“Le Figaro” and “le Monde” now sold at 3 euros each

After the world Friday, which increased the price of the newspaper by 20 cents, it was the turn of the Figaro to raise its rate by 10 cents on Monday, in the middle of summer. The two national dailies are now selling for 3 euros per unit. Increases justified by the crisis in press distribution and the collapse of the advertising market.

In today’s edition, Marc Feuillée, Managing Director of Figaro, and Alexis Brézet, editorial director, justify themselves: “The combination of our distribution difficulties and the decline in advertising has upset our economic model.” And add: “In order to continue our editorial mission and preserve our resources, we are forced to increase the price of your daily Figaro by 10 cents.”

Last week, the world had published an article similar to warn its readers: “Unfortunately, the impact of the crisis due to Covid-19 on our economic model with both a substantial and lasting drop in our advertising revenues and the cessation of payments from our distributor, the company Presstalis, requires us to find additional resources to guarantee the quality of our content as well as the financial independence of the newspaper. ”

Increasingly competitive digital subscriptions

For several years, the written press has had to face many difficulties that the health crisis has exacerbated. The first is the decline in paper sales volumes. Readers are turning more and more to digital by abandoning print editions. If the newspapers saw their digital subscribers multiply during confinement, this did not make it possible to compensate for the losses due to the restriction of travel and the closure of certain points of sale.

This new price increase for the two newspapers could further accelerate the transition to digital subscription, the prices of which appear all the more competitive: the entry-level price, for unlimited access to online content, is at 9, 90 euros per month at Figaro and 9.99 euros at World.

Fall in advertising revenue

The shutdown in the economy also resulted in a collapse in advertising revenue. According to a study published by the Institute for Research and Advertising Studies (Irep), they were down 12.5% ​​in the first quarter compared to 2019. This is also explained by a decrease in its advertising pagination of 56% between March 16 and May 3.

This trend seems to be lasting: for several years now, the written press has been the big loser in the media advertising market. In the first half of 2019, all the press knew a decrease of 5% of its advertising revenue compared to 2018, again according to Irep.

Read alsoMedia: Presstalis could cut 70% of its workforce

Most dailies had already increased their prices in recent years, in part to finance a rescue plan for Presstalis. The main press distributor in France, the group was placed in receivership on May 15 before being taken over in early July by the dailies, supported by some magazine editors. The company which delivers newspapers and magazines to 22,000 points of sale is now called France Messagerie.


LIBERATION

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High schools and big cities. That’s where the classroom students are

One million two hundred thousand, about. Although the CTS has somewhat shortened the safety distances that students will have to keep in class from 14 September thanks to the redefinition of the calculation based on the buccal rhymes, there are still many children and young people who need to be relocated and placed in the next two months and a half. Who are the students who do not have a place in the classroom? The data of the Miur’s dashboard, according to which the Minister Azzolina has done the math, are keptiti password to the ministry.But a map can be made. The principals have already raised the alarm: they fear that we will end up, precisely on the basis of the availability of the spaces, to have schools of Serie A and schools of Serie B, that is forced to reduce time at school, to resort to distance teaching, in short, to get by.

The small regions

There are small regions such as Molise, Basilicata and Valle d’Aosta, where there should be fewer problems. Unlike the metropolitan areas, in particular Milan and Rome, Florence and Bologna, although cases are reported in Urbino, in Tuscany, in Varese.

School 2020, the guidelines for September: we return on the 14th (but with a cold you will have to stay at home)
School, the guidelines: there is no room for 1.2 million students
Problems in Rome and Milan

This year the 40 thousand school buildings housed 7.5 million pupils aged between three and 19 years, divided into just under 370 thousand classes: 20.5 per classroom on average, but with enormous differences depending on the type of school and the region. In elementary school, one class out of 5 (double in regions such as Molise) would already be in good standing since it has less than 15 pupils, while in high school, where the number of students increased, one class out of 5 (one out of 4 in Lombardy) has more than 25 students, with peaks even over 30. In Lazio we have difficulties in about 150 schools – explains Mario Rusconi, president of the regional union of principals – and the Metropolitan City has not yet let us know anything about the possibility of finding additional spaces. In one of the scientific high schools in the capital, Newton, about a third of the students are currently too many, it would take twenty-thirty more classrooms to be able to accommodate everyone. The Cinema di Roma circuit that proposed to make the theaters available: it has 26 in all to offer.

