Why do we have to sleep at all

People spend around a third of their lives sleeping. Persistent lack of sleep not only spoils the mood, but can also have serious consequences for your health.

However, it has hardly been clarified why we actually do regular sleep need. American researchers have now got to the bottom of this. Her conclusion in the journal “Science Advances”: While sleep is important for learning processes in the brain in early childhood, the focus is later on its repair.

Mice sleep five times longer than elephants, Babys need more sleep than adults and in dolphins and migratory birds only one half of the brain sleeps while the other is awake. All of those phenomena belong to the mysteries which, in some cases, still pose a mystery to science.

We cannot live without sleep

It is clear that sleep is essential for survival: this was confirmed by the experiment by sleep researcher Allan Rechtschaffen, who showed in the 1980s that rats that were permanently prevented from resting died after a few weeks.

In humans, short-term sleep deprivation leads to decreased reaction speed and concentration problems, while chronic ones Trouble sleeping With depressions, Overweight, Cardiovascular diseases and one weakened immune system be associated.

The more important is the question of what functions sleep actually fulfills. Scientists from the universities of Texas and California and the Santa Fe Institute headed by mathematician Junyu Cao have now carried out a statistical analysis with the data from more than 60 sleep studies, which included both humans and mammals. They evaluated data on the total duration of sleep, times in different sleep phases as well as brain– and height.

The task of sleep changes

The team, consisting of neurologists, biologists and statisticians, developed a model that explains why sleep time across different species decreases the larger the brain gets. Specifically, the researchers identified a point that occurs in humans at the age of 2.4 years and from which the function of the night’s rest fundamentally changes: from reorganization to repair. This fits in with the results of previous studies showing several important transitions in brain development in children between the ages of two and three.

Up to this age the brain grows rapidly. During REM sleep, which is characterized by rapid eye movements and dreams, the brain is busy making and strengthening synapses. These are the structures that connect the nerve cells with each other and allow them to communicate. “Babies should not be awakened during REM sleep because important work happens in their brains while they are sleeping,” commented biologist and co-author Gina Poe in a communication published on the study.

After about 2.4 years, however, the main purpose of sleep changes – and rapidly. Instead of building synapses, from now on and for the rest of life it is mainly about maintaining and repairing the brain. In fact, a certain neurological damage to the brain during waking hours is normal in humans and animals. Theoretical physicist and co-author Geoffrey West explains that sleep helps to repair this damage – like subway trains that are maintained and repaired at night so as not to obstruct traffic during the day.

Those maintenance activities mostly happened during non-REM sleep. Correspondingly, its share increases from the age of 2.4 years in humans, while the duration of sleep decreases overall. Newborns, for example, spend around 50 percent of their sleep in the REM phase, while this proportion falls to 25 percent at the age of ten and finally 15 percent for people over 50 years of age.

“Sleep is as important as food,” summarizes biologist Poe. “And it’s amazing how well sleep meets the needs of our nervous system. Everyone from jellyfish to birds to whales sleeps. While we sleep, our brains don’t rest.”

Important NOTE: Under no circumstances does the information replace professional advice or treatment by trained and recognized doctors. The contents of t-online.de cannot and may not be used to make independent diagnoses or to start treatments.

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A doctor warns: Oral health affects the immune system’s resistance to the Corona virus

Otorhinolaryngology consultant Dr. Fahim Tadros confirmed that the human immune system is affected by the extent of oral and dental health, and that viruses and microbes in the mouth cannot be eliminated by 100%, but they should be eliminated by the correct means.

Tadros added in his interview with “Al-Ru’ya”, that reducing the number of viruses and germs in the upper airways would reduce the symptoms and complications of the Corona virus, “Covid-19”, and thus speed recovery from infection.

In light of the Corona pandemic, is there a relationship between the immune system and oral health?

The immune defenses of the upper respiratory system, including the pharynx and the nasal cavity, depend on two basic strategies, the first is to identify the microbes and produce the antibodies capable of eliminating them, while the second centers on maintaining a record of all types of microbes, and preparing the body’s immune white cells of various types to swallow and destroy them. These two lines of defense are called “antibodies and the cellular response”, and there are millions of microbes in the upper respiratory system and mouth that are not necessarily harmful, especially since most of them participate in protecting us from their more dangerous counterparts.

“The virus disappears – but the inflammation continues”

Why some Covid 19 patients become seriously ill and end up in intensive care is still unclear. In an interview, an expert explains what an essential role the immune system could play.

