The doctor called another way of coronavirus transmission insignificant :: Society :: RBC

Photo: Andrew Wong / Getty Images

The cells of the gastrointestinal tract are the “targets” for the coronavirus, however, the fecal-oral transmission mechanism of the infection is insignificant. This was reported to RBC by an infectious disease specialist Valery Beznosenko.

So Beznosenko commented on a study by Dutch scientists from the Habrecht Institute, the Medical Center of the University of Erasmus of Rotterdam and Maastricht University on the effect of COVID-19 on the model of cell culture of the human intestine. In the study, in particular, it was said that some patients with coronavirus develop symptoms such as nausea and diarrhea, which suggests the possibility of its transmission by the fecal-oral route.

“That’s not news. The virus has several target cells, the main of which are the upper and lower parts of the respiratory tract, ”said RBC Beznosenko. Therefore, diarrheal manifestations are characteristic of this virus, he noted.

Coronavirus pandemic. The most relevant on May 2

“As for the fecal-oral transmission mechanism, it is of negligible importance,” Beznosenko pointed out. In order for a virus to get to another person through the mouth from an infected person who secreted this virus through natural ways, one must not follow “a sufficiently large” number of sanitary hygiene measures, the infectious disease specialist explained. “This, in fact, is the same contact path, only the path that is realized through hands and products,” Beznosenko said.

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Breathing exercises, only under supervision

J. K. Rowlling, the author of Harry Potter, assured through Twitter that deep breathing exercises helped her recover from covid-19 at home. However, health professionals do not advise that patients with coronaviruses do this type of exercise without supervision or medical guidance, as they are not suitable for all patients and the technique is very important.

There is still a lot of research in the medical literature on the treatment of covid-19. Research physician Andrés Delgado Ron announces that there are no specific studies of respiratory exercises in patients with this disease. What has been discussed is alveolar recruitment, a maneuver that is applied in similar situations in which the patient has difficulty breathing. The Treatment Guide for World Health Organization (WHO) addresses the issue.

In summary, he says that the risks and benefits should be considered, since these maneuvers have positive effects (recruiting parts of the lung that are not active) and negative effects (the increase in pressure can cause damage to the lung tissue) ”, Delgado explains.

These types of exercises, applied to hospitalized patients or in intensive care units, can alleviate the symptoms of the coronavirus because they improve oxygenation momentarily. In addition, they contribute to strengthening the abdominal muscles, which “helps respiratory capacity and function,” according to the therapist. Diana Proaño.

Executing these types of maneuvers will not prevent the course of the disease or the development of a pneumonia condition, because, as the doctor clarifies, “the damage is specifically cellular and has nothing to do with the recruitment alveolar”.

On the other hand, Emilia Banderas, pulmonologist of Medical Systems of the San Francisco University of Quito and the Military hospital, says that covid-19 patients with mild symptoms recovering at home should not be kept in bed all the time. They should do moderate aerobic exercise, in an isolated space, for 20 minutes three times a week.

“Exercise will always involve breathing a little deeper than when we are at rest. In addition, by maintaining a certain degree of physical activity, physical deconditioning is avoided, “says Banderas.

Impairment of lung function and clot development are also avoided, as the covid-19 produces hypercoagulability.
Disciplines like yoga focused on breathing, they are recommended for light and healthy patients, according to the pulmonologist, since “they improve the thoracic and diaphragm capacity, fundamental for breathing.” He also says that in China an exercise guide for the discipline of taichi has been implemented for recovered patients.

People with a greater lung capacity or better physical condition would better face this disease. However, research has not yet concluded whether better baseline lung capacity is associated with longer survival.

Physical exercise and meditation should not be neglected during quarantine, since sedentary lifestyle causes a deterioration of the general physical state. Thanks to online tutorials, different routines can be followed to maintain the body health.

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“In confinement, the benefit of massive screening has not been demonstrated” – Release

“In confinement, the benefit of massive screening has not been demonstrated” Release.

How does coronavirus affect children, babies and pregnancies? – Health

We have heard a lot about how COVID-19 is the worst in the elderly and those with pre-existing diseases, but what about children, babies and pregnancies?

The short answer is that young people tend to have a much lower risk of serious disease or to die from the new coronavirus, which is reassuring.