The demographic decline

Prime Minister Conte and Minister Azzolina, presenting the guidelines, said they never want chicken coop classes ever again. But with the anti-Covid rules, even a 20 can be too numerous. It is true that in the last five years the school has lost almost 300 thousand pupils and there are 3000 abandoned school buildings where to recover spaces, as the Minister Azzolina promises. But not necessarily that they are where they are needed. In regions such as Calabria, Campania and Sardinia, 80 percent of elementary classes have fewer than 22 pupils, while in Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany the sections to be divided are at least 40 percent.

High school

Much worse goes to high school since, despite repeated grillini proclamations, no one has yet gotten to grips with the norm passed at the time of Minister Gelmini which sets a minimum number of 27 students for the first classes, precisely in the year of transition which always indicates the more dropouts. For teenagers to attend safely in September, about thirty thousand classes would have to be divided. Too bad that just a few days ago at the classical high school of Montalto in the Marche it was not possible to form an extra first because it only had 18 pupils.

The paradox of the cut classes

As if that were not enough, from Milan to Rome there are dozens of high schools and technical and professional institutes that in recent weeks have seen the delivery of class cutting measures in the transition from two years to three years. Explains Roberta Fantinato, principal of the Minghetti high school in Bologna: The staff were assigned to us as if there had been no Covid emergency. With the further paradox that nobody has been rejected this year. Without the usual “shearing” of the classes at the end of the first two years, the third ones are much more crowded than usual.

The Marche case

There are regions like the Marches where some schools have more than thirty pupils in the same classroom for the whole course of high school, with peaks up to 42. In Milan, eight colleges are involved in the mergers. In Varese, the students of the Manzoni high school went even worse: they protested the choice to divide a second of 19 pupils. The principal explained that this has already gone well because only one class has been cut this year and in return the school has obtained to have one more first.

June 28, 2020 (change June 28, 2020 | 10:05)

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School and return in September, what students will find: “fragile” teachers, bus full and full time at risk

Somehow in the end the spaces will be found and where there will be insufficient shifts will take place and lessons will be shortened. But these are not the only problems that worry the principals who are reading the school plan for the next school year. Will all the professors be there to welcome the students on their return to class? The signs are not encouraging: of the 4,500 chairs freed by those who retired with a quota of 100, just over 3,000 have been assigned. In the rankings there are not enough prof. In September it is not only necessary to find over 200 thousand alternates who will be assigned to schools after the start of the year, as always. There is also the problem of fragile workers, those professors who are at risk due to their age and pathologies. The document of the Technical Scientific Committee for schools does not mention them, protests the CISL school.

Prof and fragile pupils

The problem had already arisen for Maturit: the principals authorized the commissioners at risk to connect online because the rest of the commission was present with the student. But unthinkable that, during the lessons, the teacher is at home and the class is in school. The unions have asked for a meeting with the CTS to understand how to do it, given that on paper the over 55 year olds are almost half in high school (47%) and a third in elementary school (35%). Obviously, not everyone is at risk, but the problem must be addressed. Not to mention the support teachers. Unfortunately they are missing every year, you know, but in September when we have to respect the safety rules, who will take care of disabled students who need more attention? asked Rocco Fazio, director of the Canudo Institute of Gioia del Colle in Puglia. In regions such as Emilia-Romagna the principals are concerned not so much by the spaces at school as by those on the buses: Here in Carpi in high school there are many students who come from outside – explains Luigi Vaccari, head of the Itc Meucci – in the morning there are about 5,000 young people who arrive together in our school complex: many by bus. We will have to get them staggered, imagining two shifts an hour away, because on the buses, with the spacing, they are not all there.

