PREVENTION OF CORONAVIRUS
What are coronaviruses?
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that predominantly infect animals, but in some cases can be transmitted to humans. Usually, diseases caused by coronaviruses proceed in a mild form, without causing severe symptoms. However, there are severe forms, such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (Mers) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (Sars).
What are the symptoms of a disease caused by a new coronavirus?
Cough and / or sore throat
Symptoms are in many ways similar to many respiratory diseases, often mimic the common cold, and may be like the flu.
If you have similar symptoms, consider the following:
Have you been to high-risk areas (China and surrounding regions) in the past two weeks?
Have you been in touch with someone who has been visiting high-risk areas (China and surrounding regions) in the past two weeks?
If the answer to these questions is positive, the symptoms should be treated as carefully as possible.
How is coronavirus transmitted?
Like other respiratory viruses, coronavirus spreads through drops that form when an infected person coughs or sneezes. In addition, it can spread when someone touches any contaminated surface, such as a door handle. People become infected when they touch their mouth, nose, or eyes with soiled hands.
Initially, the outbreak came from animals, presumably, the source was the seafood market in Wuhan, where there was an active trade not only in fish, but also in animals such as marmots, snakes and bats.
How to protect yourself from coronavirus infection?
The most important thing you can do to protect yourself is to keep your hands and surfaces clean.
Keep your hands clean, wash them often with soap and water, or use a disinfectant.
Also try not to touch your mouth, nose or eyes with unwashed hands (usually such touches are unconsciously performed by us on average 15 times per hour).
Carry a hand sanitizer with you so that you can clean your hands in any environment.
Always wash your hands before eating.
Be especially careful when in crowded places, airports, and other public transportation systems. As much as possible, touch the surfaces and objects located in such places and do not touch your face.
Carry disposable wipes with you and always cover your nose and mouth when you cough or sneeze, and be sure to dispose of them after use.
Do not eat food (nuts, chips, cookies and other snacks) from common packages or utensils if other people dipped their fingers in them.
Avoid complimentary handshakes and kisses on the cheek until the epidemiological situation has stabilized.
At work, regularly clean surfaces and devices that you touch (computer keyboard, general office equipment panels, smartphone screen, remotes, door handles and handrails).
How to wear a medical mask?
- Gently cover the nose and mouth with the mask and secure it to reduce the gap between the face and the mask.
- Do not touch the mask during use. After touching a used mask, for example, wash your hands to remove it.
- After the mask becomes wet or dirty, put on a new clean and dry mask.
- Do not reuse disposable masks. They should be discarded after each use and disposed of immediately after removal.
What can be done at home?
Tell your children about coronavirus prevention.
Explain to the children how microbes spread and why good hand and face hygiene is important.
Make sure everyone in the family has their own towel; remind you not to share toothbrushes and other personal hygiene items.
Ventilate the room frequently.
Can a new coronavirus be cured?
Yes, sure. However, there is no specific antiviral drug for the new coronavirus – just as there is no specific treatment for most other respiratory viruses that cause colds.
Viral pneumonia, the main and most dangerous complication of coronavirus infection, cannot be treated with antibiotics. In the case of pneumonia, treatment is aimed at maintaining lung function.
Who is at risk?
People of all ages run the risk of contracting the virus. The Wuhan Health Commission said in a statement that the age of the 60 most recent cases is between 15 and 88 years old.
However, as with most other viral respiratory diseases, children and people over 65 years of age, people with a weakened immune system are at risk of a severe course of the disease.
Is there a vaccine for the new coronavirus?
Currently, there is no such vaccine, however, in a number of countries, including Russia, research organizations of Rospotrebnadzor have already begun its development.
What is the difference between coronavirus and influenza virus?
Coronavirus and influenza virus may have similar symptoms, but genetically they are completely different.
Influenza viruses multiply very quickly – symptoms appear two to three days after infection, and the coronavirus takes up to 14 days to do this.
How to determine the presence of coronavirus?
Timely diagnosis is one of the most important measures in the event of a threat of the emergence and spread of a new coronavirus in Russia. The Rospotrebnadzor scientific organizations in less than 7 days from the moment the information on the gene structure of the new coronavirus appeared, developed two variants of diagnostic kits for determining the presence of the virus in the human body. The kits are based on the molecular genetic research method, the so-called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using this method gives test systems significant advantages. The first is high sensitivity – using developed test systems it is possible to detect single copies of viruses. The second – to diagnose the disease, there is no need to take blood, it is enough to take a sample from a nasopharynx with a cotton swab. Third, the analysis result can be obtained in 2-4 hours. Diagnostic laboratories of Rospotrebnadzor throughout Russia have the necessary equipment and specialists for using the developed diagnostic tools.
