Merdeka.com – A new study examining the mutation of the coronavirus did not impact the clinical outcome of the disease or make it deadly, but one of the mutations could make it more infectious.
A new study conducted by scientists in Houston and published in MedRxiv has revealed a new mutation of the coronavirus that is potentially stronger and more volatile.
“We have given a lot of room for this virus. Out there their population is now very large, “said James Musser, one of the study authors told The Washington Post, quoted from the Sputnik page, Thursday (24/9).
David Morens, a virologist at the National Institute of Allergic Diseases and Infectious Diseases, also said that when the virus circulates throughout the population it has the potential to become more contagious and could negatively impact the ability to control it.
So the virus adapts to the use of masks?
He described the virus may be adapting to measures such as wearing masks, maintaining distance and washing hands that could potentially affect vaccine formulations.
“Even though we don’t know yet, there is still a chance that this coronavirus, when our population level immunity is high enough it will find a way to evade our immunity, and if that happens we will be in the same situation as the flu, we have to catch up with the virus. , when the virus mutates we have to tamper with our vaccine, “he added.
There are currently more than 31 million cases of Covid-19 registered worldwide with at least 1 million related deaths, according to John Hopkins University data.
The United States remains the worst-affected country with more than 6.9 million cases and more than 200,000 deaths.
This cartridge is smaller than a cell phone and has been used in 386 National Health Service (NHS) staff and patients.
To carry out the test, a nasal swab is inserted into the nose of a patient inserted into the device, then it will look for traces of the genetic material belonging to the virus SARS-CoV-2, which causes Covid-19.
The research team, including scientists and physicians from Imperial, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, DnaNudge, Chelsea & Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, assessed sensitivity and specificity.
Sensitivity is a measure of how well a test positive for people with the disease, and is an indication of how likely it is that the test will produce a false negative result.
Percentage of them found positive for Covid-19 was 18 percent, of the research conducted at the peak of Covid-19.
The results showed 67 samples tested positive on the CovidNudge test, when compared with 71 positive results on various NHS standard laboratory machines, which represented a sensitivity value of up to 94 percent.
This study was supported by the National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Center.
Shutterstock Illustration of a swab test (swab test), PCR test for detection of the corona virus that causes Covid-19.
” Your DnaNudge was developed as a customer service on the spot lab-free which can be administered on a large scale. We believe this test can offer very significant potential in terms of mass population testing during the Covid-19 pandemic, “said Regius Professor Chris Toumazou, CEO and co-founder of DnaNudge and founder of the Institute of Biomedical Engineering at Imperial.
This platform, he said, is particularly suitable for testing in primary care and community settings with the potential for use in non-healthcare settings such as nursing homes, schools, transportation centers, offices, and, to help bring art back, in theaters and venues.
However, further studies on real-world effectiveness in non-clinical settings will be needed before they begin to be disseminated.
The research team added that the device has recently acquired the CE mark (a symbol that indicates that it can be traded freely in Europe). This allows for additional use in non-clinical locations previously approved by the UK Health and Drug Administration.
The team of scientists explained that each device is capable wi-fi, allowing test results to be sent safely to the hospital records system.
Testing for the study took place between April 10 and May 12 at three NHS websites.
“Getting accurate results (from the innovative Covid-19 testing) back to doctors and their patients as quickly as possible makes a big difference to how we manage our clinical pathways safely and we are looking forward to launching them more widely,” added the director of strategy, research and innovation at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Dr. Bob Klaber.
But the giant sperm came from a creature much smaller than the toothed Spinosaurus: ostracod, a crustacean. Known colloquially as “seed shrimp”, ostracods usually grow to only a few tenths of an inch in length. Their bodies are protected by clam shells, from which small appendages such as crabs sometimes protrude.
There are thousands of species of ostracods alive today, and many of them have giant sperm cells, the longest being up to 0.46 inches (11.8 millimeters). It is much longer than the animals that produce it.