I turn

Her colleague from Liceo Fanti, Alda Barbi, with 65 classes and a new building under construction that will probably be ready in 2021, is moving towards two shifts and using the Palazzetto dello Sport: half of the classes will come from Monday to Wednesday and half Thursday to Saturday. We will try to always have the boys of the first ones here: for the others we will also do distance lessons. For us the problem is the management of 1,800 students in one building: recreation, workshops, entrances. To disappoint the principals was the proposal to do school outside of school, that is, in museums or cinemas. We go to the cinema and the museum even more than once a year, but not every week. How do you bring the kids? Who checks that the facilities are adequate, are there insurance problems? It is easy to say, but if the teacher has another class an hour later and has to go back to school, in fact, Rocco Fazio still complains, regent of an inclusive institution with children from 3 to 14 years: canteens then, two shifts are already taking place, we cannot let the children eat at 11. So mathematically impossible to make the timetable, one of her colleagues from an ITC from Rieti surrenders. Full-time may also be at risk for elementary schools in some cities.

Jobs

Recreation can also be done without. But there are also problems with the bathrooms: they are often few per floor, they must be cleaned every time a child uses them, not all of them have the window, which the CTS recommends keeping open. Doing the light construction jobs that Minister Azzolina recommended is easy to say. Not only because almost a third of pre-WWII schools, and historic buildings are bound. Even the principal of Busto Arsizio’s Tosi, Amanda Ferrario, who is part of the ministry’s task force and had moved in time to war with its mayor to knock down eight walls.

June 28, 2020 (change June 28, 2020 | 11:01 pm)

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School and return in September, what students will find: “fragile” teachers, bus full and full time at risk

Somehow in the end the spaces will be found and where there will be insufficient shifts will take place and lessons will be shortened. But these are not the only problems that worry the principals who are reading the school plan for the next school year. Will all the professors be there to welcome the students on their return to class? The signs are not encouraging: of the 4,500 chairs freed by those who retired with a quota of 100, just over 3,000 have been assigned. In the rankings there are not enough prof. In September it is not only necessary to find over 200 thousand alternates who will be assigned to schools after the start of the year, as always. There is also the problem of fragile workers, those professors who are at risk due to their age and pathologies. The document of the Technical Scientific Committee for schools does not mention them, protests the CISL school.

Prof and fragile pupils

The problem had already arisen for Maturit: the principals authorized the commissioners at risk to connect online because the rest of the commission was present with the student. But unthinkable that, during the lessons, the teacher is at home and the class is in school. The unions have asked for a meeting with the CTS to understand how to do it, given that on paper the over 55 year olds are almost half in high school (47%) and a third in elementary school (35%). Obviously, not everyone is at risk, but the problem must be addressed. Not to mention the support teachers. Unfortunately they are missing every year, you know, but in September when we have to respect the safety rules, who will take care of disabled students who need more attention? asked Rocco Fazio, director of the Canudo Institute of Gioia del Colle in Puglia. In regions such as Emilia-Romagna the principals are concerned not so much by the spaces at school as by those on the buses: Here in Carpi in high school there are many students who come from outside – explains Luigi Vaccari, head of the Itc Meucci – in the morning there are about 5,000 young people who arrive together in our school complex: many by bus. We will have to get them staggered, imagining two shifts an hour away, because on the buses, with the spacing, they are not all there.

I turn

Her colleague from Liceo Fanti, Alda Barbi, with 65 classes and a new building under construction that will probably be ready in 2021, is moving towards two shifts and using the Palazzetto dello Sport: half of the classes will come from Monday to Wednesday and half Thursday to Saturday. We will try to always have the boys of the first ones here: for the others we will also do distance lessons. For us the problem is the management of 1,800 students in one building: recreation, workshops, entrances. To disappoint the principals was the proposal to do school outside of school, that is, in museums or cinemas. We go to the cinema and the museum even more than once a year, but not every week. How do you bring the kids? Who checks that the facilities are adequate, are there insurance problems? It is easy to say, but if the teacher the next hour has another class and must go back to school, in fact, still complains Rocco Fazio, regent of an inclusive institution with children from 3 to 14 years: For canteens then, two shifts are already taking place, we cannot let the children eat at 11. So mathematically impossible to make the timetable, one of her colleagues from an ITC from Rieti surrenders. Full-time may also be at risk for elementary schools in some cities.