“Children are sure to be infected, but the likelihood of severe pain from this seems very low,” said Peter Collignon, professor of infectious diseases at the Australian National University medical school.

Here is what we know about the risk for children, infants, pregnant women and their children.

Children and COVID-19

Children (including adolescents) have the lowest risk of dying from COVID-19 across all age groups and have lower disease rates at the more severe end of the spectrum.

Furthermore, it appears that they are not getting infected at such a high rate as we would have expected, said Dr. Collignon.

Usually with respiratory viruses, children tend to feel more sick and are more often responsible for the transmission of the disease, but this does not seem to be the case with COVID-19, said Chris Blyth, a specialist in pediatric infections from the University of Western Australia and the Telethon Kids Institute.

“We are seeing fewer infected children than we would normally see with other respiratory viruses,” he said.

“The question is: is it because they weren’t infected but are so mildly symptomatic that they don’t get sick? We don’t know the answer at this stage.”

A study that looked at 1,391 children who were in close contact with confirmed cases of COVID-19 in China found that only 12% of them had infections.

“It’s not that children don’t get infected, but they get infected at a much lower rate than older age groups,” said Professor Collignon.

He said studies have shown that children tend to have relatively mild symptoms, but it was rare that they had no symptoms at all.

“Perversely, it’s reassuring. There isn’t much asymptomatic spread in children as far as we know now.”

None of this means that COVID-19 does not seriously affect a small number of children.

Three children in the study, Professor Collignon, referred to necessary intensive care, but all had other health conditions.

Another study conducted on over 2,000 children with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 in China found that a small percentage in each age group had serious or critical forms of the disease. This could result in symptoms such as low oxygen levels or respiratory failure.

A comment in the same journal, Pediatrics, noted that for other infections with other coronaviruses (i.e. not the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus) being younger, with underlying lung conditions and immunocompromised are all linked to a more serious disease in children.

Babies and young children

Children also have a fairly low risk of COVID-19, but not as low as older children.

Children, especially those under the age of 1, had an increased risk of having a serious or critical form of the disease, according to the Pediatrics document.

Professor Collignon said that children tended to be more at risk from most infections.

“In general, the younger the child the greater the risk,” he said.

“If you are under 1 year old, you are more at risk than most diseases because you have not yet developed any immunity.”

But he said he didn’t see really convincing data that they were more at risk.

“There are many things we don’t know. I don’t want to seem like we have all the answers,” he said.

“But my presumption at the moment [based on the evidence] is that children don’t seem to be taking a very high risk. “

Pregnant women and their children

Changes in the immune system during pregnancy mean that pregnant women are often considered above average risk due to infections.

“But again, there is no really valid evidence, as far as I can see, that pregnant women are at higher risk than women of the same age,” said Professor Collignon.

According to the Royal Australian College of New Zealand of Obstetricians and Gynecologists:

  • Pregnant women do not appear to be more seriously COVID-19 sick than the general population
  • The infection does not appear to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion
  • There is no evidence that the virus can pass from the pregnant mother to the baby
  • There is no evidence that the virus will cause abnormalities in an unborn baby
  • Caesarean section or labor induction do not seem necessary to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission
  • Some children born to women with symptoms of COVID-19 in China were born prematurely, but it is unclear whether this is due to the virus or to doctors’ decisions
  • Infants and newborns do not appear to be at increased risk of complications
  • COVID-19 does not appear to pass from mother to child through breast milk, so breastfeeding is still encouraged, although women with the virus should pay particular attention to hygiene and consider wearing a mask while feeding.

Professor Collignon urged people to follow public health advice regarding social distance, cleanliness and prevention of the sick.

He also stressed that while concern for children, infants and pregnancies around the new virus was understandable, the greatest risk was the elderly.

“Perhaps instead of isolating children we should isolate people over the age of 70,” said Professor Collingon.

“Don’t let sick people visit, not even your grandchildren, and even if they aren’t, avoid close contact.”

ABC Health and Wellness newsletter teaser

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Will Covid-19 disappear with spring?

Question asked

Hello,

While there are now 178 confirmed cases of Covid-19 and four deaths in France, the country has entered at stage 2 of the epidemic situation. In this context, you asked us if the virus has a chance of disappearing with rising temperatures.