Now, scientists have found samples of these enormous sperm in ostracods from the Cretaceous period, 100 million years ago. This is the oldest example of animal sperm dating back 50 million years.
Locked in Amber The sperm was found in a yellow disc the size of a postage stamp in a mine in northern Myanmar. Within this tiny glob of tree resin are 39 ostracods, 31 of which belong to a species never seen before – now called Myanmarcypris hui. They only grow to 0.02 inches (0.59 millimeters) in length.
But what is most interesting is what researchers found inside adult female Myanmarcypris hui. The soft tissue of the female is preserved, including four tiny eggs (each only 50 micrometers in diameter, less than the diameter of a human hair) and a mass of something that looks like spaghetti inside the container of the female semen.
He Wang, a paleontologist and postdoctoral researcher at the Chinese Academy of Science, used computed tomography to reconstruct a three-dimensional image of this mass and sent it to Renate Matzke-Karasz, an ostracod expert and paleontologist at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.
“I immediately congratulated him on reconstructing the sperm of the oldest animal,” Matzke-Karasz told Live Science.
Wang, Matzke-Karasz and colleagues estimated that each sperm was 200 micrometers in length. They published their findings on September 16 in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Academy B.
Giant Sperm Evolution Prior to this discovery, the oldest confirmed animal sperm came from about 50 million years ago. It was found in the cocoons of worms from Antarctica.
The oldest sperm ostracods discovered prior to this discovery were only 17 million years old. Even though it is the oldest sperm recorded when it was first discovered.
The discovery of giant sperm dating back 100 million years is very exciting, said Matzke-Karasz. Because giant sperm is an energy intensive way of reproducing. They require a lot of energy to make and a lot of space in the animal is devoted to their reproductive tract.
He added that matings also take a long time when giant sperm are involved. “You might think that this doesn’t make sense from an evolutionary point of view, but in ostracod, it looks like it worked for over 100 million years,” says Matzke-Karasz.
There are only 20 or so examples of ostracod soft tissue preserved by fossilization. “It was surprising to find these aquatic animals in petrified plant resin, so the next step is to look for other amber specimens from other time periods that may contain ostracods,” he concluded.
Dr Li Meng Yan is not known for making the Corona vaccine, but believes this virus is man-made. This is the trail of his escape to America.
Chinese scientist This virologist caused an uproar because he defected to America and then said the Corona virus was man-made in Wuhan. Collected by detikINET from various sources, Tuesday (15/9/2020) this is his career journey:
This whistleblower scientist is known to have earned a medical degree from Xiangya Medical College at Central South University in Changsa City, China. This woman earned a PhD from Southern Medical University Guangzhou, a university affiliated with the Chinese military.
Data from the China Academic Journals (CNKI) checked by detikINET said that his research to become a medical graduate was about the effects of propanolol in 2014. In 2018, he had worked researching the influenza vaccine in WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, demikian menurut data dari Frontiers in Immunology.
As reported by Fox News, it was in December 2019 that Li Meng Yan learned of an outbreak similar to SARS in Wuhan. His supervisor, Leo LM Poon asked him to be involved in the research.
At that time he was in intense contact with the guests Chinese scientists land and found out that the virus was transmitted between humans on December 31, 2019. His findings were reported on January 16, 2020, but his superiors instead asked Li Meng Yan to keep quiet.
On March 19, 2020, the results of his research on COVID-19 were still published in the Lancet medical journal entitled Viral Dynamic in Mild and Severe Cases of COVID-19. Yet that seems to be the end of his work in China.
Li Meng Yan said the results of his research were censored by the Chinese government. He also regretted that his two superiors Leo Poon and Malik Peiris ignored his findings, even though his research institute was affiliated with WHO. Meng Yan also suspected that WHO was corrupt and was involved in covering up this.
“Don’t cross the line. We can get into trouble and get eliminated,” said Meng Yan, imitating her boss’s words.
Launch BBC, Sunday (6/9/2020), the report has been published in the journal The Lancet which revealed that every participant who had been injected with this vaccine had developed antibodies to fight back corona virus cause Covid-19.