Jobs

Recreation can also be done without. But there are also problems with the bathrooms: they are often few per floor, they must be cleaned every time a child uses them, not all of them have the window, which the CTS recommends keeping open. Doing the light construction jobs that Minister Azzolina recommended is easy to say. Not only because almost a third of pre-WWII schools, and historic buildings are bound. Even the principal of Busto Arsizio’s Tosi, Amanda Ferrario, who is part of the ministry’s task force and had moved in time to war with its mayor to knock down eight walls.

June 28, 2020 (change June 28, 2020 | 11:01 pm)

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In Yemen, the ” war without end “

After more than five years of fighting, an end to the war in Yemen is not on the agenda. Tuesday, June 23, the spokesperson of the arab coalition led by saudi Arabia, Turki Al-Maliki, has announced the interception of “eight drones packed with explosives “, “three ballistic missiles “and a fourth of which “of the sites as well as civilians “ in the saudi capital Riyadh. A “large-scale attack “as it was referred to the rebels houthistes, at the origin of the offensive.

Since 2014, the civil war opposed the latter, shiites, supported by Iran, to the government of sunni, exiled in Riyadh, who can count on arab coalition, interfered in the conflict in 2015 and is struggling now to break the deadlock in yemen. “For the past five years, and nothing changes. It is a war without end, resign François Frison-Roche, a political scientist and researcher at the CNRS. The Saudis do not want to lose face, they continue to show their strength. And the Houthis are sending missiles to show their ability to be a nuisance. They knew that the drones were being destroyed, they simply wanted to send a message. “

A double front

The attack houthiste comes at a time when saudi Arabia became embroiled on another front with the separatists of the transitional Council of the South (CTS). Former allies in the coalition against the rebels, they take control of territories in southern Yemen, dividing a little more of this country decimated by the fighting.

After the decision, by the CTS, of the island of Socotra, 350 km off the coast of Aden, Turki Al-Maliki announced Monday, June 22, the organization of talks for a truce. The negotiations in the fall of 2019 have not been followed, points out, however, François Frison-Roche. “Riyadh has planned the discussions, at great expense, but the separatists do not respect the agreement. Saudi Arabia in spring décrédibilisée. “

A true ” chaos “

These difficulties reveal the fragility of the arab coalition. Because this is the United Arab Emirates, members of this coalition, who provide the weapons to the CTS. “There is undoubtedly a dispute between the Emirates and saudi Arabia, we do not know which, and they hide it from you. It ignores many things in this conflict, it is the great confusion “tip the researcher.

This “chaos “ would it not be a goal pursued by the parties, including militias, which have been built on a war economy ? “A partition of Yemen into two or even more, would power each according to its own interests “, writes François Frison-Roche, for whom the conflict will not turn off “as long as none of the camps will take strong decision for the implementation not of the militia “ and will not respect its commitments.

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a grand pilgrimage to Mecca in ” very limited number “

Saudi Arabia decided Monday, June 22, to maintain the end of July, the great muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, with a” very limited number “of the faithful. At the same time, WHO announced that the pandemic Covid-19” continues to accelerate “in the world.

→ TO READ. No pilgrimage to Mecca for 2020 ?

Only people – of all nationalities -” inside of the kingdom “saudi will be able to perform the hajj, in accordance with the precautionary measures intended to contain the spread of the virus. Until then, Ryad maintained the uncertainty about holding of this pilgrimage, one of the largest religious gatherings in the world, which has attracted 2.5 million muslims in 2019, according to figures of the ministry in charge of the organizing.

→ TO READ. Coronavirus : saudi Arabia suspends the entry of pilgrims to Mecca

The hajj pilgrimage, scheduled this year at the end of July, is one of the five pillars of islam. Because of its high traffic, it can also become a huge vector of contagion of the new coronavirus, with the faithful from all over the world. However, the pandemic “ continues to accelerate “across the planet, expressed concern Monday the director general of the world health Organization (WHO), Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.

This is particularly the case in saudi Arabia, arab country of the Gulf is the most affected with an increase in the number of infections. The authorities officially recorded more than 161 000 people infected, of which 1 307 died. To contain the spread of the disease, saudi Arabia has, since march, suspended the small pilgrimage, the ” umrah “, which is done throughout the year in Mecca and Medina, the two holiest places in islam, located in the west of the country.

