering”, which is considered to be a high level, although it is poorly defined by law.

For federal loans, having a high standard makes sense. These loans are granted with money withdrawn by taxpayers who had no choice. Making taxpayers whole should be a top priority.

Private loans are fundamentally different in that lenders freely choose to do business with students and can profit from this activity. It is far more reasonable to make those loans non-repayable on conditions similar to other debts.

In fact, the greater the risk that a lender bears, the greater their incentive to rigorously evaluate a potential borrower’s ability to manage college work and achieve the degree that unlocks big gains. The benefit will affect aspiring borrowers, who will get an objective assessment of whether college enrollment is a good idea.

The federal government, on the other hand, does not make this assessment, happily lending millions of people who don’t finish college and struggle to pay off their debt.

Even with some justification for making bank loans more easily granted, the rules for existing loans should not be changed retroactively. A simpler bankruptcy should only apply to loans originating after reforms have been approved so that lenders can adapt their policies and conditions.

The student loan repayment policy should be consistent with basic equity – and frankly, of course – if you take out the loan, you are obliged to repay it.

In rare circumstances this may not be possible and we should consider changing things like bankruptcy laws. But the idea that one should repay one’s debts shouldn’t be in the least controversial.

Neal McCluskey he is the director of the Center for Educational Freedom of the Cato Institute. He wrote this for InsideSources.com.

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The Thematic House of Charles Jencks: history of architecture or a splendid failure? | ICON Design

For an Englishman, his house is his castle, but for Charles Jencks, the home of an Englishman is his abstruse cosmic symbolism. The number 5 of Landsdowne Walk, located in Notting Hill, a neighborhood that is apparently always in fashion, has no main door but a portal, in the great sense of the word. In any case, Jencks, who died last October, was not entirely English, although he lived in London since 1965, the year he left the Oxford School of Design. He was born in 1939 in Baltimore (United States), of composing father. Patricio, kind, charming and we must recognize that a little arrogant on account of his position, education and wealth (his late wife, Maggie keswick, belonged to the family that invented Hong Kong), it has never occurred to anyone to say, “Come on, Charlie. It’s not a portal, it’s a damn front door!”

This great disseminator of postmodernism belongs to the long list of Anglo-American artists and intellectuals who settled in London, and in which the painter J.M. Whistler, the writer Henry James and the poet T.S. Eliot. Jencks’ thinking can sometimes be as ethereal as Night, Whistler’s painting. His prose, as cumbersome as James’s. And his thoughts and references, as arcane as those of Eliot.

On May 4, 2018, Jencks’ house was declared Grade One Building, which is not bad for something that, in reality, is a project of cosmic speculation. Because Grado Uno means that we are facing an officially recognized work of architecture; before a significant element of national heritage; before a project, according to officials, as important as the Parliament or the Tower of London. Insurance?

thematic house jencks


For years, the Thematic House of Charles Jencks in London, recently listed as a protected building, remains closed to the public. The artist Brian Rideout has recreated for ICON Design the most famous rooms of one of the most gloriously unclassifiable houses of the twentieth century. |

Before describing the house of Charles Jencks, I must speak of Charles himself and his mentor, Reyner Banham (1922-1988), the most influential English architecture historian since the German Nikolaus Pevsner. Banham worked in The Architectural Review during the most influential period of this historical magazine, after which he taught at the Bartlett School of Architecture from the University of London, where Jencks was his doctoral student.

Banham was a grumpy contestant, whose populous apostolic beard and his hobby of going everywhere by bicycle betrayed a messianic personality. He was present at the invention of Pop Art in 1956, extolled everyday life in his writings, coined the term “brutalism” and cultivated with great success the image of a great guy. But he was also an excellent academic, a meticulous researcher and an original thinker. his Theory and design in the first machine age, published in 1960, remains the best work on heroic modernism. That’s why I think that, both in work and in thought, Charlie Jencks wanted to surpass his teacher.

According to officials, we are facing a building as important as the Tower of London or the British Parliament. Insurance?

Jencks published his first book, Architecture 2000: Predictions and methods, in 1971. Before studying architecture, he had studied literature and was greatly influenced by the most vogue critical theories. For his book, he borrows ideas from semiotics and anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss. Find, for example, the distinction between significant (what it really means is “surface”) and meaning (that is, “content”), and often mentions it. Little did it matter that Roland Barthes, the great wizard of semiotics, went deeper and deeper into the darkness every time he tried to apply the semiotic method: Jencks had already drunk a lot of that heady spring of intellectual imposture.

In 1972 he published the brilliant Adhoc-ism, an irreverent update of object trouvé. The following year, he published his doctoral thesis, which he titled Modern movements in architecture. The plural “movements” is significant, with which Jencks meant that modern architecture was not a coherent whole, but a fluid and fractal assembly. Banham had supervised the thesis but then, privately, he regretted granting Jencks the doctorate, since it gave him license to spread the confusion in the solemn halls of architectural history.

thematic house jencks


The semicircle softener, which here holds a vase with flowers, is the only curvilinear volume in the master bedroom, conceived as an exaltation of the square. |

Even if Architecture 2000 it was published five years after the momentous Complexity and contradictionby Robert Venturi, Jencks made no mention of postmodernism. He did it later, in The language of postmodern architecture (1977), a book that cemented its reputation and that, already in its eighth edition, has become a most strange event: a bestseller in the history of architecture.