“Some respiratory viruses have a seasonality in France, finds with CheckNews Bruno Lina, virologist and researcher at the International Center for Infectious Disease Research (CIRI). But in the tropics, they run all year round. “ This is confirmed by Alexandre Bleibtreu, infectiologist at the Pitié-Salpêtrière in Paris, who explains: “We have respiratory epidemics every winter. Temperatures between 0 and 7 degrees are ideal for viruses, and when it gets hotter, respiratory viruses breathe less. ”

Despite this, the two experts say that this theory may not be confirmed with the Covid-19. “Emerging viruses make fun of the season”, specifies Bruno Lina. Taking the example of the H1N1 flu epidemic in 2009, he recalled that the peak occurred in summer in Spain, Germany and Great Britain.

“Covid-19 being a new virus, the population is virgin and has no immune defense, confirms Alexandre Bleibtreu. So the impact of temperatures on the epidemic is wishful thinking, it is neither demonstrable nor demonstrated. “ Recalling that viruses also circulate in summer, he insists: “What will put an end to the epidemic are the sanitary measures.”

Besides, the virus is currently circulating in the southern hemisphere, where it is still summer. For example, Australia counts, according to Baltimore University Map, 39 cases. Singapore has over a hundred. Finally, Kuwait and Bahrain, where it is between 20 and 30 degrees, have around fifty cases each,

cordially


Pauline Moullot

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Rosporebnadzor spoke about the prevention of coronavirus »Kerch.FM

Rosporebnadzor spoke about the prevention of coronavirus. Its symptoms are largely similar to many respiratory diseases, often mimic the common cold, and may be like the flu, ” Kerch.FM.

PREVENTION OF CORONAVIRUS

What are coronaviruses?

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that predominantly infect animals, but in some cases can be transmitted to humans. Usually, diseases caused by coronaviruses proceed in a mild form, without causing severe symptoms. However, there are severe forms, such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (Mers) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (Sars).

What are the symptoms of a disease caused by a new coronavirus?

Feeling tired

Labored breathing

Heat

Cough and / or sore throat

Symptoms are in many ways similar to many respiratory diseases, often mimic the common cold, and may be like the flu.

If you have similar symptoms, consider the following:

Have you been to high-risk areas (China and surrounding regions) in the past two weeks?

Have you been in touch with someone who has been visiting high-risk areas (China and surrounding regions) in the past two weeks?

If the answer to these questions is positive, the symptoms should be treated as carefully as possible.

How is coronavirus transmitted?

Like other respiratory viruses, coronavirus spreads through drops that form when an infected person coughs or sneezes. In addition, it can spread when someone touches any contaminated surface, such as a door handle. People become infected when they touch their mouth, nose, or eyes with soiled hands.

Initially, the outbreak came from animals, presumably, the source was the seafood market in Wuhan, where there was an active trade not only in fish, but also in animals such as marmots, snakes and bats.

How to protect yourself from coronavirus infection?

The most important thing you can do to protect yourself is to keep your hands and surfaces clean.

Keep your hands clean, wash them often with soap and water, or use a disinfectant.

Also try not to touch your mouth, nose or eyes with unwashed hands (usually such touches are unconsciously performed by us on average 15 times per hour).

Carry a hand sanitizer with you so that you can clean your hands in any environment.

Always wash your hands before eating.

Be especially careful when in crowded places, airports, and other public transportation systems. As much as possible, touch the surfaces and objects located in such places and do not touch your face.

Carry disposable wipes with you and always cover your nose and mouth when you cough or sneeze, and be sure to dispose of them after use.

Do not eat food (nuts, chips, cookies and other snacks) from common packages or utensils if other people dipped their fingers in them.

Avoid complimentary handshakes and kisses on the cheek until the epidemiological situation has stabilized.

At work, regularly clean surfaces and devices that you touch (computer keyboard, general office equipment panels, smartphone screen, remotes, door handles and handrails).

How to wear a medical mask?

  1. Gently cover the nose and mouth with the mask and secure it to reduce the gap between the face and the mask.
  2. Do not touch the mask during use. After touching a used mask, for example, wash your hands to remove it.
  3. After the mask becomes wet or dirty, put on a new clean and dry mask.
  4. Do not reuse disposable masks. They should be discarded after each use and disposed of immediately after removal.

What can be done at home?

Tell your children about coronavirus prevention.