With a hajj” very limited “the saudi arabian authorities to ensure want to” meet the requirements of prevention and of social distancing measures to ensure the security and protection “of the faithful, while” achieving the goals of islamic law “.

Loss of income for saudi Arabia

Expecting a cancellation or at least severe restrictions, most of the muslim countries had already suspended these past few weeks, the necessary travel documents for the hajj, disappointing millions of the faithful who spend sometimes all of their savings to this pilgrimage. At the end of march, the saudi minister of pilgrimage, Mohammad Benten, had also asked the muslims to temporarily postpone their preparations for the hajj.

→ TO READ. The muslims of France encouraged not to make the hajj this year

In what appears as an effort to provide a religious veneer to this decision, the world islamic League, based in saudi Arabia, has indicated to recognize the legitimacy of the hajj limited, in the interest of the pilgrims themselves, according to the official media in saudi arabia. The world islamic League (LIM), is often seen as an arm of diplomatic of the kingdom of saudi arabia, as well as an instrument of dissemination of wahhabism, saudi version and very puritanical of islam.

The prestigious institution in sunni Al-Azhar, based in Cairo, has also hailed this decision, deeming it” wise and based on the islamic jurisprudence “. Youssef Al-Othaimeen, secretary-general of the Organization of islamic cooperation said on its side” appreciate the extreme care given to the health and safety of the pilgrims “.

This pilgrimage is limited risk of affecting the economy of saudi Arabia, the largest exporter of crude in the world, is already hard-hit by the fall in oil prices, leading to the decrease of government revenue. During the hajj and umrah, the pilgrims inject it every year, 10.6 billion euros in the economy of saudi arabia, according to the government, a sum which the kingdom is going to have to happen, and that would have been welcome in these times of austerity.

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Turkey takes the PKK in northern Iraq

► What is the operation “the tiger Claw” ?

A Turkish military operation in northern Iraq started in the night from Sunday 14 to Monday 15 June by shelling out over a hundred targets around the cities of Kandil, Sinjar and Hakurk. Two days later, the ministry of defence of turkey has announced the deployment on the ground of special forces in what he calls the operation “The tiger claw “.

“Our commandos, who are supported by combat helicopters and drones, have been transported by our air forces “, he said on Wednesday 17 June, claiming that the operation had been launched in “self-defence “because of the “recent upsurge of attacks against our police and our military bases “. The department has disseminated photos showing the minister of defence, Hulusi Akar, directing operations from the headquarters of the forces of the army in Ankara.

Tuesday, June 16, the Turkish ambassador was summoned by the vice-minister of foreign affairs and not the minister himself, the Kurdish Fouad Hussein in protest against these raids. He said that his country would continue its action against the “terrorism “ as long as Baghdad would not have expelled the Kurdistan workers ‘ Party (PKK) in its territory. On Thursday, Turkey has summoned a second time, asking Ankara to withdraw its troops from its territory and to stop its “acts of provocation “.

► What is the PKK in northern Iraq ?

The Kurdistan workers ‘ Party (PKK), which has waged an armed struggle against the Turkish State since 1984, has bases back in the North of iraq, against which the Turkish army regularly conducts raids. Its training camps and caches of weapons are found mainly around the city of Kandil, in the extreme north-eastern Iraq, near the border with Iran and Turkey.

President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has repeatedly threatened to “”take care of” of the PKK in northern Iraq if Baghdad did “not in a position to do so “. “The battle that we fight against terrorism to defend our nation and our borders is the combat the most legitimate of the world “said on Twitter the spokesperson of the presidential party, AK party, Omer Celik.

This occurs also in a period of tensions between the Kurds. If some call these days the solidarity between the different settlement areas the kurds – Rojava in Syria (where an agreement has just been signed between the two rival factions), Bakur in Turkey, Baçur in Iraq and Rojhelat in Iran – these are actually split in the current antagonists.

