“Musicians and medicine”, by Dr. Adolfo Martínez Palomo

MEXICO CITY (proces.com.mx) .– When the bicentennial of Wolfang Amadeus Mozart’s death was commemorated in 1991, the Mexican doctor, scientist and academic Adolfo Martínez Palomo (1941) began the bibliographic search, writing and public presentation of the texts now published by El Colegio Nacional in fourteen double installments.

This new compact format series includes the biographies of: Monteverdi and Vivaldi, Bach and Handel, Haydn and Mozart, Beethoven and Paganini, Rossini and Schubert, Donizetti and Bellini, Berlioz and Mendelssohn, Chopin and Schumann, Liszt and Wagner, Verdi and Gounod , Clara Schumann and Brahms, Borodin and Bizet, Tchaikovski and Puccini, Mahler and Shostakovich.

Today we offer excerpts from the second volume entitled Musicians and medicine. Clinical histories of great composers. Bach and Handel (86 pages in 12 by 18 centimeter format, bibliography, illustrations and iconographic credits, www.colnal.mx), written by Martínez Palomo who has stood out for his research on the painful Herpes Zoster virus.

“Two colossi of classical music Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) and Georg Frideric Handel (1685-1759), both born the same year in Germany and yet they did not manage to know each other personally. Bach always stays in his country, where he has twenty children. Handel, on the other hand, makes fame and fortune in England, without getting married. Long and prolific lives both, united with a common ending: blindness, caused by the clumsy intervention of the same apprentice eye surgeon. “

Creativity: inheritance or learning?

(…) With the forgiveness of fans of the hereditary theory of creativity, I would like to insist that nothing indicates in Johann Sebastian’s childhood or early adolescence the existence of a genius, rather, an exceptional effort to learn from their elders. (…)

At fifteen, our character eagerly copies compositions from others, at night, at an age when other musical geniuses have been writing music for a long time. At that age he has to leave his brother’s house, which is already insufficient due to the birth of four more nephews.

By the way, one of the physical attributes of Johann Sebastian that has caught the attention of his biographers has been… the strength of his legs! And is not for less. What a path he had to go in his youth to absorb the musical knowledge of the greats of his time! Nothing was too far away, nor was the weather so bad that it prevented him from making trips on foot in search of better knowledge. Thus, it traveled 40 km between Ohrdeuf and Eisenach and 360 km between Ohrdruf and Lüneburg. (…)

Bach, as we have said, had a foolproof health throughout his life, well into his period of maturity. A neurologist has commented, when analyzing the portrait of Bach, the obvious obesity of the composer and the presence of a slight facial paralysis, perhaps due to a cerebral infarction. If anything, the only well-documented physical weakness was his eye problem.

For ophthalmologists who have reviewed his history, Bach was probably nearsighted, judging by the appearance of the eyes in the only true portrait that survives, taken at age sixty-one [por Elias Gottlob Haussmann, en 1746, reproducido a colores en este libro de Martínez Palomo] which shows the composer “straining his eyes.” This myopia may have allowed him the hard work of reading and writing countless scores. (…)

On the advice of his friends, the composer consulted an English eye doctor, the gentleman John Taylor, who had operated, sometimes with some success, on many European personalities, including the contemporary Handel. Taylor was actually a great charlatan, dominating more of the art of advertising than of science (…)

In Bach’s time the usual medical treatment for cataracts ranged from esoteric diets, to bloodletting and the application of leeches. The surgical procedure was followed by washing the eyes with a mixture of Peruvian balsam and hot water. This was followed by poultices added with cassia pulp, camphorized fosters, bandages, a light diet, and medications to evacuate without effort.

