Scientists have found a cure for coronavirus

MOSCOW, May 14 – RIA Novosti. The antiviral drug ribavirin, which is used against hepatitis and other infections, can be an effective medicine for coronavirus, scientists from Goethe University and staff at Frankfurt University Hospital say. The study is published in the journal Nature.

Specialists have found that COVID-19 alters human cells. They used one of the varieties of mePROD mass spectrometry to determine how fast and how much protein is synthesized in colon cells.

Many viruses stop the production of infected proteins in favor of viral proteins, however, it turned out that coronavirus slightly affects the production of protein, while accelerating its synthesis.

To slow the spread of the virus, scientists used translation inhibitors that inhibit the process of protein synthesis, which involves messenger RNA, transport RNA, and ribosomes.

Among the substances that stop the reproduction of the virus in cell culture was 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), as well as ribavirin.

In total, according to the World Health Organization, SARS-CoV-2 infected 4.2 million people, more than 287 thousand of them died.

In Russia, the number of people infected with coronavirus exceeded 252 thousand people, 53 thousand patients recovered, 2,305 people died.

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Putin announced yet another coronavirus-infected minister

Russian President Vladimir Putin said that the Minister of Science and Higher Education Valery Falkov had the coronavirus. The head of state said this at a meeting on genetic technologies, which was broadcast on the Youtube channel RT.

According to the president, at present all cabinet members who have transferred COVID-19 are “recovering and practically getting to work.”

Falkov through video communication confirmed that he had recovered and had already joined the work.

Earlier it was reported that the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Mikhail Mishustin, the Minister of Construction Vladimir Yakushev and the head of the Ministry of Culture Olga Lyubimova, who had a mild illness, were infected with the coronavirus.

Read also: Putin announced a change in the situation with coronavirus in Russia

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Scientists have found a cheap cure for heartburn: reduce mortality from coronavirus

But it takes several months for research, experts warn

According to a recent study published by Yale University, the medical journal BMJ and the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, medrxiv.org, a preprint of a study article, patients who took the usual medicine for heartburn after being hospitalized with coronavirus had more than twice as likely to survive the infection. At the same time, it is not yet clear whether patients felt better due to famotidine or whether it was just a coincidence.

“Based on what we learned from this study, this is encouraging,” said one of the authors of the publication and the doctor of the non-profit medical network Northwell Health (New York), Dr. Joseph Conigliaro.

The drug in question has been on the market for almost 40 years and is an active ingredient in the popular over-the-counter anti-heartburn drug.

Among the 1536 patients in the study who did not take famotidine, 332 (22%) either died or were intubated and placed on a ventilator. Among 84 patients taking famotidine, 8 people (10%) died or were placed on a ventilator.

“Compared with other patients, those receiving famotidine had a 2-fold lower risk of death or intubation,” the authors of a study at the Columbia University Medical Center in Irving said in a statement.

Patients taking famotidine began taking the drug within 24 hours after admission to the hospital. Some took it inside, and some intravenously, in different dosages. About 15% of them took it already at home.

This study does not prove that the drug led to a lower mortality rate – perhaps this is just a coincidence, says CNN.

“It is not clear why those patients who received famotidine had improved results,” the authors write in their article. “This is just an association, and these results should not be interpreted as meaning that famotidine improves outcomes in patients hospitalized with Covid-19.”

According to Dr. Conigliaro, he knows that now doctors can begin to administer famotidine to their patients with coronavirus, even before the results of a clinical trial become known. But, for his part, he does not recommend doing this: “I think that doctors should expect more data from the alleged tests.”

The specialist added that there is no evidence that famotidine prevents infection, and he is worried that people who do not have Covid-19 may start taking this drug: “Taking famotidine may give them a false sense of security.”

Only a clinical study in which patients are randomly assigned to receive famotidine or a placebo, and then a study is carried out, can determine whether the drug actually works against coronavirus.

Clinical trials are currently underway in the United States, in which some patients receive intravenous famotidine at a dosage nine times the dose given for heartburn. Others receive a placebo or dummy drug. And preliminary results will be announced in a few months.

Doctors at Northwell Health decided to study famotidine for two reasons, reports CNN.

First, a study using computer modeling showed that the mechanism of action of famotidine in the fight against the same heartburn can help against coronavirus.

Second, Dr. Michael Callahan, a specialist in infectious diseases at the Massachusetts General Hospital, who has been working with coronavirus patients in China, has noticed that patients with low-income heartburn demonstrate greater survival than their wealthier colleagues who also suffer from heartburn.

When Dr. Callahan and the Chinese doctors took a closer look, they found that many people with lower incomes took cheaper famotidine, while wealthier patients usually took more expensive medicine.