The immunologist Professor Dr. Andreas Radbruch already has the t-online podcast “Soundtrack Knowledge” talked about the effects of the coronavirus on the body. In an interview, he explains why the immune system can make Covid 19 disease worse and what he thinks of the current research on the bradykinin hypothesis.

t-online: Professor Radbruch, new research shows that hormones could be responsible for many serious Covid-19 cases. The so-called bradykinin hypothesis states that the coronavirus disrupts the body’s own functions such as regulating blood pressure and leads to an overreaction of the immune system. As an immunologist, how do you rate this theory?

Prof. Radbruch: I am somewhat surprised at the response to this study in the public media. In itself, this is relatively trivial. Because the immune reaction in Covid-19 patients can lead to inflammation and this is accompanied by vasodilating hormones. In this case a so-called peptide hormone with the beautiful name “Bradykinin”. This is not very different from histamine. A Dutch research group put forward this hypothesis in April and brought bradykinin into play. The new US study simply evaluated the research of others and wrote it down on paper.

(Source: Gero Breloer)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Radbruch is Scientific Director of the German Rheumatism Research Center and President of the European Federation of Immunological Societies.

According to the study authors, the body keeps making bradykinin, which cannot be broken down. A “bradykinin storm” is said to be responsible for many deaths in Covid 19 patients. Do you find that plausible?

I don’t think you can call that a storm. I see this more as a reflection of the ongoing illness that can drag on for weeks and months. Unfortunately, some of the patients are in the intensive care unit for a very long time. For me this shows that there is a serious inflammation going on there. Whether the coronavirus constantly causes cells to produce bradykinin is complete speculation.

It is also very difficult to detect the bradykinin. That did not happen in the study. If they had at least measured that the bradykinin itself is extremely highly concentrated on site, then you would have proof.

A “cytokine storm” was also mentioned in previous studies …

This refers to inflammatory cytokines that are suddenly released in large quantities. There was literature that claimed that Covid-19 patients suffered sepsis as a result, i.e. blood poisoning. The effect is comparable to an anaphylactic shock: If you are allergic, it can happen that a bee sting is enough to kill you.

But I think that it is not appropriate to call it a storm here either. Because the patients are not in a stormy, but a chronic inflammatory situation. A storm would pass again. Then one comes Sepsis it is also very dangerous. At the beginning it is extremely intense and then you recover from it – or not. Controlling sepsis is still a huge medical problem today.

Is it true that there are gender differences and that men are more prone to overreacting the immune system?

Yes, it seems that the reactions in women are milder. Men react more violently. The reasons for this are still unclear.

This is also the case with autoimmune diseases, some of which are mainly men, others more women. With women, the whole thing is more balanced. To this day it is not known exactly why, for example, predominantly women Lupus and not at least as many men.

You yourself examined the immune response of Covid 19 patients in a research team in the intensive care unit at the Charité in Berlin. What are your findings?

In our manuscript we describe that that Coronavirus triggers a chronic immune response. In the seriously ill patients we look at in the intensive care unit at the Charité, the virus disappears after a certain time – but the immune reaction and thus the inflammation continue. The body tries to slow down the immune response, but it fails. Why this is the case with some Covid 19 patients and not with others is still a great mystery. It can be assumed that it has to do with how the infected person’s immune system deals with the virus. Whether it will find a way to clear up the coronavirus efficiently and quickly or not.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin: Seriously ill Covid 19 patients are treated here.  (Source: Getty Images / Panama7)Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin: Seriously ill Covid 19 patients are treated here. (Source: Panama7 / Getty Images)

We also suspect that an autoimmune reaction is triggered. There are many diseases, such as chronic intestinal inflammation, where the immune system reacts against its own components, but it shouldn’t react against them. The cytokine we looked at is called TGF-β. Patients develop more and more of it over time; the cells in the lungs, for example, are full of it. The cytokine was supposed to suppress the immune response, but it doesn’t. Patients are then treated with medication to manage symptoms. But the cytokine also has the unfriendly side that it can lead to scarring in the lung tissue. This is a side effect that has been used in severe cases of Covid-19 has been described.

This can lead to long-term damage …

Exactly, the mucous membranes can scar. The tissue is then sometimes no longer functional.

Does it play a role in the severity of the disease, how strong the immune system is before the infection?