Less than four months after Bach’s death, the operating room was installed in the Tres Cisnes restaurant (…) Three months and three weeks after the operation, Bach presented cerebral palsy of vascular origin and was unconscious. He developed a fever, possibly pneumonia, and died on the night of July 28, 1750 at the age of sixty-five, despite the best Leipzig physicians. (…)

The dear Saxon

HAMBURG, DECEMBER 5, 1704.- During the performance of the opera Cleopatra by Johann Mattheson, a nineteen-year-old German musician who leads the singers from the harpsichord. He refuses to let the composer displace him from his instruments: the dispute escalates and the two heated musicians decide to settle it in a duel. Fortunately for mankind, the sword that struck the young interpreter’s chest only broke a metal button on his coat, thus saving Handel’s life and with it the work of one of the greatest and most prolific composers remained for posterity. of music. (…)

His fame reached Italy, where he was invited by a Medici prince (…) At the age of twenty-five Handel returned for a few weeks to Germany, to Hannover. Why did he receive the appointment of “master of the chapel” of the court there, with a very high salary (fifty times higher than he had received as an organist) and permission to be absent for a year, when in reality what that court was interested in was send it to London? For some, this appointment disguised the true task assigned to the composer: to insert him into the English court and receive from him information about the state of health of Queen Anne, already very ill. The interest was that the direct successor to the throne of England was precisely the Elector of Hannover, Georg Ludwig, so the sickly Queen Anne died, Hannover needed to be aware of the events in London. (…)

His contemporaries described him as impetuous, brusque and authoritarian, but completely devoid of malice and wickedness, despite the many enemies that success produced him in London. From time to time he had uncontrolled bouts of irritability and rage. For example, on one occasion he argued with the famous French Italian singer Cuzzoni and said “Oh, ma’am! I know well that you are a true devil, but I am going to show you that I am the boss of all devils.” He then took her by the waist and led her to the window, where he threatened to throw her out into the street.

For much of his life Handel was physically healthy, endowed with a remarkable capacity for work. With a thick complexion like his father, he soon showed a frank tendency to obesity due to his irrepressible enthusiasm for food and his no less joyous fondness for alcohol, especially for Port and Madeira wines. His contemporaries called him “the Bear” for his corpulence and decomposed walk, but also for his tenacity, energy and strength. In it, several factors were combined that could well cause high blood pressure and hardening of the arteries in adulthood: being overweight, the habit of smoking tobacco (in the pipe), a sedentary life and economic and work stress.

Handel’s good health began to decline after the age of fifty, just at a time of great financial and administrative tension due to the difficulties of staging his operas; headaches, irritability, colic, rheumatic pain.

In 1737, after a period of great fatigue and disappointment, “the machine broke”: he suffered paralysis of the right arm that affected mainly the fingers of that hand, and consequently prevented him from playing the harpsichord and the organ. Along with the paralysis, he presented certain mental alterations, “which modified his understandings,” according to a written comment by a contemporary, perhaps referring to mental confusion or speech problems. (…)


Russia supplies medicine against covid-19 to Latin America without including Mexico

MEXICO CITY (apro) .- The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) and the ChemRar Group have agreed to supply 17 countries with Avifavir, Russia’s first drug approved for the treatment of covid-19. Among the nations that have the drug are 11 from Latin America, which is not included Mexico.

According to a statement posted on the RDIF website, Avifavir will be delivered to Argentina, Bulgaria, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Kuwait, Panama, Paraguay, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, South Africa, United Arab Emirates and Uruguay.

The drug has previously been delivered to Belarus, Bolivia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, he added.

Russia approves Coronavir, the first drug against covid-19 for sale in pharmacies

Avifavir, the statement highlights, is the first drug registered in the world made based on the substance favipiravir against the coronavirus and the first in Russia approved for the treatment of covid-19.

In its statement, Russia’s sovereign wealth fund recalled that on May 29 Avifavir received a registration certificate from the Russian Ministry of Health and became the first favipiravir-based medicine in the world approved for the treatment of covid- 19.