“The poor peasants seem to have really succeeded in using famotidine,” says President of the Institute for Medical Research. Feinstein at Northwell Health Dr. Kevin Tracy. “There are many cases that give us hope.”

However, researchers are not tired of emphasizing that only a clinical study can determine exactly whether the drug is effective against the virus.

But if it is proven that famotidine actually works against coronavirus, it will be easy to use on a large scale: it is a lot and this medicine is inexpensive.

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Supercomputer found 4 drugs for COVID-19

Scientists have announced the effectiveness of drugs against hepatitis C against coronavirus

German experts analyzed the effectiveness of antiviral drugs in the fight against a new type of coronavirus infection using the MOGON II supercomputer. The device performed 30 billion single calculations with 42,000 different medical substances described in open sources of information and databases.

“This method of computer simulation is known as molecular docking, and it has been used in science for many years,” the report says scientists from Germany.

Based on studies that lasted about two months, the supercomputer detected hepatitis C drugs that have the ability to bind and neutralize SARS-CoV-2 particles. These included four drugs: simeprevir, paritaprevir, grazoprevir, and also velpatasvir.

When checking computer calculations, scientists drew attention to the fact that SARS-CoV-2 and the causative agent of hepatitis C can be attributed to single-stranded RNA viruses. According to research participant Professor Thomas Effert, the results of scientific work must be confirmed by laboratory experiments and clinical trials.

Read the material: “An abnormal pathology was found in infected COVID-19”

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Biologists have found two drugs against coronavirus among existing ones

Scientists at the Pasteur Institute of Korea have discovered two potentially effective drugs for treating coronavirus.

Researchers took 48 drugs from among those already approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for other purposes. The fact is that the use of drugs already approved by the FDA allows you to quickly put them into operation.

According to scientists, it is the repositioning of drugs that is the only possible option to immediately solve the global problem of COVID-19, according to Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, the journal of the American Society of Microbiology.

The experiments were conducted on a standard model cell line isolated from African green monkey kidney cells, which are commonly used to grow viruses for vaccine production.

All 48 drugs were screened for the possibility of treating coronavirus infection. Of these, 24 potential candidate antiviral drugs against ARVI-2 infection were identified, but most showed very low micromolar IC50s.

As a result of the study, two drugs were identified that effectively affect the Covid-19 virus – niclosamide and cyclesonide.

Niclosamide is an anthelmintic (anthelmintic) agent, the antiviral activity of which has been noted in relation to the SARS and MERS viruses. But it has a significant drawback – low absorption, which reduces the strength of the drug, while increasing the dosage increases the toxicity of the drug. Scientists conclude that niclosamide can be used if a method is found for delivering the drug directly to target cells.

Cyclesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid, it is used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis, can be used as a weapon against viral protein and an effective anti-inflammatory agent.

“Anti-inflammatory activity can play a decisive role in attenuating the so-called cytokine storm, an excessive immune inflammatory response that often causes the death of patients with Covid-19,” the scientists said. How to modify this tool in order to purposefully use it against Covid-19 is the next task for researchers.

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Doctors compared mortality of COVID and other infections

On the page of the doctor and TV presenter Alexander Myasnikov interesting information about the situation with infectious diseases in the world was published on the social network. And in particular that rotavirus infection causes hundreds of thousands of deaths per year in the world. Is the familiar and familiar rotavirus more dangerous than the coronavirus? “KP»Understands together with the immunologist, expert in public health and international health care, candidate of medical sciences Nikolay Kryuchkov.

– Of course, in addition to COVID-19, there are many other dangerous diseases in the world and these are not necessarily infectious diseases. Let me remind you that mortality from cardiovascular diseases is in the first place, also high mortality is associated with oncological diseases, in particular, lung cancer, and, of course, infectious diseases are also often the cause of death. However, the threat of rotavirus infection today is greatly exaggerated, said Nikolai Kryuchkov.

How many people die from rotavirus?

According to pessimistic estimates provided by the World Health Organization, around the world in 2013, 215 thousand children under the age of five died from rotavirus infection. According to other data obtained in international studies, this is 122 thousand deaths in 2013.

– The situation since 2013 in terms of mortality from rotavirus infection has not changed much. I think here we can talk about 200 thousand deaths per year among children under five years of age. Half of the world’s deaths occur in five countries: India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Angola and Congo– emphasizes the immunologist Nikolai Kryuchkov. – In the media you can often find information that up to a third of deaths of children under five are caused by rotavirus. This is not true! The fact is that among all deaths of children under five years of age in the world, mortality from diarrhea accounts for about 8%, but among these 8% of deaths from diarrhea – from 25% to 30% are attributable to rotavirus. That is, it turns out about 200 thousand deaths of children under five years of age per year in the world, while more than 6 million children under five die in the world per year.