The dissensions between Turkish Kurds and iraqis are publicly known and have not been worse since the democratic Party of Kurdistan (KDP) of Massoud Barzani, to be able to Erbil, close to Ankara, for reasons mostly financial. This proximity could explain the silence of authorities in kurdish Iraq since Monday. “It is unimaginable that the Turkish forces are entries without the active cooperation of authorities, the kurds in iraq “says even Adel Bakawan, director of the Centre for the sociology of Iraq, and an associate researcher at the Iremmo.

► What are the reactions ?

The reactions of the most vivid came from the community, yezidi in iraq, the more proven by the violence of Daech since 2014, and of which a small part is returned to the city of Sinjar or in the mountains that surround it. “The mount Sinjar is currently a war zone “is insurgent Nadia Mourad, one of its major spokesmen, of the Nobel peace prize in 2018. “Fighter planes Turkish bombard several places. More than 150 families yézidies came to return home. When is that the iraqi government and the international community to demonstrate courage and political will to solve the problems of security in Sinjar ? “

Vote the kurds are also high for the criticism of the bombing of the refugee camp makhmour districts, opened in the 1990s with the support of UN agencies to house kurdish refugees from Turkey. Some remind us of the decisive commitment of several militias kurds against Daech in Syria, as in Iraq. Under the hashtags #KurdsOppressed, an alert has been launched “Thursday, 18 June at 21 hours “ on the social networks “alert as many people as possible on the situation of the kurdish people “.

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In saudi Arabia, the “sad record” of the coronavirus

Until the lifting of the containment measures, in late may, the saudi ministry of health has it proudly displayed its balance sheet daily, much better than the enemy of iran. “The number of cures far exceeds that of new cases “, commended the authorities on their Twitter account in French.

→ TO READ. The muslim world at the pace of the coronavirus

Since then, between two videos on the precautions surrounding the reopening of the mosques, messages of caution are more insistent. Friday 4 June, the minister of religious affairs has called on the imams “to dedicate their preaching to the precautionary measures taken by the kingdom to prevent the spread of the Covid-19 “.

“Cases in the icu and in critical condition “

The kingdom started to count the “cases in the resuscitation and state critical “ (1 686 9 June) and the battle of “sad records “. Monday 15 June, he has crossed the symbolic threshold of 1,000 deaths. The country has now 136 000 patients Covid-19. For the past several days, more than 4 000 new cases are registered daily.

While he was noted for measures that are as stringent as that early at the beginning of the pandemic, even before the registration of a first case on march 2, the kingdom wahhabi is now caught up by the crisis, to the point of worrying the world health Organization.

“There is a true second wave in countries such as Israel, Djibouti, Iran, and saudi Arabia “recognizes Antoine Flahault, director of the global health Institute at the University of Geneva. “In saudi Arabia, it is not known why there is such a resurgence, perhaps because of the large gatherings of Eid. What is particularly disturbing, is that the second wave is more important than the first “.

In a video message and a press release, the minister of health was intended to be reassuring, explaining the high figures by “the increase in the number of tests “ and claiming that the country had the ability to heal his patients.

Situation is tense in Jeddah

The situation seems particularly tense in Jeddah, a coastal city in the west, close to Mecca, and that the hospitals are full, to such a point that the city was again closed in early June : curfew from 15 hours to 6 hours in the morning, the suspension of the prayers in the mosques and in order to stay at home for the employees of the public and private sectors.

Several Internet sites announce the death of a nephew of king Salman, also governor of Riyadh, hospitalized in early April in the intensive care unit because of Covid-19. They also say that the old king, like his son, the crown prince, Mohammed Bin Salman, hide in their palaces to avoid contagion.

“None of this has been confirmed by the authoritiesgrade a good connoisseur of the country. But the ministry of health has recognized that if, at the outset, 70 % of people infected were foreign workers, now the ratio has reversed and the majority of the patients is made up of Saudis. Many people think that the containment has produced the opposite effect, by enclosing the migrant workers in substandard conditions “.

From South-East Asia or arab countries poor and representing about a third of the population of the kingdom, they were gradually resettled, or repatriated.

Disinfection and mobile application

The saudi arabian media insist, themselves, on the measures taken. “The municipalities in saudi arabia are intensifying their fight against the virus.”, reports and the website Arab News, describing the efforts of Jeddah for “disinfect “ up to green space, as well as inspections conducted by the city of Najran in the slaughterhouses.