He also highlighted that approximately five months after the Avifavir clinical trials in Russia, Fujifilm from Japan confirmed the efficacy of favipiravir against the novel coronavirus infection.

“Avifavir is now Russia’s leading anticovid drug in terms of exports. In particular, on September 21, the start of deliveries to Bolivia and other Latin American countries was announced as part of the agreement to deliver 150 thousand packages. Avifavir has also been approved by regulators in Europe, the Middle East and Asia ”, underlined the RDIF.

Russia will present its treatment against covid-19 to Latin America

“When we registered the world’s first favipiravir-based coronavirus drug, there was a lot of skepticism as people wondered how we could register it when Japan had not yet registered it,” said Kirill Dmitriev, executive director of Russia’s Direct Investment Fund.

“Now, five months after our clinical trials, we see that Japan has confirmed the clinical efficacy of favipiravir. Avifavir has been tested in more than 1,300 patients, including 408 patients in clinical trials and 940 patients during the post-registration observational clinical trial, ”he explained.

Dmitriev concluded in the release that Avifavir is also three to four times cheaper than Remdesivir, the drug approved by the United States for the treatment of Covid-19.

The price of remdesivir, a treatment for covid-19, outrages US consumers


Beyond Good and Evil 2: chaotic development, burn out, Michel Ancel and members of Ubisoft engage

In Ubisoft, the atmosphere is not in good shape. Yves Guillemot’s studio saw the departure of its editorial managers and creative director Serge Hascoët following the revelation of numerous cases of harassment and sexual assault. The CEO spoke recently, but just after, it’s Nadeo (Trackmania) was pointed, and especially its director Florent Castelnérac. But last week, drama, it was Michel Ancel who announced his departure fromUbisoft.

Creator of Rayman and Rabbids, Michel Ancel had been planking for more than seven years on Beyond Good and Evil 2, a game made official atE3 2017 and on a crazy scale. Too crazy by the way, as several developers have admitted to Release in a survey released today. In this long paper, Michel Ancel himself returns to this chaotic development, which has changed direction several times, to the chagrin of the developers. who saw their work erased after a simple decision. As they explain, Ubisoft Montpellier revolved around Michel Ancel, who had the blessing of Yves Guillemot to carry out his game, and who commanded absolutely everything. Which obviously posed concerns, the developers speak of a cold atmosphere, anger on the part of Michel Ancel, depression or even burn out, for a crazy project, much more important than the other achievements of the studio. And nothing was ready in time, even for theE3 2017 :

The videos were made by hand, in rush, under the control of Michel. Everything has obviously been thrown out since. The city of Ganesha City, which Ancel absolutely wanted us to do with a completely stupid level of detail, we have barely come out of it three years later, and we have done it again four or five times. Knowing that you have to make several planets, you can imagine the absurdity of this type of reasoning.

Besides, Beyond Good and Evil 2 development was almost canceledNothing was progressing, Michel Ancel changing his mind regularly, throwing months of work in the trash. Except that in the summer of 2017, Jean-Marc Geffroy, then creative director of Ghost Recon, arrived on the project, breaking Michel Ancel’s way of doing things, which he obviously did not like, and a third project manager was even added to the development after the fact. Michel Ancel, who had nevertheless managed to get a half-time to work on BGE2 and on WiLD at Wild Sheep Studio at the same time, decided on his own to move away fromUbisoft, by explaining to Yves Guillemot that “it is no longer my game”. A blow to the CEO, who then went to Montpellier in early 2019 with Serge Hascoët to stop the project, but the team managed to negotiate a one-year reprieve, promising to deliver a playable demo by then. This demo arrived last spring, which allowed the game to finally enter the production phase, except that for Michel Ancel, it’s over, he who took a long vacation away from Beyond Good and Evil 2 since.