On the page of the doctor and TV presenter Alexander Myasnikov on the social network, interesting information was published on the situation with infectious diseasesPhoto: Ivan PROKHOROV

Is rotavirus disease relevant for Russia?

If you consider Europeyy region to which Russia, then the figures for mortality from diarrhea are lower than in developing countries. Mortality from diarrhea among children under five in Europe is 4% – 5% of all childhood deaths. About a quarter of them are rotavirus.

In Russia, according to WHO estimates, in 2013, 52 children under the age of five died from rotavirus infection, which is 0.3% of all other deaths of children under five years of age. Rotavirus infection is not the most common cause of death among children, and even more so among adults (the latter rarely die from rotavirus, so all statistics are data on the death of children – approx. Ed.).

– Rotavirus is a problem primarily in poor countries with a warm climate. For Russia, this is also a problem, but to a much lesser extent, ”said Nikolai Kryuchkov, a doctor. – It is important to emphasize that effective and safe rotavirus vaccines exist.

The incidence of rotavirus infection after the introduction of vaccination has decreased many times. In Russia, universal vaccination against rotavirus is not carried out, but, despite this, mortality is low, given that it is clear how to help such patients. The main thing here is replenishment of lost fluid and symptomatic therapy. Given these two factors — the availability of a vaccine and the development of affordable treatment — mortality from rotavirus is very low even among children from zero to five years old, not to mention adults. Among adults, these are isolated cases.

Who is worse: rotavirus or coronavirus?

According to epidemiologists, mortality (taking into account the number of deaths from the number of episodes of the disease) of rotavirus infection in the world is from 0.05% to 0.09%. This is comparable to mortality from seasonal flu. Yes, in the poorest countries it can reach up to 2%. However, in this case, only moderate to severe episodes are taken into account, and not all cases of rotavirus infection.

“With coronavirus infection, according to my most optimistic forecasts, the mortality rate in the world will be 2%,” says Nikolay Kryuchkov. – Let me remind you that now the mortality rate from COVID-19 in Russia is about 4%. AT Germany – 3.5%, and this is one of the best examples in Europe. Of course, a lot depends on how the data are kept and analyzed, but even though there are probably unaccounted cases, the mortality from coronavirus infection is much higher than the mortality from rotavirus. And the epidemic of coronavirus infection is still far from over.

“It is also important to understand that we are having a coronavirus pandemic, and the situation with rotavirus is under control.” The number of deaths from coronavirus is now growing, due to the fact that there is an increase in cases of infection. The daily increase in new cases of coronavirus infection in the world is more than 5%, and in Russia today it is more than 8%. Therefore, it is obvious that the situation with rotavirus is stable, and the coronavirus pandemic for us is not known how it will end. The coronavirus infection pandemic continues to grow, it is important to understand this, ”Nikolay Kryuchkov emphasized in a conversation with“ KP ”. – When we talk about the number of deaths from rotavirus, 200 thousand people a year around the world among children under five years of age are deaths that happened in a year! As we know, the coronavirus epidemic lasts about four months. This is significantly less than a year.


The daily increase in new cases of coronavirus infection in the world is more than 5%, and in Russia today it is more than 8% Photo: Ivan MAKEEV

The daily increase in new cases of coronavirus infection in the world is more than 5%, and in Russia today it is more than 8%Photo: Ivan MAKEEV

How many deaths from coronavirus infection will be in a year (given that, according to the data of May 3, 243,922 people died in the world – approx. Ed.)? Yes, there are other dangerous infections in the world, but many of them can be protected. This is Hepatitis B, and pneumococcal infection, tetanus, and so on. And Dr. Myasnikov rightly points out the need for widespread vaccination against the most dangerous and common infections. Unfortunately, there are no vaccines from COVID-19 yet, they will be ready by the spring of next year at best.

Also, an important difference between the course of rotavirus infection and coronavirus infection: hospitalization with rotavirus disease in developed countries is very rare. All necessary treatment conditions can be provided at home. With coronavirus, the patient often needs active therapy, which can only be provided in a specialized medical institution.