Explain to the children how microbes spread and why good hand and face hygiene is important.

Make sure everyone in the family has their own towel; remind you not to share toothbrushes and other personal hygiene items.

Ventilate the room frequently.

Can a new coronavirus be cured?

Yes, sure. However, there is no specific antiviral drug for the new coronavirus – just as there is no specific treatment for most other respiratory viruses that cause colds.

Viral pneumonia, the main and most dangerous complication of coronavirus infection, cannot be treated with antibiotics. In the case of pneumonia, treatment is aimed at maintaining lung function.

Who is at risk?

People of all ages run the risk of contracting the virus. The Wuhan Health Commission said in a statement that the age of the 60 most recent cases is between 15 and 88 years old.

However, as with most other viral respiratory diseases, children and people over 65 years of age, people with a weakened immune system are at risk of a severe course of the disease.

Is there a vaccine for the new coronavirus?

Currently, there is no such vaccine, however, in a number of countries, including Russia, research organizations of Rospotrebnadzor have already begun its development.

What is the difference between coronavirus and influenza virus?

Coronavirus and influenza virus may have similar symptoms, but genetically they are completely different.

Influenza viruses multiply very quickly – symptoms appear two to three days after infection, and the coronavirus takes up to 14 days to do this.

How to determine the presence of coronavirus?

Timely diagnosis is one of the most important measures in the event of a threat of the emergence and spread of a new coronavirus in Russia. The Rospotrebnadzor scientific organizations in less than 7 days from the moment the information on the gene structure of the new coronavirus appeared, developed two variants of diagnostic kits for determining the presence of the virus in the human body. The kits are based on the molecular genetic research method, the so-called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using this method gives test systems significant advantages. The first is high sensitivity – using developed test systems it is possible to detect single copies of viruses. The second – to diagnose the disease, there is no need to take blood, it is enough to take a sample from a nasopharynx with a cotton swab. Third, the analysis result can be obtained in 2-4 hours. Diagnostic laboratories of Rospotrebnadzor throughout Russia have the necessary equipment and specialists for using the developed diagnostic tools.

rospotreb-koronavirus.png

Recommendations for tourists traveling abroad

World Health Organization recommendations for protection against new coronavirus infection

Influenza and Coronavirus Prevention Memo

RULE 1. WASH HANDS WITH SOAP

Clean and disinfect surfaces using household detergents.

Hand hygiene is an important measure to prevent the spread of influenza and coronavirus infection. Washing with soap removes viruses. If it is not possible to wash your hands with soap, use alcohol-containing or disinfecting wipes.

Cleaning and regular disinfection of surfaces (tables, door handles, chairs, gadgets, etc.) removes viruses.

RULE 2. FOLLOW DISTANCE AND DECAL

Viruses are transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person by airborne droplets (by sneezing, coughing), so a distance of at least 1 meter from patients should be observed.

Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. Influenza virus and coronavirus spread through these pathways.

Wear a mask or use other improvised protective equipment to reduce the risk of illness.

When coughing, sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with disposable wipes, which should be discarded after use.

Avoiding unnecessary trips and visiting crowded places can reduce the risk of illness.

RULE 3. LEAD A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

A healthy lifestyle increases the body’s resistance to infection. Follow a healthy regimen, including proper sleep, consumption of foods rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals, and physical activity.

RULE 4. PROTECT RESPIRATORY BODIES WITH THE MEDICAL MASK

Among other means of prevention, wearing masks occupies a special place, thanks to which the spread of the virus is limited.

Medical masks for respiratory protection use:

– when visiting crowded places, traveling by public transport during the period of increasing incidence of acute respiratory viral infections;

– when caring for patients with acute respiratory viral infections;

– when communicating with persons with signs of acute respiratory viral infection;

– with the risks of infection by other infections transmitted by airborne droplets.

HOW TO CARE THE MASK CORRECTLY?

Masks can have a different design. They can be disposable or can be used repeatedly. There are masks that serve 2, 4, 6 hours. The cost of these masks is different, due to different impregnation. But you can’t wear the same mask all the time, so you can infect yourself twice. Which side inward to wear a medical mask is unprincipled.