Beyond Good and Evil 202

Release also publishes in parallel an interview with Michel Ancel, who looks back on his departure from the video game world. Very lucid about the situation ofUbisoft in recent months, he looks back on internal investigations :

Yves called me in early August to let me know. It was better than an email. I knew it was going to happen, I replied: “OK, I’m going to say whatever I think I can say, if I can’t work anymore because I did this or I did that and that. is reprehensible, in the end, the box will come out better. And today, barely back from vacation, I answered questions for two hours.

However, he admits to having seen himself burn out at Ubisoft Montpellier, mentioning a concept artist who cracked in front of him, but without giving him any real explanations, leaving Michel Ancel in the dark:

I did not understand if his burnout was related to the person who worked with him directly or if it was me, or the interaction of that person with me. Did he have too many responsibilities? I would have liked to have had the explanation, I would have had to look for it. Out of modesty, I did not dare. It would have been nice to come talk to me about it. I never knew if it was a mistake on my part, or too much solicitation.

Michel Ancel and the video game, it is thus old history, and Beyond Good and Evil 2 does not belong to him any more. Obviously, we will have to wait many more years before we can discover this big game ofUbisoft Montpellier, which has just entered production. For the most motivated, you can already pre-order the game for € 69.99 on Amazon.fr.

editor vignetteAmaury M. / Clint008
Writer – Tester
Explorer of more or less noisy music, collector of caps and venerator of Blade Runner. I like zombies and Cthulhu.
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here’s why healthy young people suffer from severe forms of Covid-19

“These studies are an important step forward in deciphering the immunological treatment we can offer to patients with COVID-19,” says immunologist Filomeen Haerynck of UZ Gent. The latter collaborated in both studies and coordinates data collection for 17 other participating Belgian centers.

Some young, healthy people get sicker from COVID-19 than others in the same age group. The two new publications explain for the first time the causes of the severity of the disease: patients do not have a sufficient amount of type I interferon, a group of 17 proteins that are crucial to protect cells and therefore l organism against viruses.

The first study showed that many critically ill people tested carried rare variants of thirteen genes that are known to be essential for protecting the body against, for example, the seasonal flu virus. These genes regulate the production of type I interferons. More than 3% of them did not even have a functional gene. Further studies have shown that the immune cells of these patients therefore do not produce detectable type I interferons during acute infection with SARS CoV-2.

“An important step towards treatment”

The second study indicated that more than 10% of all young and healthy people with severe COVID-19 have antibodies that “mistakenly” attack not the virus, but the immune system itself. These autoantibodies can limit the action of type I interferon.

“This research is an important step towards deciphering the immunological treatment that we can offer to patients with COVID-19,” says Mr. Haerynck. “We must continue to test these treatments for COVID-19 through clinical trials. But it’s clearly a good example of how we can now look at known treatments for other illnesses in COVID-19 ”.


Medicine intern commits suicide in a Yucatan clinic

TAHDZIÚ, Yuc. (apro) .- The State Secretary of Health (SSY) confirmed the suicide of a young medical intern at the Medical Unit of this town.

The victim, identified with the initials KJGK, 25 years old, was originally from Mérida, and for about a month she was assigned by the Institute of Health and Wellbeing (Insabi) to the clinic in this municipality, one of the poorest from the continent, where until yesterday he was seen working.

This morning, employees of the health center found the young woman dead, suspended from the ventilator in her office, for which they gave notice to the authorities of the Ministry of Health and the State Attorney General’s Office (FGE).

In a bulletin, the SSY regretted the fact and pointed out that, with the support of Mental Health professionals from the dependency, they carry out comprehensive actions to support family members, “who will be given the necessary help to carry out the procedures corresponding to the State Attorney General’s Office, where the rigorous legal procedure will be given.

So far the reasons for the suicide are unknown.

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students launch against UADY after suicide of medical intern

MÉRIDA, Yuc. (appro). – Students from the Faculty of Medicine once again attacked the authorities of the Autonomous University of Yucatán (UADY), this time due to the recent suicide of one of their colleagues at the Tahdziú clinic, where she was doing her residency.