SPECIFICALLY

Dr. Myasnikov gives such statistics on mortality from infections (in the world for a year)

Measles (there is a vaccine) – 140 thousand deaths per year

Pneumococcus (there is a vaccine) – 2 -2.5 million deaths per year

Hepatitis B (there is a vaccine) – 650 thousand deaths per year

Tetanus (there is a vaccine) – 89 thousand deaths per year

Cervical cancer (there is a vaccine) – 250 thousand deaths per year

Tuberculosis (there is a vaccine) – 1.5 million deaths per year

Influenza (there is a vaccine) – 650 thousand-1 million deaths per year

Coronavirus (no vaccine) – 244 thousand deaths from the beginning of the spread

Coronavirus: myths and reality.The farther the coronavirus, the more truth and speculation around it. We tried to deal with the main myths about the Covid-19 pandemic

BTW

Virologist Vitaliy Zverev: the coronavirus is now with us forever. Like the flu or the common cold

Academician of RAS, Head Vitaliy Zverev, Chair of Microbiology, Virology, Immunology, Sechenov University, commented on why the coronavirus should not be afraid (details)

Is it possible to get sick with coronavirus twice, is it transmitted through water, and how do you understand that you are asymptomatic?

We collected the most common questions of Russians and asked them to leading scientists (details)

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Intelligence services of five Western intelligence declassified dossiers about Wuhan’s secret laboratory

Chinese scientists knew about the dangers of bats before the outbreak of coronavirus

A dossier prepared by the intelligence agencies of the United States, Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, which is described by the Australian publication, says that the Chinese authorities were hiding the news about the virus. At the same time, no convincing evidence of the “man-made” nature of the appearance of Sovid-19 is given in this dossier.

However, the published material sheds some light not only on the actions of Beijing, but also on the work of Chinese virologists. In particular, the dossier talks about the activities of the famous Chinese scientist in the field of virology Shi Zhengli.

“In Wuhan, in the Chinese province of Hubei, not far from the now infamous Wuhan market, Dr. Shi and her team work on highly secure equipment in Level 3 and Level 4 biological containment laboratories, studying deadly coronaviruses obtained from bats,” the Australian publication retells. report of five intelligence services.

“At least one of the approximately 50 virus samples found in Dr. Shea’s laboratory is 96 percent genetically compatible with Covid-19. When Dr. Shea heard the news of an outbreak of a new virus that looked like pneumonia, she began to worry about sleepless nights – was her lab to blame for this outbreak? ”

After these initial fears, Dr. Shea became convinced that the genetic sequence of Covid-19 did not match any of the viruses studied in her laboratory.

“Nevertheless,” the Daily Telegraph continues in Sydney, “given the scale of lies, deliberate obfuscation and the angry refusal of the People’s Republic of China to allow any investigation into the causes of the outbreak, international intelligence agencies are currently closely monitoring her laboratory.”

The position of the Australian government is that the virus most likely arose on the Wuhan market in the open air, but there is a small – five percent – chance that it could accidentally “leak” from the laboratory.

The American position, judging by reports that appeared in recent days, is that the virus most likely leaked from the laboratory, but it could also appear in the market where wild animals are traded and where other diseases occurred, including bird flu H5N1 and SARS .

The material also refers to a study conducted in 2013 by a group of scientists (including Dr. Shi), during which feces of horseshoe bats were collected in caves in the Chinese province of Yunnan. Later, a virus was detected in these samples, 96.2% identical to SARS-CoV 2, the virus that caused Covid-19.

The research dossier also refers to the work done by the team for the synthesis of SARS-like coronaviruses to analyze whether they can be transmitted from bats to other mammals. This means that scientists have modified parts of the virus to check whether it is transmitted to various species.

Their study, conducted in November 2015 with the University of North Carolina, concluded that a virus similar to SARS can be transmitted directly from bats to humans, and there is no cure that could help.

The study recognizes the incredible danger of the work that the researchers did: “The potential for preparing for future outbreaks and mitigating their effects must be correlated with the risk of more dangerous pathogens.”

A few years later, in March 2019, Dr. Shih and her team published a review entitled “Bat Coronaviruses in China” in the medical journal Viruses, where they stated that “they seek to predict the occurrence of foci of the virus and their interspecific transmission potential.” The authors spoke of “the urgent need to study bat coronaviruses in China to understand their ability to cause another outbreak.”

Chinese scientists predicted in their material: “It is very likely that future coronovirus outbreaks like SARS or MERS will come from bats, and there is an increased likelihood that this will happen in China.”

While foreign intelligence agencies are figuring out whether the Wuhan laboratory is responsible for the outbreak of coronavirus, Dr. Shi does not pause in his studies, which, she claims, are more important than ever to prevent a pandemic. She plans to lead a national project on systemic selection of viruses in bat caves. It is estimated that there are more than 5,000 strains of coronaviruses “pending detection in bats around the world.”

“Bat-borne coronaviruses will cause new outbreaks,” says Dr. Shea in Scientific American. “We must find them before they find us.”