To protect yourself from infection, it is extremely important to wear it correctly:

– the mask should be carefully fixed, tightly close the mouth and nose, without leaving gaps;

– try not to touch the surfaces of the mask when removing it, if you touch it, wash your hands thoroughly with soap or alcohol;

– wet or damp mask should be replaced with a new, dry;

– do not use a disposable mask a second time;

– The used disposable mask should be discarded immediately.

When caring for the patient, after the end of contact with the sick person, the mask should be removed immediately. After removing the mask, wash your hands immediately and thoroughly.

The mask is appropriate if you are in a place of crowded people, in public transport, and also when caring for the sick, but it is not practical in the open air.

During your stay on the street, it is useful to breathe fresh air and you should not wear a mask.

However, doctors recall that this single measure does not provide complete protection against the disease. In addition to wearing a mask, other preventive measures must be observed.

RULE 5. WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF INFLUENCE OF INFLUENZA, CORONAVIRAL INFECTION?

Stay at home and see a doctor immediately.

Follow your doctor’s instructions, observe bed rest, and drink as much fluid as possible.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF INFLUENZA / CORONAVIRAL INFECTION? High body temperature, chills, headache, weakness, nasal congestion, cough, shortness of breath, muscle pain, conjunctivitis.

In some cases, there may be symptoms of a gastrointestinal upset: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.

WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS

Among the complications, viral pneumonia is leading. Deterioration in viral pneumonia is proceeding rapidly, and many patients have already developed respiratory failure within 24 hours, requiring immediate respiratory support with mechanical ventilation.

Quickly started treatment helps alleviate the severity of the disease.

WHAT TO DO IF IN THE FAMILY SOMEONE SICKED IN INFLUENZA /

CORONAVIRAL INFECTION

Call a doctor.

Allow the patient a separate room in the house. If this is not possible, observe a distance of at least 1 meter from the patient.

Minimize contact between the patient and loved ones, especially children, the elderly and those with chronic conditions.

Ventilate the room frequently.

Keep clean, wash and disinfect surfaces with household detergents as often as possible.

Wash your hands often with soap.

When caring for a patient, cover your mouth and nose with a mask or other protective equipment (scarf, scarf, etc.).

Only one family member should look after the patient.

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New compounds can help stop the spread of coronavirus

In the midst of the global coronavirus (COVID-19) health crisis, scientists around the world are rushing to find a treatment to stop the deadly virus. The sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to 46 countries, infecting over 82,000 and killing over 2,800 people.

However, there is hope that a team of researchers has designed compounds that can block replication of similar coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, which causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

Although the compounds have shown promising results in the laboratory, human testing has not yet begun.

Coronaviruses, which include the MERS and SARS pathogens, are characterized by a garland of mantle proteins that can be seen on microscopic images. / Photo: CDC / Fred Murphy

Coronaviruses, which include the MERS and SARS pathogens, are characterized by a crown of coat proteins that can be seen under a microscope. / Photo: CDC / Fred Murphy

Share similar properties

Wuhan’s coronavirus, officially called SARS-CoV-2, is a close cousin of the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-1) that caused the SARS epidemic in 2002-2003 and the respiratory disease virus of the Middle East (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012.

All of these diseases cause similar symptoms, including flu-like symptoms and pneumonia-like diseases. Commonly, diseases cause fever, dry cough and shortness of breath, which then gradually worsens and can lead to breathing difficulties. However, until now, there are no effective treatments developed to fight viruses.

Mainly, given that in the past there have been a limited number of cases, it has not justified significant investments by pharmaceutical companies. Now, with the emergence of the new coronavirus outbreak and its rapid advancement to the pandemic state, treatment is needed.

In a new study published in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry of ACS, a team of researchers has proposed a new way to target and kill coronaviruses. Research compounds can also hinder the spread of other viruses, such as enteroviruses, which cause common colds, summer flu and foot and mouth disease.

All these pathogens share a similar protein-cutting enzyme, nicknamed the main protease in coronaviruses and 3C protease in enteroviruses, which are crucial for viral replication.

“The main protease of coronaviruses and protease 3C of enteroviruses share a similar architecture of the active site and a unique requirement for glutamine in the P1 position of the substrate. Due to their unique specificity and essential role in viral processing of the polypotein, these proteases are suitable targets for the development of antiviral drugs, “wrote the researchers on the document.

A versatile inhibitor

To test their theory, researchers studied the X-ray crystal structures of proteases. They created a series of ketamide compounds that they thought could fit perfectly into the active site of the enzyme. In this way, it will interfere with their function.