The work showed that Jencks was able to achieve rhetorical genius. One of his claims, that “the death of modern architecture” happened exactly on July 15, 1972, when Pruitt-Igoe (the famous hive-housing complex that Minoru Yamasaki It had been built in Missouri 20 years before), it has become one of those quotes you never forget.

Perhaps out of jealousy, the most recalcitrant architecture historians do not respect Jencks. They say he is not an academic, but a publicist, a hound that is dedicated to sniffing new movements. And it is true that it does not show a very serious interest in history or construction technology. What matters to Jencks is all that has to do with decoding. After all, what does cosmogenesis have to do with a house? On the other hand, recent history has also not treated some of the postmodern architects Jencks defended so loudly, such as Michael Graves, Charles Moore, James Stirling and Hans Hollein. Forty years later, none of them has become a great figure of enduring reputation.

Jencks conceived his house as a controversial manifesto in favor of postmodernism. He wanted to show us what “symbolic design” was

But let’s go to Jencks Castle, which he calls Thematic house, the Thematic House. It is not that living machine that Le Corbusier formulated, but an esoteric Jencksian thesis, decorated with medium density laminate that is aging regularly. It began to be built in 1979 and, although Jencks says he made more than a thousand drawings, he had the help of the architect Terry Farrell (since Jencks has no professional degree). For a while, Farrell was the most visible, and audible, postmodern architect in England. But the failure of the channel TV-am, whose headquarters was responsible for projecting, established a direct connection between postmodernism and commercial incompetence that has never completely disappeared.

Jencks conceived his Thematic House as a controversial manifesto in favor of postmodernism, at a time when he was worried that his idolized movement was losing his understanding of the ornament. He said that the trend had degenerated into a set of “appliques kitsch“, and added that his intention was” to show what symbolic design is. “And what if he has.

From the street, the window profiles of the Thematic House can be perceived as people or dogs, although it is not easy to say why that is a good thing. The portal is a “cosmic oval”. Once the threshold is crossed, a mirror room is reached, a demonstration of self-referential narcissism. The ground floor is organized around a central spiral staircase. One of the adjacent rooms is called Winter and was co-designed by Michael Graves: the station is represented with Chinese rocks on wooden sockets and a bust of Hephaestus, inspired by the features of the scowling sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi. In Summer there is a mural of Allen Jones what baby of The dance of the music of time, from Poussin (you can see it in the London Wallace Collection). And where you think you are seeing a semicircle with seats in front of the window, you are wrong: it is not a semicircle with seats in front of a window, but a “sundial.” Because, as you see, time passes.

Very concerned about the difference between cosmic time and cultural time, the movement of the spheres or the preparation of a curry, Jencks chose “late summer” as the theme of his cooking. The stairs leading to the bedroom have 52 steps and seven divisions each. Scholars believe that it may be a reference to the solar year. In Jencks’ office, the shelves are shaped like buildings.

“This house is the most intense since Sir John Soane’s,” said architect Alejandro Aravena. Which is a compliment to Jencks

I have visited the Thematic House several times and it never ceases to amaze me. But, at least in my case, astonishment can become panic and an urgent desire to escape. In a historical moment in which Alejandro AravenaWith his ideas on the social role of housing, he is the most important architect in the profession, I don’t understand what Jencks is about.

Aravena himself surrenders before him: “This house is the most intense since that of Sir John Soane“he said, referring to the strange and incomparable cornucopia of architectural remains that the great neoclassical architect gathered in what is now his London museum. Being honest, it is a comparison that flatters Jencks and questions Soane.

Is the Thematic House the work of a rich and charming nut or is it serious architecture? Jencks can’t help us answer this question. Once he gave a lecture at the Chelsea Flower Festival. I know because I was there. The theme was “Waves”, since at that time he was more interested in geomorphology than buildings. He spoke cordially for about 40 minutes, in which he did not express a single understandable idea. As a monologuist it was brilliant. As a rational narrator of garden design, it was so disconcerting that people looked for air and looked at the clock.

Jencks once said that the history of architecture is “a series of internal debates against his professional idiocy.” I would like to start another debate. Be careful in an era of LGBT activism with saying things like this, but isn’t the Thematic House actually transvestite architecture? Is it not all arranged and without where to go? Is it just an eccentric luxury? A collection of appliques kitsch? Personally, I am very happy that Charles Jencks has built the Thematic House because it is part of an excellent tradition of English eccentricity, to which the Chambers Pagoda, in Kew, or the Beckford Tower, in Bath. And I’m even more glad that nobody has prepared to copy it. Or maybe it is that I simply lack cosmic awareness.

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