For reasons presumably related to her career, the young intern, KJGK, 25 years old and originally from Mérida, took her own life on September 15 in her office at the Tahdziú medical center, a municipality that by the way is among the most impoverished of the continent.

The case unleashed the anger and indignation of the students who once again filled social networks with accusations and reproaches against the authorities of the UADY and its Faculty of Medicine for the lack of interest and lack of support towards their students.

Although the girl’s death was made public on September 15, it was until the next day that the Faculty of Medicine issued a statement on the matter.

In a statement, the Faculty of Medicine expressed that it was “deeply moved by the death of the intern, KJGK, who was rendering her social service at the Tahdziú Medical Unit.”


Interns and interns from the Faculty of Medicine will return to hospitals: UADY

He assured that university authorities in coordination with personnel from the Subdirectorate of Mental Health and Education of the Ministry of Health “are already taking the pertinent actions.”

“The irreparable loss of a young doctor fills us with consternation and mourns the entire community of the Faculty,” he reiterated.

He argued that “Medicine is an arduous, hard and demanding career that demands the maximum of our abilities”, and stated: “At the Faculty we understand it that way and that is why our psychopedagogical department provides support to our students every day to prevent moments crisis ”.

Finally, he endorsed his commitment “to the comprehensive, humanistic and responsible training of students”, for which he asked heads of teaching and teachers “to maintain close communication with students and make available to those who require it, the services of the professionals who work in the psycho-pedagogical department of our dependency ”.

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However, such a statement stirred the anger of the students, who questioned the sayings of their authorities who, with the campaign “UADY, I do not believe you anything”, reproached a string of situations suffered by students of that maximum house of studies.

The flow of complaints from medical students includes various types of human rights violations, exploitation, excessive pressure, mistreatment, harassment.

“The department of psychopedagogy is a joke, I say it from my own skin and I know it from that of many colleagues. ‘If you can’t unsubscribe’, this has been said over and over again to students, to all those who at some point have a crisis.

Where is the humanist side? Where was the empathy? Are you moved? What if they do something about it with those doctors who only humiliate their interns? Or how about those teachers who have different colored hair or tattoos that won’t turn you down? Why don’t they do something with all the staff who are sexist and misogynistic? ”, Refuted a student.

“Don’t become a School of Medicine. Nobody puts a Civil Engineer intern to supervise ONLY the construction of a bridge. No career puts an intern to be 24 HOURS X 6 DAYS A WEEK AWAY FROM ALL SOCIAL CONTACT OTHER THAN HIS JOB “, reproached another of the nonconformists.

And he assured that the deceased doctor asked for help and “they told him to stay.”

Last April, the Faculty of Medicine came into conflict with its interns after seven of them filed a claim for protection for having been dropped from the school for refusing to return to the institutions to which they had been assigned due to the lack of security guarantees to reduce the risk of contracting covid-19.


Rheumatoid arthritis drug could help treat covid-19

MEXICO CITY (apro) .- The pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly announced that the combination of its rheumatoid arthritis treatment baricitinib with remdesivir reduced the recovery time in hospitalized patients with covid-19.

Eli Lilly explained that during the Covid-19 Adaptive Treatment Trial (ACTT-2), researchers observed a reduction of approximately one day in the mean recovery time of patients treated with baricitinib combined with the substance remdesivir, compared to those who were only treated with remdesivir, therefore they rated the finding as statistically significant.

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The study, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the US National Institute of Health (NIH), included more than 1,000 patients and began on May 8 to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a dose. of 4 mg baricitinib plus remdesivir versus remdesivir in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

According to Eli Lilly, the combination met the primary endpoint of reduced recovery time, which was defined as that the participant was well enough for hospital discharge, meaning that they no longer needed supplemental oxygen or care continued in the hospital, or was no longer hospitalized on the 29th.