Recommendations for tourists traveling abroad
World Health Organization recommendations for protection against new coronavirus infection
Influenza and Coronavirus Prevention Memo
RULE 1. WASH HANDS WITH SOAP
Clean and disinfect surfaces using household detergents.
Hand hygiene is an important measure to prevent the spread of influenza and coronavirus infection. Washing with soap removes viruses. If it is not possible to wash your hands with soap, use alcohol-containing or disinfecting wipes.
Cleaning and regular disinfection of surfaces (tables, door handles, chairs, gadgets, etc.) removes viruses.
RULE 2. FOLLOW DISTANCE AND DECAL
Viruses are transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person by airborne droplets (by sneezing, coughing), so a distance of at least 1 meter from patients should be observed.
Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. Influenza virus and coronavirus spread through these pathways.
Wear a mask or use other improvised protective equipment to reduce the risk of illness.
When coughing, sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with disposable wipes, which should be discarded after use.
Avoiding unnecessary trips and visiting crowded places can reduce the risk of illness.
RULE 3. LEAD A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE
A healthy lifestyle increases the body’s resistance to infection. Follow a healthy regimen, including proper sleep, consumption of foods rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals, and physical activity.
RULE 4. PROTECT RESPIRATORY BODIES WITH THE MEDICAL MASK
Among other means of prevention, wearing masks occupies a special place, thanks to which the spread of the virus is limited.
Medical masks for respiratory protection use:
– when visiting crowded places, traveling by public transport during the period of increasing incidence of acute respiratory viral infections;
– when caring for patients with acute respiratory viral infections;
– when communicating with persons with signs of acute respiratory viral infection;
– with the risks of infection by other infections transmitted by airborne droplets.
HOW TO CARE THE MASK CORRECTLY?
Masks can have a different design. They can be disposable or can be used repeatedly. There are masks that serve 2, 4, 6 hours. The cost of these masks is different, due to different impregnation. But you can’t wear the same mask all the time, so you can infect yourself twice. Which side inward to wear a medical mask is unprincipled.
To protect yourself from infection, it is extremely important to wear it correctly:
– the mask should be carefully fixed, tightly close the mouth and nose, without leaving gaps;
– try not to touch the surfaces of the mask when removing it, if you touch it, wash your hands thoroughly with soap or alcohol;
– wet or damp mask should be replaced with a new, dry;
– do not use a disposable mask a second time;
– The used disposable mask should be discarded immediately.
When caring for the patient, after the end of contact with the sick person, the mask should be removed immediately. After removing the mask, wash your hands immediately and thoroughly.
The mask is appropriate if you are in a place of crowded people, in public transport, and also when caring for the sick, but it is not practical in the open air.
During your stay on the street, it is useful to breathe fresh air and you should not wear a mask.
However, doctors recall that this single measure does not provide complete protection against the disease. In addition to wearing a mask, other preventive measures must be observed.
RULE 5. WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF INFLUENCE OF INFLUENZA, CORONAVIRAL INFECTION?
Stay at home and see a doctor immediately.
Follow your doctor’s instructions, observe bed rest, and drink as much fluid as possible.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF INFLUENZA / CORONAVIRAL INFECTION? High body temperature, chills, headache, weakness, nasal congestion, cough, shortness of breath, muscle pain, conjunctivitis.
In some cases, there may be symptoms of a gastrointestinal upset: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS
Among the complications, viral pneumonia is leading. Deterioration in viral pneumonia is proceeding rapidly, and many patients have already developed respiratory failure within 24 hours, requiring immediate respiratory support with mechanical ventilation.
Quickly started treatment helps alleviate the severity of the disease.
WHAT TO DO IF IN THE FAMILY SOMEONE SICKED IN INFLUENZA /
Call a doctor.
Allow the patient a separate room in the house. If this is not possible, observe a distance of at least 1 meter from the patient.
Minimize contact between the patient and loved ones, especially children, the elderly and those with chronic conditions.
Ventilate the room frequently.
Keep clean, wash and disinfect surfaces with household detergents as often as possible.
Wash your hands often with soap.
When caring for a patient, cover your mouth and nose with a mask or other protective equipment (scarf, scarf, etc.).
Only one family member should look after the patient.