Patients who suffer from a suppressed immune system, for example rheumatism, are not recommended to reverse immunosuppression. You should keep taking your medication. So it seems to be different whether you inhibit chronic inflammation or have an acute immune reaction against a pathogen. So far there is no evidence that these patients with suppressed immune systems react worse to the virus.

Rather, it seems to be the case that most people infected with corona already have some kind of pre-conditioning because the body has already gone through something similar with related pathogens. The immune system then has memory cells. So if someone has been infected with other cold viruses, it can get on very quickly and efficiently SARS-CoV-2 responds. On the other hand, the patients who don’t do this are in a bad way. That seems to be much more important as to whether someone has to go to intensive care or not. The dose of the pathogen, its vitality and its ability to penetrate into the depths of the lungs also determine the course.

Thank you for the interview, Prof. Radbruch!

Important NOTE: Under no circumstances does the information replace professional advice or treatment by trained and recognized doctors. The content of t-online.de cannot and must not be used to make independent diagnoses or to start treatments.

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Covid-19: do antibodies disappear over time?

Question asked by Céline on 09/09/2020

Hello,

You ask us whether it is true that former infected people can present a negative serological test. We now know that the vast majority of people infected with Sars-Cov-2 produce specific antibodies against the virus. These antibodies (IgM and IgG) are detectable using serological tests. But let’s point out right away that the minimum amount of neutralizing antibodies necessary to be protected against reinfection is not yet known.

“With serological tests, you test the antibodies produced by the body against the virus, this is adaptive humoral immunity, one of the three components of the immune response. Since this immunity is adaptive, it takes some time. Between five and six days. It is detectable from around the seventh day, but it is recommended to measure it from the fourteenth day to be sure to spot everyone, because the production of antibodies varies enormously from one individual to another ”, explains Cédric Carbonneil, head of the evaluation service for professional acts of the Haute Autorité de santé. He also recalls that, for the time being, the serological test is considered “A diagnostic supplement”, for which the RT-PCR test is preferred. This type of examination should therefore not be carried out too soon after contamination, at the risk of obtaining a false negative.

“Decrease in neutralizers within two to four months”

As for the lifespan of antibodies in the blood, it varies greatly depending on the virus. For measles, for example, neutralizing antibodies (which help fight infection) are produced throughout life after infection or vaccination, compared with a few months for influenza. “From the outset, we had some concerns with the Sars-Cov-2, because with its cousins ​​the Sars-Cov-1 and the Mers, we had immunity from a few months to a few years. Furthermore, coronaviruses and those responsible for rhinitis and winter viral infections do not provide long-term immune protection ”, continues Cédric Carbonneil.

So there was more chance that the amount of antibody would decrease rapidly. However, several studies published since the start of the pandemic only reinforce these fears. “To date, we know that the Sars-Cov-2 infection is capable of inducing the production of neutralizing antibodies in most patients. We are starting to have some controversial elements regarding the potential term of protection. Several studies have shown a decrease in neutralizers two to four months after infection. An article indicates that there is a drop in antibodies after two months. Another more recent indicated that the lifespan of neutralizing antibodies would be two months and disappearance after four months. There was also the case of a re-infected patient. The prevailing global hypothesis is that we would still be producing antibodies in the fairly short term ”, always indicates the head of HAS.

“Reactivated antibody production”

In France, the Institut Pasteur and the Strasbourg University Hospital are studying the evolution of the level of antibodies from former contaminants. A first study of 160 hospital staff was published in July 2020 and another is still ongoing. “In the first study, we knew that from the date of the first symptoms, in a period between twenty and forty days, we still saw a phase of increase. Antibody production corresponds to a bell-shaped curve. We studied the first phase of growth, there we study the second ”, explains Olivier Schwartz, head of the virus and immunity unit at the Institut Pasteur.

According to the preliminary results of the second study, the amount of antibody decreases on average by 50% after three months. “We have observed a drop in anti-Sars-Cov-2 antibodies, or even a complete negativation of the serology. This means that in these people, the antibodies are in very low quantities, and that they become undetectable by certain tests. On the other hand, this does not mean that they are no longer protected, because when they encounter the virus again, the body should reactivate the production of antibodies ”, explains Samira Fafi-Kremer, director of the Strasbourg Institute of Virology. A negative serological test would therefore not necessarily mean that the person is no longer protected.