By the way, Dr. Shi, director of the Center for New Infectious Diseases of the Wuhan Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, spent three months in 2006 as an invited scientist in Australia, where she worked at the Organization for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIRO).

Dr. Shi’s protégé, Peng Zhou, currently managing the bat viral infection and immunity project at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, spent three years in the bio isolation facility of the Australian Animal Health Laboratory in 2011-2014. During this time, Dr. Zhou arranged for the transportation of live wild bats from Queensland to a laboratory in Victoria, where they were euthanized for autopsy and testing for deadly viruses.

For the United States, in October 2014, Americans withdrew funding for controversial experiments that make pathogens more powerful or can spread dangerous viruses, fearing that this could lead to a global pandemic.

Controversy has erupted in the scientific community – whether it is worth developing such viruses to anticipate and prevent a pandemic if a virus leak can also cause a pandemic. There were also serious concerns about the lack of adequate security measures at the Wuhan Institute of Virology when dealing with deadly viruses.

The “closed, but not secret” dispatch dated January 19, 2018, which was made available to The Washington Post, showed that scientists and diplomats from the US embassy in Beijing visited the laboratory and sent warnings to Washington about inadequate security practices and weak points of control in studies of coronaviruses in bats.

“During their interaction with scientists from the laboratory of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, they noted that in the new laboratory there is a serious shortage of properly trained technical specialists and researchers necessary for the safe management of this laboratory with a high level of protection,” the report said.

The scientific consensus, the Australian The Daily Telegraph continues, is that the virus came from the wet market. But the other day, an American intelligence agency first confirmed that the US intelligence committee is investigating whether COVID-19 was the result of an accident in a Wuhan laboratory.

Acting Director of the National Intelligence Office Richard Grenell said the virus was not created in the laboratory: “The entire intelligence community constantly provides critical support to US politicians and those who respond to the COVID-19 virus that originated in China. The intelligence community also agrees with the wide scientific consensus that the Covid-19 virus has not been created by humans or genetically modified … The intelligence community will continue to carefully review emerging information and intelligence to determine if the outbreak started as a result of contact with infected animals or whether it happened as a result of accident in a laboratory in Wuhan. “

Despite Richard Grenell’s statement and consensus among scientists that the virus was not created in the laboratory, the dossier referenced by The Daily Telegraph mentions a study alleging that the virus was created.

Scientists from South China University of Technology published a study on February 6, which concluded that “the killer coronavirus probably came from a laboratory in Wuhan. It may be necessary to increase safety in high-risk biohazard laboratories. ” This study was soon withdrawn because it “was not supported by direct evidence,” according to the author Botao Syano, the dossier says.

Not insisting on the credibility of the above study, the Australian publication mentions that it was included in the government dossier prepared in the framework of the case against China.

A document received by an Australian newspaper said that they “concealed and destroyed evidence” and that the Chinese authorities deliberately hid the coronavirus, silencing the doctors who spoke out on this subject, destroying evidence from the Wuhan laboratory and refusing to provide samples of live viruses to international scientists, working on a vaccine.

Of all the doctors, activists, journalists and scientists who reportedly disappeared after speaking out about the coronavirus or criticizing the actions of the Chinese authorities, not a single case, according to the Australian newspaper, is more intriguing and disturbing than the case with Huang Yang Lin.

This researcher from the Wuhan Institute of Virology, according to rumors walking in Chinese social networks, was the first to be diagnosed with a patient with coronavirus (that is, she became a “zero patient”). Then reports of her disappearance appeared, and her biography and image were removed from the website of the Wuhan Institute of Virology. Although the institute denied on February 16 that she was a null patient and said that the researcher was alive and well, since then no evidence has been provided.

As early as December 31, Chinese authorities began censoring news about the virus in search engines, removing queries such as SARS Variations, Wuhan Seafood Market, and Wuhan Unknown Pneumonia. On January 1, without any investigation into the origin of the virus, the seafood market in Wuhan was closed and disinfected.

A little later, on January 3, the National Health Commission ordered the Wuhan pneumonia samples to be transferred to specially authorized testing facilities or destroyed, while at the same time ordering to ban publications on an unknown disease.

Doctors who dared to speak out about the new virus were detained and convicted. Authorities called on citizens “not to invent rumors, not to spread rumors and not to believe rumors.” The Global Times reported on January 2 that police in Wuhan arrested 8 people who spread rumors of a local outbreak of unidentified pneumonia. ” These messages were intended to silence doctors who may have been prepared to speak up. Thus, the truth about the outbreak in China was kept secret, the Australian newspaper sums up.