In the laboratory, the team tested the molecules in test tubes and human cells. During the experiment, they found a versatile inhibitor, which can block multiple enteroviruses and coronaviruses, including the one that caused the SARS epidemic in 2003.

About six crystalline structures of protease inhibitor complexes have been identified, which have been tested against recombinant proteases, viral replicons and virus-infected cell cultures. Another molecule has shown potent activity against MERS-CoV and moderate activity against other viruses.

Researchers suggest that since MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 are similar when it comes to their structures and mechanisms of infection, inhibitors will most likely show good antiviral activity against the dreaded new coronavirus that is being spreading quickly all over the world.

The team plans to conduct animal studies to develop a possible and promising antiviral drug to stem the Wuhan coronavirus epidemic and future coronavirus attacks.

The global coronavirus crisis

The new coronavirus, now officially called coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has spread rapidly to 46 countries. Every day, new countries report their first cases of deadly virus, prompting governments to impose travel restrictions in an attempt to contain the virus.

Coronavirus causes respiratory distress in the worst cases. Although the virus mortality rate is 2.3 percent to 3.4 percent, there are now a total of 2,801 deaths, most of which came from the province of Hubei in China, the epicenter of the epidemic.

Although the virus has spread to all continents, the WHO has not yet classified it as a pandemic.

Journal reference:

α-ketoamides as broad spectrum inhibitors of Coronavirus and Enterovirus replication: structure-based design, synthesis and evaluation of activities, Linlin Zhang, Daizong Lin, Yuri Kusov, Yong Nian, Qingjun Ma, Jiang Wang, Albrecht von Brunn, Pieter Leyssen, Kristina Lanko, Johan Neyts, Adriaan de Wilde, Eric J. Snijder, Hong Liu, Rolf Hilgenfeld, J. Med. Chem. 2020, https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01828

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The wearable adhesive patch sensor accurately predicted worsening heart failure

Wearing a removable adhesive patch sensor accurately predicted worsening heart failure and the need for hospitalization several days before heart failure hospitalization occurred among veterans with heart failure, according to research published today in the journal of the ‘American Heart Association Circulation: heart failure.

Participants in the LINK-HF multicenter study consisted of one hundred heart failure (HF) patients who were veterans, mean age 68 years, enrolled in four Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals – in Salt Lake City; Palo Alto, California; Houston and Gainesville, Florida – after an initial hospitalization for acute heart failure in the hospital. Participants wore an adhesive sensor patch on the chest 24 hours a day for a minimum of 30 days and up to three months after initial hospital discharge for a heart failure event. Of the eligible participants, 90% continued to wear the sensor for 30 days and 90 days; the data were collected from August 2015 to December 2016.

The sensor monitored heart rate, heart rate, respiratory rate and physical activities such as walking, sleep and body posture for each participant. The data was transmitted by the sensor via Bluetooth to a smartphone and then uploaded from the smartphone to an analysis platform on a secure server. A machine learning algorithm, a type of artificial intelligence approach to data analysis, established a normal baseline for each patient and then examined the incoming data. When the observed data deviated from the expected “basal normal” behavior, the algorithm generated a warning to indicate that the patient’s heart failure was worsening. The technology has accurately predicted the risk of hospitalization more than 80% of the time. This hospitalization forecast occurred on average 6.5 days before readmission.

“With the use of remote data from the sensor and through data analysis through machine learning, we have shown that we can predict the future. Next, we will see if we can change the future,” said lead author of the Josef study. Stehlik, MD, MPH, Christi T. Smith Professor of Medicine at the University of Utah School of Medicine, medical director of the Heart Transplant Program and co-director of the Advance Heart Failure Program at the University of Utah Hospital and Salt Veterans Affairs Lake City Medical Center.

Heart failure (HF) is a serious public health concern – it has an impact on approximately 6.2 million adults in the United States and is the no. 1 in the United States. The costs of heart failure-related healthcare were estimated at $ 30.7 billion in 2012 and are expected to reach $ 53 billion by 2030. About 80% of these costs are earmarked for hospitalization according to a study. cited by researchers and published in 2011. In the first 90 days after discharge from the hospital for heart failure, patients are at the top, up to 30%, risk of readmission. Given this significantly increased risk of HF worsening after hospitalization, researchers focused on testing a non-invasive solution to improve HF management during this critical period of time.