The day before, this is the new mobile app touted by the ministry of health which has had its favors : called Tabaoud (distance), it works on the same principle as its counterpart in French-Stop-Covid, and allows the Saudis to know if they have cross-contaminated people.

Far from marking time, the pandemic up the saudi arabian authorities in front of a cornelian choice : the king, who bears the prestigious name of “guardian of the holy places “ of Medina and Mecca, should he cancel the hajj ? Planned for the end of July, this pilgrimage made each year by 2.5 million faithful all over the world is one of the five pillars of islam, the culmination of a lifetime for many muslims, and also the second largest source of income for the kingdom.

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“In Lebanon, the revolution is entering a new phase “

In Tripoli, the revolution that had begun in the songs continued, to shots of Molotov cocktails and rubber bullets. Dentist and revolutionary of the first hour, Ramy Finge describes a day of “full madness “ Saturday, June 13, in his hometown in the north of Lebanon.

“Oddly enough, a convoy of 8 or 9 trucks full of sugar and rice has gone through the Bab el-Tebbané, the volcano of the revolution, at a peak time for heading to Syria. “ Clashes with police began when protesters have blocked the road, and were only completed in the middle of the night.

“Day and night for the past two weeks, we see these trucks come from the ports of lebanese towards the syrian border so that there is more rice in our souks “, was surprised at this Tripolitain. “If they are sent by the UN, why are they registered in Syria, and do not have any logo ? Why the goods are not unloaded directly into the ports syrians from Latakia or Tartus ? “

In Tripoli, the sunni, each suspects the Hezbollah (shiite) to organise the supply of a syrian regime, also, struggling, with the support of the lebanese army. Result : while unemployment continues to rise, the incomes of the Lebanese to fall and the domestic currency to depreciate, the anger is still up a notch.

The young people return to their forces in the morning

“The revolution is entering a new phase “notes Ramy Finge, whose distributions of hot meals to needy families, which started with the uprising, is now more indispensable than ever. “Young people are no longer going to stop. They resume their forces in the morning but in the evening, they stand out. Now, I expect the worst. “

→ INVESTIGATION. In the Face of the economic slump, the Syrians will return to the streets

In Beirut, too, dozens of people marched peacefully in the city centre, echoing the slogans of the movement triggered the October 17, 2019 against a ruling class almost unchanged for decades, before that hundreds of young men arrived on scooters began to throw stones and traffic signs on the forces of law and order.

The words initial has now been added to a social despair and financial, every day more serious. In principle, indexed to the u.s. dollar since 1997 at a fixed rate of 1 507 pounds for a dollar, the lebanese lira has dropped this week on the parallel market (reaching almost 6 000 pounds to 1 dollar) : a disaster in a country that imports almost all it consumes. Over-indebted and in default of payment since march, Lebanon is now waiting for assistance from the IMF to get out of the rut.

The limits of independence

In a televised speech to the accents of drama broadcast Saturday 13 June, the first minister Hassan Diab has tried to reassure the Lebanese, their affirming his determination to continue his “fierce battle against corruption “.

“Some people try to prevent the government to reveal the corruption system, he launched. Please be aware that we found many of the keys to this black box. There is still a lot to update, with documents and facts, but this system will collapse on those who lurk in its corners. “

But Tuesday, 9 June, his government had endorsed a list of appointments to the central Bank, the Commission of control of financial markets or to the Board of the public service imposed by the political parties on the traditional base-denominational, showing the limits of its “independence “.

Emergency measures that did not come

“The declaration of Hassan Diab has not calmed down the revolutionaries, on the contrary “ensures Ramy Finge, convinced that this government “is only there to save time, to Hezbollah and to the other “.

“This is a time for action. What was expected was not to reform but to emergency measures. They are not coming “written from his side, Joseph Maïla, a professor of international relations at Essec, in the lebanese daily L’orient-Le Jour.

“The best way would be to expedite the implementation of a pole special criminal intended to try those responsible for a break to State the most spectacular of all the time and prevent them from diverting the attention of the citizens to deadly unrest. “

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POINT OF VIEW. Drug : the fixed penalty, an effective way to reduce power consumption ?