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Eli Lilly reported that additional analysis is underway to understand other clinical outcome data, including mortality and safety data, and that NIAID is expected to publish full study details in a peer-reviewed journal.

Eli Lilly also indicated that he plans to discuss the emergency use authorization of the combination with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and explore similar measures with other regulatory agencies for baricitinib as a treatment. of hospitalized patients with covid-19. If authorized, the company will propose make baricitinib available through commercial channels and will work with hospitals and governments to ensure patient access.

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First and second grade patients

The pandemic has shown us the excruciating reality that we live as a country in terms of health, warns Dr. Andrés Castañeda Prado. With updated figures, the specialist shows that the highest incidence of patients dying from covid occurs in public hospitals, in some of which there are even first and second beds for the sick. To these deaths, which mainly affect indigenous communities and the most precarious sectors of the cities, is added the prolonged confinement, which many cannot save due to lack of economic capacity.

MEXICO CITY (process) .- Six months after the first coronavirus contagion occurred in Mexico, on February 28, the pandemic has highlighted the social inequality that exists in the country: a huge gap separates the rich and the poor regarding access to medical care. And in this scenario, the second ones have been the most affected by the contagion.

Stratification in the health sector has shown that there is a lower mortality rate among those infected who can pay for private hospitals or who are beneficiaries of a government institution, compared to the marginalized classes without social security, among which are the lowest. isolated indigenous communities in the country.

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The doctor Andrés Castañeda Prado, coordinator of the Causes of Health and Welfare of the Nosotrxs por la Democracia association, assures: “We have always known that in Mexico there is inequality everywhere. This is nothing new. But in this case, the pandemic has made it very clear to us that there is a huge gap between rich and poor in access to health, and that the latter are the most affected by the covid.

“Not all Mexicans infected with the coronavirus are treated equally: some receive first-world care, but the vast majority receive medical care that leaves much to be desired.”

This contrast is reflected in the statistics of the health sector itself: for example, until Sunday 16 private hospitals identified as positive and treated 15,991 patients in their facilities, of which 691 (4.3%) died; In turn, the IMSS hospitals treated 166 thousand 538, of which 31 thousand 883 (19.1%) of their patients with covid died.

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Thus, the death toll is more than four times higher in the hospitals of the IMSS than in the private ones.

Castañeda points out that, in this stratification, those treated at the IMSS have an even lower mortality rate than those who attend institutions with fewer medical resources.

And it details: “Around 46% of patients who have social security and are admitted to IMSS or ISSSTE hospitals, among others, are dying. In contrast, the percentage rises to 53.4% ​​of deaths among patients who enter institutions with fewer resources, such as Insabi (Health Institute for Well-being) or IMSS Well-being ”.

–The fewer resources of the hospital institutions, the greater the number of deaths? –Asks the reporter.

–Of course, since resources impact the quality of medical equipment, medicines, the number of health professionals, and hospital facilities. And in Mexico, the institutions with the fewest resources serve the poorest. Thats the reality.

Fragment of a report published in the 2287 edition of the weekly Proceso, whose digital version you can purchase here


Emmanuel André on the drop in Covid-19 cases: “We’re doing well”

On his Twitter account, the virologist shared a graph illustrating the decline in coronavirus cases in Belgium.

SOn Twitter, the virologist and former interfederal spokesperson for the fight against the coronavirus, Emmanuel André spoke about the drop in cases in our country.

Indeed, between August 22 and August 28, there was an average of 431 infections with the new coronavirus per day, a drop of 12% compared to the reference period of seven previous days, according to figures updated Tuesday morning by the Sciensano Public Health Institute. The average number of contaminations in Belgium is 48.98, the lowest average since July 31.