“Despite the evidence of transmission of the virus from person to person from the beginning of December, the PRC authorities denied this until January 20,” the dossier prepared by the security services said. – The World Health Organization did the same. However, officials in Taiwan have expressed concern as early as December 31, and experts in Hong Kong on January 4. ”

See also: The Chinese warned of a viral danger a year ago: why they were ignored

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Studies have shown cardiac arrhythmia in many patients with coronavirus due to hydroxychloroquine

Trump Propaganda Antimalarial May Cause Side Effects

Doctors warn that the use of hydroxychloroquine to treat coronavirus can be dangerous, since more than 90 percent of patients with Covid-19 showed signs of dangerous cardiac arrhythmias in two studies of the drug, writes The Daily Mail in the UK.

If cardiac arrhythmia stays too long, it can cause a heart attack and stroke.

Researchers in the US and France have carefully monitored the effects of Trump’s anti-malarial medication on 90 and 40 patients, respectively.

Each of these studies found that more than 90 percent of patients with coronavirus in intensive care units had longer than usual delays between heart contractions, which is an alarming sign that the drug may interfere with their cardiac function.

U.S. President Trump (and not only him, but also many doctors and patients) had hoped for hydroxychloroquine after a study in France showed that this medicine significantly improved survival and recovery time for patients with coronavirus.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved emergency use of hydroxychloroquine for doctors to try to use the drug for American patients with coronavirus.

“Among the possible treatments, hydroxychloroquine is promoted and even politicized as a promising therapy because of its anti-inflammatory and potential antiviral properties,” said Dr. Robert Bonow, cardiologist at Northwestern University, in his editorial in the journal JAMA Cardiology.

But this medicine is not without hidden dangers, notes The Daily Mail. Although it is used to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, hydroxychloroquine can slow down the process, which causes the heart to beat on time.

One study of this drug in Brazil was stopped after many of the registered patients with coronavirus treated with hydroxychloroquine developed arrhythmia.

To try to determine when, why, and how often this happened, researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital in the United States and the University of Lyon in France closely monitored the so-called Remote Interval Syndromes (QT) in critical coronavirus patients treated with hydroxychloroquine.

The QT interval actually measures the time that elapses between when the ventricular muscle of the heart contracts and then relaxes.

When this interval becomes too long, the patient has developed a dangerous form of cardiac arrhythmia (the so-called atrial fibrillation).

This has become one of the main reasons why patients are advised to stop taking this medication.

The normal QT interval lasts from 400 to 440 milliseconds (in men, QT intervals are shorter than in women).

In a French study, a quarter of patients had QT intervals that lasted 60 milliseconds longer, and 18% of those observed had intervals of 500 milliseconds or longer.

In a study by specialists from Massachusetts, 20% of 90 patients had QT levels that reached or exceeded 500 milliseconds. Of these, 30 were treated in intensive care units.

Of particular concern is the fact that doctors believe that coronavirus can affect the heart and cardiovascular system, infecting tissues, causing blood clots, damaging blood vessels, or causing inflammation caused by the virus.

Dr. Robert Bonow notes that acutely ill patients, such as most of those treated in these two studies, may be at greater risk for cardiac arrhythmias due to other factors.

He also writes that it is possible that in some cases the potential benefits of hydroxychloroquine may outweigh the risk of arrhythmias.

This opinion is reflected on the website of the American College of Cardiology on the experimental use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of patients with COVID-19: “Although the use of QT prolongation drugs is associated with an increased risk of death, this risk may be less than the potential benefit of COVID-19 treatment for some patients. Currently, there is hope for a benefit from hydroxychloroquine, but so far there is little evidence. This can change rapidly, given the many pending clinical trials. ”

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Women breathe harder than men

In the airways of women, the airflow becomes turbulent faster.

During physical activity, we begin to breathe deeper and more often – the body needs more oxygen in order to get more energy. And at this moment, the difference in the anatomy of the respiratory system in men and women begins to affect – women need more effort to provide themselves with oxygen.

Researchers from the University of Waterloo set up an experiment in which men and women worked out on a stationary bike for several days, gradually increasing the load. They breathed a gas mixture from a special tank, and on some days it was ordinary air, and on other days a mixture of helium and oxygen. Respiratory containers were filled so that they had the same amount of oxygen. The trainees themselves did not know how they breathe, air or an oxygen-helium mixture.

In addition, the participants in the experiment were equipped with a special device that made it possible to track the pressure in the esophagus – by the pressure in the esophagus, which goes near the airways, it was possible to understand how much effort is spent on breathing. It turned out that if you needed to breathe a mixture of helium and oxygen, then the respiratory efforts were the same for all, that of men, that of women. If you needed to breathe normal air, women began to breathe harder, they needed more effort.