As is known, Russia has licensed it corona vaccine them for local use last August, and became the first country to do so, before the data was published.
Merdeka.com – Public health officials across the United States have been told by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to prepare to distribute the Covid-19 vaccine as early as late October. This scenario also applies to states.
The document uploaded by The New York Times and the CDC confirmed that they had sent it to city and state public health officials, as quoted from CNN, Thursday (03/09).
The federal government has set up a distribution network, while scientists work on a vaccine. The Trump administration also says it is doing this. Companies developing vaccines are already increasing production, so if one or more of them is found to be safe and effective in humans, they will be used immediately.
“Right now I would say we are preparing earnestly for what I anticipate will happen, that there will be one or more vaccines available to us in November, December, and we have to find a way to make sure it is distributed fairly and evenly. , “Said Redfield in an interview with Yahoo Finance.
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Redfield also asked the state to speed up a permit for medical and pharmaceutical supply company, McKesson, to help distribute the vaccine. In a letter he requested that they waive any conditions that might hinder distribution, no later than November 1 before Election Day.
Director of the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Francis Collins, said in case one of the vaccines being tested shows evidence that protects humans.
“It’s like the motto of the Scouts, Get ready, if the odds are very small and everything happens beautifully, we had the answers then and knew we had a vaccine that was safe and effective, wouldn’t you want people to be ready to figure out how to make distribution?” to CNN.
Currently, three vaccines are in phase three of their trials in the United States developed by Moderna and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Pfizer and Biontech as well as AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford.
Alarm among American scientists for the announcement of Stephen Hahn, head of the Food and Drug Administration, that he wants to shorten the time for the approval of a vaccine for Covid-19. The suspicion, they write a lot The Guardian that the Financial Times , that Hahn wants to do Trump a favor by allowing him to announce the availability of a “made in USA” vaccine before re-election in November. Stephen Hahn confirmed that he was ready to authorize the vaccine in an emergency before the Phase three (large-scale studies to confirm that an effective and safe drug – or vaccine – is completed), but has rejected accusations of complacency against the American president (who had long denied the gravity of the pandemic). Hahn said he appeals to a criterion that has always guided medicine: choosing based on the fact that the benefits outweigh the risks. On the other hand, an emergency is underway in the United States, the data say: the confirmed cases of Covid-19, last Sunday, reached six million.
Many remember for the criticisms, also coming from the political world close to Trump, for the affected way in which Russia and China have declared that they have prepared a vaccine and several American scientists have stressed that not only skipping phase 3 exposes the population to risks and to potential damage (due to heavy side effects or an immune response such as to be harmful to the body), but which in the event of failure will undermine citizens’ trust in all vaccines.
The concerns of the Americans are also shared by Italian scientists. Sergio Abrignani, immunologist, full professor of General Pathology at the State University of Milan and director of the National Institute of Molecular Genetics Romeo and Enrica Invernizzi had already expressed his criticisms of the equally hasty procedures used for the Russian vaccine in an interview with Corriere Salute on 11 August. Abrignani had declared: The Russians will have won the race, but without following the scientific rules because it is not possible to know if the vaccination works and above all (coronavirus-vaccine-russia-registered-comment.xml ) if there are any side effects since stage 3 typically takes a year and a half. Even shortening the times it takes at least 4-6 months to demonstrate safety and efficacy on an audience of thousands of volunteers. Without efficacy data, registration and mass vaccination cannot be carried out.
In previous interviews with Corriere Salute (here the last), Abrignani had also explained: Developing a new vaccine requires a long and laborious process to ensure its safety and efficacy and we are talking about years, not months. You must necessarily go through 3 stages. Phase 1 which consists of checks on safety and the ability to induce immune responses. Then we move on to phase 2, in which doses and administration schedules are established, and finally phase 3, or the efficacy study on people at risk of infection. Time can be tightened, but the steps are required. The duration of protection is the only point on which a concession can be made: whether the vaccine will provide coverage for 6 months or a year, we will have to repeat it, as we do with the flu. Lifetime protection is certainly desirable, but it is not always possible to obtain it. However, to have an effective vaccine it will take 2-3 years, much less than the average, thanks to an unprecedented commitment, but there are many things we do not know about this virus that we have only recently studied.