A new device intended, according to the government, to reduce the increase in the number of consumers of narcotic drugs, particularly cannabis, is going to be tested in the cities of Rennes, Reims and Creteil from the 16th of June. Violators will have to pay 200 € (amount reduced to € 150 and increased to 450 € depending on the time of payment). The use of narcotic will be perceived by users as a minor offence, in the same way that an excess of speed on the road, and will without doubt contribute to trivialize in the public opinion.

Prison sentences are rarely carried out

How did it come there, while France is known for having a law, as opposed to repressive, providing for up to a year in prison and 3 750 € fine ? Simply because this legislative arsenal is not, or little, applied the ordinary. In the case of traffic, supply of narcotic drugs leads to the same prison sentences are rarely carried out, if we compare the situation to other european countries.

According to a study by the european monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction (EMCDDA), published in 2017, covering 25 countries, in Greece the offer of a kg of heroin led to a penalty, with a median of 20 years in prison and the supply of one kg of cannabis to 10 years in prison. At the other end of the scale we find both the most tolerant countries, the netherlands and France, where the offer of a kg of heroin led to a penalty median of the respective 1-year and 2-years in prison. The situation has been further relaxed by the act Tubiana.

In France, often the development of sentence leads to the immediate payment of a fine and extinguishes the public action. Few of the defendants actually perform their prison sentences.

“Hitting the wallet “

In the Face of this situation, it is understandable that police officers and gendarmes involved in the fight against the illicit use of narcotic drugs are discouraged to see that their work does not allow to translate the users and the traffickers (the distinction is often difficult to establish) before the courts.

Then, again, one chooses the facility… We are going to ” hit to the wallet “, hoping that this measure is liable to dissuade the consumer from consuming. However, the addiction to cannabis (often followed by addiction to cocaine) is known to be very strong, leading to the search of substances of a more proportioned.

A fixed penalty will never deter a consumer at the point of the renunciation of the use of its drug. Especially if it is part of the population, little affected by the payment of a fine even high. To the contrary, this device does it not push more applicable to some individuals, less-fortunate, to seek by every means, including violence, to support their consumption ?

300 000 children aged 12 to 15 years

This new rule is the opportunity, once again, found that no public health response is planned to combat this scourge. However, it is to forget the harms of cannabis on the health, not only in adults but especially in young adolescents.

In France, 1.6 million regular consumers of cannabis and 300 000 children 12-to 15-year-olds have already experimented with this drug.

Cannabis is not a drug, “soft” : a large number of scientific papers and statistical studies have demonstrated definitively that he is a ” drug, hard “, which causes an addiction to be extremely strong, aggravated by the association with tobacco and alcohol, and leading very often to “escalation” to other drugs even more harmful (cocaine, heroin).

Many mental health disorders, domestic violence

By its high solubility in lipids, the active ingredient, THC, is associated to cell membranes, can move easily across the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain.

In adolescents, where this organ is in course of maturation, he causes many mental disorders : disturbance of memory, focus of attention, ataxia, motor incoordination, disinhibition can lead to risk-taking, induction of raptus aggressive against oneself or directed against another person, potentiation of the effects ébriants or hallucinogenic, psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia), anxiety, and depression.

The use of cannabis in the adult often leads to displays of aggression, violent. The analysis of the facts shows that much of the violence observed during the recent confinement occurred in the context of cannabis.

Treat it as a disease

It is necessary to consider, therefore, that the consumer of cannabis is first and foremost a patient and it must be treated as such. Even if it is to be deplored that the sentences are not very often applied, the passage in front of the judge at least allows him to decide the requirement of treatment. With the application of the fine, this possibility disappears.

Ultimately, we are still waiting for a true policy to fight against drug abuse, which would imply, in particular, a prevention program as early as primary school, as is the case in Sweden, for example. When the public authorities take awareness of the importance of the health problem posed by drug addiction ?

(*) Pr of Biochemistry (University of Caen), a Member of the CNPERT (National Centre of Prevention, Studies and Research on Addictions)

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