The mixture of helium and oxygen is less dense, and therefore its flow moves laminarly, without turbulence. If the density of the gas mixture increases, turbulences, vortex movements occur in it, so that the gas mixture seems to resist movement, and this resistance must be overcome in order to push the gas further.

But the laminarity and turbulence of the flow still depend on its speed and width (which are again interconnected). In men, the airways are wider, the gas flow in them also becomes turbulent, but at a higher speed. In women, with their narrower airways, turbulence begins earlier, and therefore they spend more energy simply on breathing. (Well, in a calm state, we breathe slowly, the air flow rate is already low, and there are no difficulties here.)

The authors of the work were going to report their results to the congress of the American Physiological Society, but since the congress did not take place in view of the coronavirus epidemic, they will be published shortly FASEB Journal.

Obviously, this difference in male and female breathing should somehow be taken into account not only in sports, but also in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system, such as asthma and obstructive pulmonary disease.

According to the materials MedicalXpress.

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Academician Zverev spoke about the created quick vaccine against coronavirus

“Antibodies can protect patients who have been ill for 2-3 years”

– Vitaly Vasilyevich, as we already know, the exit from the regime of self-isolation should be gradual. Scientists and authorities are developing an appropriate roadmap. Have an understanding of what it will be?

– Exit from isolation will not mean that on May 11 we will all go outside. The exit will be gradual. Based on the experience of other countries, probably, first of all, it is necessary to establish the education of children, especially high school students. This is a contingent that practically does not get coronavirus. For younger schoolchildren, so that they remain under supervision after school, one must probably organize a system of summer school camps – an extension.

Another priority: it is necessary to establish a normal patient care system. I’m not talking about infected people for whom isolation will continue, but there are people with chronic diseases who have spent a month and a half in self-isolation and have not added to their health. Their problems did not go anywhere, but only worsened, because apart from the lack of walks, they did not receive routine medical care for a long time.

I think in the first days we will open parks – not for mass walks, but for individual walks. It will be necessary to somehow organize an exit on the street of elderly people. Maybe it’s worth allotting certain hours, days for this, so that they can walk.

– Which small business representatives will be the first to start working?

– First of all, it would be advisable to start the work of small shops where people can buy something from clothes, household goods, because people live not only with food.

– All these measures to weaken the regime will occur throughout Russia immediately?

– All that I have listed is for Moscow. In other regions, it may not be possible to do this yet, because the epidemic, where they later connected to self-isolation, is now in full swing. On the other hand, there are many cities and regions where people do not live as crowded as in megacities, so there the process of overcoming self-isolation, if it was introduced there at all, will be even faster and easier than ours.

– When going out into the street, should healthy people use any protective equipment?

– We will be required to wear masks. But this must be done with meaning. For example, on a street where people are dispersed and the possibility of infection is small, wearing them is pointless. Moreover, in children and the elderly due to the constant wearing of masks, breathing difficulties may occur. This ultimately only hurts. Therefore, it is advisable to hide behind masks from the virus only in the subway, in stores, in a word, only where there is a crowd of people.

– Is it worth wearing silicone gloves, which for many have already become a mandatory attribute of the wardrobe?

– They do not make much sense, because the virus most actively spreads by airborne droplets.

– Do you need to drink some drugs or bury them in your nose?

– It is possible that prophylactic drugs that will maintain the immune system at a high enough level should be drunk, but all these immunomodulators should be prescribed by a doctor. After all, every vitamin, I’m not talking about antiviral agents that promote the release of interferon, have their own form and play a role in the biochemical cycles of the body. Their excess, as well as a lack, can have its side effects.

– There are people with strong innate immunity. Are they guaranteed protection against COVID-19?

– It is known that the most protected from coronavirus are children, with the exception of those who have an impaired immune system. Their sufficiently strong innate immunity, which they inherited from their parents, is helped by the so-called thymus gland (it works actively until about 5 years). In this gland, the former stem cells coming from the bone marrow into the immune system are converted to T-lymphocytes that can fight infections.

Once in the children’s body, the genome of the virus is powerless before ideal protection, as, indeed, in the body of young people. But over the years, innate immunity in a person weakens a little. If the body by this time is still weakened by diseases and bad habits, it becomes more accessible to the effects of infection. It is known that when SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (it causes COVID-19 – Auth.) Enters the body, it encodes several proteins in the body with a weakened immune system that affect the innate immune response system.