“Antibodies are produced by cells [les lymphocytes B et T, ndlr] which can activate or reactivate and “produce” again in the event of another encounter with the virus, but this remains for a limited time. And this is the concern: from an antibody response towards one microbe to that towards another microbe, the durations of this memory vary enormously ”, summarizes Frédéric Altare, immunologist and research director at the National Institute of Health (Inserm). This is called cellular immunity. Another aspect of the immune response whose effectiveness against Sars-Cov-2, still unknown, and which does not appear in the serological tests currently carried out.


Emma Donada

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Famous Can Be a Thirst Relief during Hot Weather, Water Consumption …

Report from Grid.ID Journalist, Devi Agustiana

Grid.IDCoconut water indeed known to be refreshing and eliminates thirst, especially when hot weather.

Coconut water suitable for quenching our body’s thirst.

It is also known that coconut water has many nutrition.

Also Read: Instead of being healthy, it’s actually dangerous, remember don’t drink coconut water in 5 health conditions like the following, it’s better to avoid it

Research shows that coconut is a natural ingredient that provides positive health benefits.

This is because coconut water has a low number of calories, but is high in potassium.

In fact, coconut cholesterol levels are almost non-existent.

Also Read: Drinking coconut water on an empty stomach for a week of consuming it, this woman was surprised to find her body changes

Citing a page Serambinews, one benefit coconut water what is popular is to give power to immune system.





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Vaccinations train the immune system (also against Covid)

Getting vaccinated trains our immune system to fight against all infections and this applies to various vaccines, so much so that it would be one of the reasons why children are more protected against Covid-19. To strengthen our defenses, therefore, we do not need supplements, but “to take the recommended vaccinations and follow the 0-5-30 formula”. Professor says so Alberto Mantovani, Scientific Director of Humanitas and Emeritus Professor of Humanitas University, sul New England Journal of Medicine, in the article just out signed together with the Dutch colleague Mihai Netea. Mantovani, the most cited Italian researcher in international scientific literature, is the first to have observed how “vaccination can increase the basic tone of innate immunity, as in a workout”.

To understand how this mechanism could also work against the coronavirus, which has found confirmation in basic research and clinical observations (mentioned in the article), we asked the Professor to explain what innate immunity is.
«It is the first line of defense of the immune system – explains Mantovani -. It is estimated that in more than 90% of the cases where we fight a potential pathogen, the problem is managed by the complex mechanisms of this line of defense, which is called “innate”, because it does not need to have encountered a specific microbe before. They are the cells that give the alarm signal to the directors of the immunological orchestra that we call T lymphocytes ».

How is it possible to train innate immunity and how do vaccines do it?
The second line of defense, that is, the immune system that manifests itself with antibodies, is endowed with ‘memory’, whereas it was believed that innate immunity was not. The observations we have made have shown that there is some form of memory even in innate immunity, a memory that we prefer to call “training”, a protection that does not concern only a virus, but is wider ».

Do vaccines essentially help the first line of defense to react better even against diseases against which they offer no protection?
“There is a lot of research data and clinical observations that show that some vaccines give protection (which in medical jargon is called ‘agnostic’) against other diseases. The vaccine for which the data is strongest is that against tuberculosis (BCG), which is also administered, for example, in some areas of London: the data says that vaccinated people are protected from other infectious lung diseases, but not only from these. It does not mean that we should be vaccinated with the anti-tuberculosis vaccine from now on to protect ourselves against Covid, because the complete results of the ongoing trials are currently lacking “.

Does it also happen with the flu vaccine?
“It happens in the case of measles, which offers protection against other infections, not totally but significantly. On the anti-flu, the data are still uncertain, but in general we can say that there is one more reason to get vaccinated, that is, that many vaccines (perhaps all) constitute a good general training for the first line of defense of the immune system. Getting the recommended vaccines is one of the forms of training our immune system. And, while we don’t have proof, we suspect this is one of the reasons children are relatively protected against Covid-19, because their immune systems undergo repeated training from the vaccination schedule that goes on until the age of. puberty”.

Does having the flu favor Covid contagion?
“We have reliable data that suggests that when I contract infectious diseases that overlap, things get worse, then we know that when we have the flu the defenses of the immune system are lowered.”