In chronic heart failure, a person’s condition can worsen with shortness of breath, fatigue and fluid build-up, to the point that many end up in the emergency room and spend days in the hospital to recover. If we are able to identify patients before heart failure worsens and if doctors have the opportunity to change therapy based on this new prediction, we could avoid or reduce hospitalizations, improve patients’ lives and significantly reduce health care costs. With the evolution of technology and statistical methods of artificial intelligence, we have new tools to make this happen. “

Josef Stehlik, lead author of the study

Study limits included:

  • The study participants were 98% male, so it is unknown if these results would be consistent in females;
  • Most of the participants had HFrEF (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction), therefore further studies are needed in patients with HFpEF (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction); is
  • Further research is needed to determine whether alarm-based treatment changes could lead to better patient outcomes.

In a future study, researchers will test the change in patient treatment based on the alert generated by the algorithm. “We hope that with this information, we can intervene and reduce the hospitalization rate, improve the quality of life and, for patients who end up being hospitalized, reduce the length of stay”, concluded Stehlik.

Source:

American Heart Association

Journal reference:

Stehlik, J., et al. (2020) Continuous wearable monitoring analyzes predict hospitalization for heart failure. Circulation: heart failure. doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006513.

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Scientists join forces to fight the coronavirus epidemic

Amid the coronavirus epidemic (COVID-19), scientists from around the world rush to fight the deadly virus. Now, a team of Harvard scientists has joined forces with Chinese experts to develop new therapies and prevent further spread of the virus.

Since the coronavirus novel, now officially called COVID-19, emerged in late December, it has evolved into a global threat, negatively affecting nations and killing thousands. There are currently over 80,000 infected people worldwide, with 2,699 deaths, and has spread to over 30 countries.

Currently, health systems in the affected areas, particularly in mainland China, have been exhausted, with many health workers now infected. Economies around the world have been hit, with the Hubei province still in lockdown.

Collaborative work

To address these challenges, a team of scientists from Harvard University will work with Chinese colleagues to develop new therapies to prevent new infections. In addition, they plan to design treatments that reduce the effects of the deadly virus in the body.

The team will consist of health experts, scientists, clinical researchers and translation investigators from Harvard Medical School and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. They will collaborate with scientists from the Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health and with Zhong Nanshan, a well-known epidemiologist and pulmonologist who led the 2019n-CoV Chinese Task Force for experts.

Close-up on automatic multipipette tips over 96 wells. Image credit: Anyaivanova / Shutterstock

Close-up on automatic multipipette tips over 96 wells. Image credit: Anyaivanova / Shutterstock

The goal of the job

Although formal details are still being finalized, the main goal of the project is to better understand the basic biology of the pathogen and its infection mechanism.

Scientists plan to develop rapid and accurate diagnostic tests that are easily accessible for the countries concerned. In addition, they want to help develop new vaccines to prevent infection, particularly for vulnerable and high-risk populations, understand the role and response of the immune system, identify biomarkers that help monitor the course of infection and the progression of the infection. disease and predict the beginning of life- threatening complications.

The project also aims to develop antiviral therapies to reduce the duration of infection and alleviate symptoms in affected patients. Finally, the team wants to formulate new therapies for people with serious diseases, especially high-risk people, including the elderly and those with basic health conditions.

The project has $ 115 million in research funding provided by the China Evergrande Group, a Fortune Global 500 company in China.

“We are confident that the collaboration of Harvard and Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health will provide valuable discoveries to this effort worldwide. We are grateful for Evergrande’s leadership and generosity in facilitating this collaboration and for all the scientists and clinicians who are approaching. to the call to action to combat this emerging threat to global well-being, “said Lawrence Bacow, president of Harvard University.

Meanwhile, Zhong expressed his gratitude for funding the research.

“We are extremely encouraged by Evergrande’s generous gesture to coordinate and support the collaboration and the extraordinarily positive response from our Harvard colleagues,” said Zhong. It was he who identified the acute acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, a pathogen that caused nearly 1,000 deaths.

“We look forward to leveraging each of our respective strengths to meet immediate and long-term challenges and fruitful collaboration to advance the global well-being of all people,” added Zhong.