A wrong and dangerous decision – confirms Walter Ricciardi, advisor to the Minister of Health Roberto Speranza – the one that the American Food and Drug Administration would be evaluating to accelerate the green light for an anti Covid-19 vaccine, even without waiting for the end of phase III clinical trial. For vaccines – Ricciardi warns in a tweet – safety must be demonstrated even before efficacy. It is not possible to derogate from adequate methods and times.
Exceptional times, exceptional procedures
Mario Clerici, head of the Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation and holder of the Chair of Immunology and Immunopathology at the University of Milan, has a different opinion.I worked and published with Jonas Salk, the creator of the polio vaccine – he reminds me – always told me that was able to get his vaccine into clinical trials with today’s standards. Colleagues who criticize shortened procedures do not seem to realize that exceptional procedures must be favored in exceptional times.
August 31, 2020 (change September 1, 2020 | 09:15)
The chain of wildlife trade from the field to restaurants and end consumers provides ample opportunities for spillovers to occur virus transmission.
The current pandemic, scientists say, is the latest example of how the coronavirus of animal origin has caused deadly diseases in humans.
The outbreak of severe get-along respiratory syndrome in 2003 was likely caused by the coronavirus that originated in bats. Meanwhile, camels are the main host of the virus which then causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
Shutterstock / Rudmer Zwerver The horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus) is by far an important natural reservoir for the coronavirus. This animal also has the corona virus which is a close relative of SARS-CoV-2, the cause of Covid-19.
As well as researching domesticated bats, scientists have also examined wild rats sold as food in markets and restaurants in three provinces in southern Vietnam.
Bats in Tomohon Extreme Market
Of the 70 locations sampled, the virus was detected in 58 locations. The viruses in wild rats were found in 24 locations and 17 of 28 rodent farms, and 16 of 17 guano bat farms, as well as one natural pteropid bat site.
Although the virus found is not a human pathogen, scientists say the conditions are poor for the animals caught.
Mixing of different species and consumer contact with traders can increase the risk of the virus transmitting to humans.
In some of the cases studied, bat or avian coronavirus found in rodents living on wild animal farms.
In this place, mixing species in the same place increases the risk of combining viruses, so the risk of transmission to humans is also higher.
“This high sample proportion sheds light on human exposure to viruses from wildlife,” the researchers said in a paper published in the journal. PLOS One this.
This study recommends limiting the killing, commercial breeding, transport, purchase, sale, storage, processing and consumption of wild animals to minimize future public health risks.
This is because livestock and people who live in close contact with rodents, bats and birds that spread the virus provide opportunities for intra and inter-species transmission, so that it has the potential for the recombination of the corona virus.
Researchers assess that launching the corona vaccine in a hurry could harm people who receive it. In addition, it will hamper global efforts to develop immunization Covid-19 quality.
“Russia may miss steps like that. That’s what worries the vaccine scientist community. If they get it wrong, it could ruin an entire global company,” said Peter Hotez, a vaccine scientist at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas.
Francois Balloux, a geneticist at University College London published by the UK Science Media Center, called Russia’s decision “ very flippant. ” Vaccinations bulk vaccines with incorrectly tested are unethical, says Balloux.
“Any problem with the campaign vaccination Russia will be catastrophic both through its negative health effects, but also because it will further hinder vaccine acceptance in the population, “explained Balloux.
In his announcement, Vladimir Putin said that Russian regulators had approved the vaccine corona virus, although the phase 3 trial is not yet complete.
In a phase 3 trial, it will involve giving thousands of people a vaccine or placebo injection, and then seeing if the vaccine can prevent disease.
Next, investigators should confirm vaccine safety and look for rarer side effects that may not have been observed in early-stage trials.