– The second wave of COVID-19, according to Chinese scientists, is waiting for us in November …

– I do not think that in its strength it will be the same wave as now. Still, a certain percentage of people have already been ill, and after a few months, provided that everyone behaves correctly, we will get only a slight increase in the incidence. We need to understand that COVID-19 will stay with us forever, like the flu, like HIV, like viral hepatitis. Destroying it completely will not be easy. The whole world has been fighting smallpox for 20 (!) Years, measles and polio have not yet been defeated …

– What will contribute to the increase in the incidence in the autumn period – a decrease in temperature?

– In the autumn-winter period there is an increase in all viral diseases. And this is due not only to temperature. There is a whole range of factors. This is a lack of vitamin D in the body due to a decrease in sunny days, and a large crowding of people who returned after the holidays.

– By November, we will not have a vaccine against COVID-19. What will we defend ourselves with?

– Many countries in the situation of the unpreparedness of specific vaccines for the epidemic of a disease use the so-called “quick vaccines”. They stimulate the innate natural response of the body to any pathogen and cope with it in a few days. Protection is short-term, but almost one hundred percent.

– In our country there is a “quick vaccine”, which is produced on an industrial scale?

– Our institute at one time created such a tool, it successfully passed all clinical trials, but then, with the change of a higher management, the work was slowed down. Now we have remembered her again, clinicians have already begun her trial, she received support at the RAS, but we are unlikely to have time to provide her with Muscovites for the upcoming fall season.

“What is it based on?”

– These are special proteins of four bacteria, the so-called pathogen-associated molecular complexes. They provide the synthesis of protective cytokine molecules with a strong anti-inflammatory effect. When introduced into the body, such a vaccine blocks the development of the virus and protects cells from it.

– Is it injected intramuscularly?

– There are two options for administration – subcutaneously and in the form of nasal drops.

– How many days did she protect the body after administration?

– For each kind of disease, it has its own application scheme. For example, against acute respiratory viral infections, we add drops to the nasopharynx not once, but during a certain period, for example, within two weeks with a certain interval. You know, there are very often sick children who cannot even take planned vaccination activities because of constant coughing and snot. So, with our vaccine, we kept the kids from colds for a year and, against the background of vaccination with a fast vaccine, made routine vaccinations against other infections.

Now the big problem is nosocomial viral infections. The patient undergoes a unique operation, and then he dies from pneumonia … If such people are given a “quick vaccine”, then we can protect them from concomitant infections. It also makes sense to use such a vaccine if the person has contacted the patient and is afraid to get sick.

– And if he still managed to “catch” the pathogenic virus, but the disease has not yet manifested itself?

– Even if I “caught”, the vaccine’s effectiveness will be lower, but it will still be. By the way, now for such an emergency effect on the skin or mucous membrane in the nasopharynx with our vaccine, we are developing its variety in the form of a spray. Squirted in the throat before a trip on transport, before work, and – forward.

– If you say that by the fall your quick vaccine will not be available for Muscovites yet, what should be protected?

– I think other institutions have begun to develop similar tools. Maybe someone will put their production on stream faster than us. And so I would recommend to lead a healthy lifestyle, to observe sanitary rules: try not to contact with a large number of people, still keep a social distance.

– By the way, something with the coronavirus completely forgot about the flu. But autumn is a time when everyone is vaccinated precisely from this infectious disease. So you need to get vaccinated against flu this year?

– Of course! Because he has not gone anywhere.

– But no one says anything about him, as if he weren’t …

– It’s just that this year it is not enough, the isolation regime helped many to avoid not only infection with coronavirus, but also other respiratory infections. Although a month ago in the US, data were published on 35-40 thousand deaths from influenza.

– Do you have such data for Russia?

– It should be, but so far no one is publishing them.

– Theoretically, a flu vaccine can at least partially protect against COVID-19 coronavirus?

– Any vaccine to some extent can stimulate one or another type of immunity, but no one can say how much the influenza vaccine will be effective against coronavirus.

– Scientists have already clarified the question of concern to many about secondary infection with coronavirus?

– There is no one recorded repeated case of COVID-19. Only a few cases are described when the virus did not disappear from the body for a long time after recovery, and then gave a second round of the disease with all the previous symptoms. But how often and with whom this can happen, we do not know yet. Basically, the cured people no longer became ill, because they formed antibodies to this virus.

– And for how long will the immunity of patients who have been ill remain, can I say now?

– As far as I know, antibodies to SARS after people had SARS did not disappear for 10 years, to MERS – 5 years. To even older types of coronaviruses, immunity lasted for a year or a little more. How much the desired titer (frequency) of antibodies to COVID-19 will be retained is not yet known. If we assume that this will be 2-3 years, then we can hope that in 3-4 years we will transfer this infection from life-threatening to the category of ordinary SARS.

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