Are there any other ways to strengthen the immune system?
«In addition to vaccines, I have indicated the formula ‘0-5-30’. “0 cigarettes”, because smoking is a bad ally, it increases the inflammatory state and disorients the immune system. “5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day”, because their consumption is associated with protection against many diseases related to the immune system and then “30 minutes of moderate physical activity”, because many data show that it helps our defenses. Last thing is weight: excess fat and obesity in particular disorient our immune system and are a proven risk factor for death also in the case of Covid-19 ».

What do you think of the stop to the Oxford vaccine?
“These are things that happen when experimentation reaches tens of thousands of people. I hope that within a week or ten days they can continue. It is also reassuring on the one hand, because we must not forget that the vaccines that will reach the finish line must offer maximum safety and efficacy. My watchwords are “hope”, because the data suggests that these vaccines can activate an immune response, and “caution”, because it must be remembered that they could be administered to hundreds of millions of people. The big producers themselves have addressed a formal invitation to the regulatory authorities not to let their guard down ».

A prediction on a plausible date of arrival of the first vaccine candidate?
«Since the beginning of the epidemic I had talked about 19-20 months, if we were lucky. Announcements were made that we would have a vaccine in September to administer to healthcare personnel: I’ve always been a bit skeptical about these announcements. ”

Is there a way to counter the ideas of anti-vaccinists?
“I try to stick to the” three R “rule: respect for data, respect for skills (for example, I don’t comment on epidemiological curves and data) and then responsibility, when I make a claim that is not based on data , for example that “the virus has subsided”, there is an issue of collective responsibility ».

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4 Vitamins to Boost the Immune System

illustration of body immunity (Source: everydayhealth.com)

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.TV – The body has a natural system to ward off disease from both viral and bacterial infections. This system is known by the name immunity or immune system. Although this system works naturally, there are times immunity body decreases. If so, the disease will easily infect the body.

Launching from Business Insider, essential vitamins can help produce immune cells such as antibodies and white blood cells in sufficient numbers. These cells are what will work in the immune system to fight viral and bacterial infections.

Here are four important vitamins that support immune system.

1. Vitamin B6

The body needs vitamin B6 to make immune cells that can fight harmful microbes. The way vitamin B6 works is by helping the body produce T-cells, a type of immune cell that helps kill infected cells in the body. Not only that, vitamin B6 also activates the response immune system.

2. Vitamin C

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4 Vitamins That Support the Immune System

Jakarta: For your immune system to work properly, you need to get the right nutrients in food. Some vitamin important ingredients such as vitamin C and zinc can help in the production of immune cells.

Such as antibodies and white blood cells to keep the immune system running properly. And here are 4 vitamins needed to support the immune system to stay healthy:

1. Vitamin C

“Vitamin C is essential for healthy immune function,” says D’Adamo, PhD, an epidemiologist and director of the Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Vitamin C can kill harmful microbes, including bacteria and viruses such as colds and pneumonia. This vitamin can also increase the body’s production of important immune cells, including white blood cells and phagocytes, which are bacteria-killing cells by absorbing them.

2. Vitamin B6

Your body needs vitamin B6 to make immune cells that can help your body fight harmful microbes. In addition, vitamin B6 also helps produce T cells, a type of immune cell that can help kill infected cells in the body and activate the immune system response.





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Women should get about 1.2 mg of vitamin B6 per day, while men should get 1.4 mg. Food sources that contain vitamin B6 include potatoes, tuna, bananas, chicken and kale.

3. Vitamin D

Lack of vitamin D makes the body more susceptible to respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis. This is because vitamin D increases the number of macrophage cells, which are immune cells to kill disease cells that attack the body.

“Vitamin D can also help balance your immune system by reducing the production of chemicals called inflammatory cytokines, which can worsen your symptoms when too much is produced,” says D’Adamo.

4. Vitamin E

Vitamin E has antioxidant abilities, which can help the body fight infection. Antioxidants are substances that can help cells to fight free radical molecules, which can increase the risk of heart disease. cancer, and other diseases.

The best intake of vitamin E is from food ingredients such as trout, red peppers, avocados, sunflower seed oil, and almonds. By getting it from nature, the body will get more antioxidant benefits.

(FIR)

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Corona rapid test: can I do the new test at home? *** BILDplus content *** – health

BILD asked the manufacturer Roche


A new rapid corona test from Roche should deliver a reliable result within just 15 minutes – with a nasopharynx swab and without a laboratory.

BILD asked the manufacturer and answered the most important questions:

Where can I get the test?

How reliable is he?

How does it work

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