“A little over a month ago, the experts predicted that the measures of the CNS (National Security Council, Editor’s note) would be insufficient to padlock the start of a second wave, writes Emmanuel André on his Twitter account. Under pressure from civil society (especially in Flanders) the CNS revised the measures. We’re doing well. It ends with the hashtag #NVRnu which means: “a CNS now”, referring to the call of different scientists that took place at the end of July for the CNS to meet.

To illustrate his point, the virologist shares a graph published by the Financial Times illustrating the average of new cases of coronavirus per million inhabitants. Unlike the other countries represented on this graph, such as France, Italy, Spain or the United Kingdom, we can very clearly see Belgium’s curve bending.


3333 times more powerful than the Hiroshima atomic bomb, Russia’s secret killing machine is now starting to smell its existence, other countries must be vigilant, mistakes could be the target – all pages

GridHot.IDGood Hiroshima and Nagasaki is an absolute tragedy that will not be forgotten in world history.

But from a technical point of view, there is good atoms far more dangerous than “Little Boy” and “Fat Man” (the names of the two types of nukes dropped by the US on two Japanese cities).

What is that?

Reporting from Kontan.co.id, military Russia presumably still keeps good atom with the most force awesome.

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The bomb was tested to produce an explosion measuring 50 million tons, or 3,333 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped by the Allies on Hiroshima, Japan.

This allegation is based on a recent report by Russia which recently released secret footage of the test of the Tsar Bomb, the world’s largest nuclear explosion, in the Barent Sea in 1961.

Photos or videos of the country, then still called the Soviet Union, show an explosion caused by a 50 megaton thermonuclear bomb, or hydrogen bomb.

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Reported by the Daily Mail Wednesday (26/8/2020), the camera is positioned several hundred kilometers from the location, and is set for low lighting conditions. In the recording of the Tsar Bomb test, it appears that a fireball had formed for about 40 seconds before turning into a mushroom cloud.

Other footage taken from the plane showed the cloud had risen to an altitude of 213,000 feet, or six times higher than a commercial aircraft.

Footage of the test, which Russia has kept for nearly 60 years, was released by their nuclear agency Rosatom, on the 75th anniversary of the founding of their organization.

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Tsar bomb or Tsar Bomba, officially named RDS-220, is the largest nuclear bomb ever made, and was developed during the Cold War era.

They developed weapons of mass destruction to balance the United States (US), which at that time was so keen to create thermonuclear weapons.

Seven years before the Kremlin conducted its tests, the US first tested their largest hydrogen bomb, which it claimed was more powerful than the atomic bomb.

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The weapon was named Castle Bravo, and was tested in the Marshall Islands and produced an explosive force of 15 megatons.

The Soviet military then did not want to be outdone by creating Tsar Bomba, which when tested was the largest nuclear explosion in the world.

Put in a special box to prevent shocks, the bomb was brought to Olenyi Base, where it was quickly loaded onto a long-range bomber, the Tupolev Tu-95.

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The plane then traveled nearly 1,000 km to Severny Island, located deep in the Arctic Circle on October 30, 1961.

The bomb was then dropped after first being fitted with a parachute, so that the Tu-95 had enough time to get away.

When the bomb reached 13,000 feet above the ground, it detonated and produced the largest nuclear explosion in human history.

The explosion reportedly produced an earthquake equivalent to an earthquake of 5.0 on the Richter scale, and was recorded in seismological centers around the world.

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The rays from the Tsar Bomb test could be seen from Norway, with its radioactive dust spreading across Scandinavia, causing worldwide condemnation.

As a result of these tests, in 1963 the USSR and the US agreed to press a treaty not to carry out nuclear tests in the atmosphere.

Then for Washington, instead of creating a bigger bomb, they chose to apply it in the conflict so as to develop a warhead that can fit the missile.

Finally in 2017, 84 countries signed the United Nations Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons Treaty.

However, many countries with nuclear bombs are reluctant to sign them.

This article has been published on Kompas.com with the title “Russia Releases Test Tsar Bomb, Produces World’s Largest Nuclear Explosion”

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