Coronavirus by numbers

More than 30 countries have already reported coronavirus outbreak cases, with South Korea reporting the largest number of cases outside mainland China, with 893 cases, followed by Italy with 229 cases and Japan with 160 cases. . The United States has seen a sharp increase in confirmed cases from 35 to 53 in 24 hours.

At the time of writing, there are 80,147 confirmed coronavirus cases, with 2,699 deaths, most of which occurred in mainland China.

sources:

Harvard Medical School (2020). Coping with Coronavirus. https://hms.harvard.edu/news/tackling-coronavirus

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Coronavirus could have leaked from China’s highest biosecurity laboratory alongside the market

Coronavirus may have emerged from a Wuhan laboratory leak, which studies deadly pathogens such as the SARS virus, scientists suggest.

Health officials believe the severe acute coronavirus 2 respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), originates from wild animals sold in the Huanan seafood wholesale market in Wuhan city. , which is home to 11 million residents.

Now, a team of scientists from the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the University of Southern China and the Chinese Institute for Brain Research has written in an article published on ChinaXiv, on an alternative source of coronavirus that is currently spreading around the world.

Scientists say they have found genomic evidence that the fish market is not the true source of the epidemic. Instead, they point to the source of the viral epidemic towards a laboratory that studies powerful viruses.

The Wuhan Virology Institute, located a few meters from the fish market, researches some of the world’s most dangerous pathogens. It is the first Chinese biosafety level 4 laboratory, the highest level of safety needed to isolate hazardous biological agents in a closed facility.

Image Credit: Connect World / Shutterstock

Image Credit: Connect World / Shutterstock

The spread of the virus

Scientists at the study speculated that the virus outbreak started before December 2019, probably starting in late November. In addition, the fast-paced fish market may have facilitated the transmission of the virus to buyers and from buyers to residents across the city.

In the study, the researchers collected whole-genome information from 93 new coronavirus samples shared on GISAID EpiFlu, which is an international database that stores information about the flu virus. The team has studied the evolution and human-to-human transmission of coronavirus in the past two months.

The samples were taken from 12 countries, where 54 came from China before January 22nd and the other 39 samples came from France, Australia, Japan and the United States after January 22nd.

The team also found that while the virus had spread to the Wuhan fish market, there had also been two major population expansions, dated December 8 and January 6. In addition, scientists believe that the virus originated outside the market, but the crowded market had favored coronavirus circulation, spreading it across the city by December 2019.

The first case showing symptoms emerged on 8 December and most of the following cases were linked to the fish market. On January 1, the seafood market was closed, but the virus had already spread to the city, suggesting that the epidemic started through human-to-human transmission by the end of November.

Notice about new virus

“The study of whether the huanan market is the only birthplace of SARS-CoV-2 is of great significance for finding its source and determining the intermediate host to control the epidemic and prevent it from spreading again,” the researchers said.

The researchers also said that while at the start of the epidemic in Hubei province and surrounding areas, the Chinese National Center for Disease Control and Prevention issued a level 2 emergency notice on the new outbreak on January 6, the information was not widely shared. The team said that if the warning had received more attention, the number of cases in China and around the world would have been reduced.

The government blocked the city of Wuhan on January 23, a few weeks after the outbreak was reported. Before the inhabitants were prevented from leaving the city in fear of spreading the virus, millions have already left.

The Wuhan Institute of Virology, which is the only laboratory in China that is equipped to study with these deadly infectious diseases, issued a statement stating that the rumors had caused serious harm to the laboratory’s researchers.

The origin of the new coronavirus is still unknown, but scientists and the World Health Organization (WHO) have claimed that it is most likely a tank of animals.

Coronavirus by numbers

Coronavirus (COVID-19) has already spread to 30 countries, with South Korea reporting the highest number of infections after China. At the time of writing, there are 763 people in South Korea who test positive for the deadly virus.

Coronavirus infected nearly 80,000 people, most of them in mainland China, and the death toll reached 2,670, which is more than double the number of SARS-related deaths in 2003.

Countries around the world, especially those that fear the rapid spread of the virus, have imposed travel bans from countries that have confirmed coronavirus cases. In the meantime, Italy also reported a peak in cases, with 155 people tested positive while three patients succumbed to the disease.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that no new countries have reported confirmed cases in the past 24 hours.

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